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Full text of "Union : a story of the great rebellion"

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THE UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

LIBRARY 




THE WILMER COLLECTION 

OF CIVIL WAR NOVELS 

PRESENTED BY 

RICHARD H. WILMER, JR. 









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Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

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University of Nortii Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://www.archive.org/details/unionstoryofgreamusi 




A LAlUiK KOCNI) SHOT \\ KNT HISSlNli Tllliorcill THE AIU AND STKUCK AGAINST 
THE SOLID WALL OF FOliT SlIMTEK. 



UNION 



A STORY OF THE GREAT REBELLION 



BY 

JOHISr R MUSIOK 

AUTHOK OF "COLUMBIA," "ESTEVAN," "SUSTAINED HONOR," 
"HUMBLED PRIDE," ETC., ETC. 



ILLUSTRATED BY F. A. CARTER 



"Nm ¥orfe 

FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY 
London and Toronto 

1894 
Printed in the United States 



Copyright, 1894, by the 
FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY 



[Registered at Stationers'' Hall, London, Eng.] 



^0 
MY SISTER, 

LIZZIE MUSICK, 

WHO HAS GIVEN ME VALUABLE AID IN THE PREPARATION 
OF THESE BOOKS, 

THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED 

BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



603160 



PREFACE. 



This volume ends the series of Columbian 
Historical Novels, designed to give a complete 
history of the United States, in twelve complete 
stories, chronologically arranged. Throughout the 
series I have adhered to the original plan of mak- 
ing fiction subordinate to history, even at the ex- 
pense of unity. I have been censured by some 
critics for deserting my fictitious characters in 
order to bring up the historical events by which 
they were surrounded, but as my design was to 
make the series beneficial as well as interesting, I 
have turned a deaf ear to all suggestions to sacrifice 
usefulness to smoothness. 

It is doubtful if the time has yet arrived to write 
a fair and impartial history of the war of the Ee- 
bellion, even as a historical romance. We are so 
prone to let prejudice warp judgment that we can 
hardly deal fairly with an opponent, even though 
that opponent be a brother. 

I believe the great civil war was not a war for 
the freedom of the slaves, but for the preservation 



vi PREFACE. 

of the Union. Slavery was a secondary issue, 
merely a pretext to test the pernicious and danger- 
ous doctrines of State supremacy. The seeds of 
the great rebellion were really sown in the conven- 
tion which framed our constitution, and the pro- 
phetic eye of Washington early saw the danger. 
Calhoun found this fire smouldering in the mem- 
ories of men, and by his brilliant powers fanned it 
into a dangerous conflagration. It spread and at 
one time threatened the North more than the 
South. There was no way to decide this great 
question of constitutional law, save by the highest 
court known, an appeal to arms. Had not slavery 
formed the issue some other disputed point would. 
In ISfil, the abolition of slavery was not contem- 
plated by either the Republican party or President 
Lincoln. In his inaugural address, March 4, 1861, 
Mr. Lincoln said : " I have no purpose, directly or 
indirectly, to interfere with the institution of 
slavery in any State where it exists. I believe I 
have no lawful right to do so, and I have no in- 
clination to do so. " When the war had raged 
almost two years, President Lincoln late in Septem- 
ber issued a proclamation, in which he gave notice 
that it was his purpose to declare the emancipation 
of the slaves on the 1st of January, 1863, to take 
effect immediately wherever a state of insurrection 
might exist, unless the offenders should lay down 



PREFACE. vii 

their arms. If the offenders had laid down their 
arms and returned to their allegiance to the Union, 
slavery would not have been abolished. Then it 
is certain that the first two years' war was merely 
for the preservation of the Union, and not for the 
freedom of the slaves. If the first two years were 
a war for the Union, and the fighting never ceased 
until the Union was preserved, it is reasonable to 
suppose that the whole war was for the Union, and 
not for tlic freedom of the negro, as most writers 
of late years declare. While the freedom of the 
slaves was one of the beneficent results of the war, 
it was not the cause. The soldier who donned the 
•blue in 18G1, did so to defend his country, and 
had no more thought of abolition of the slaves than 
did Mr. Lincoln, on whom it was forced as a mili- 
tary necessity. 

Tlie grand central figure of this great period of 
our nation's history is Abraham Lincoln. He was 
the brilliant orb illuminating the republic's darkest 
hour, and all others were but satellites borrowing 
their brilliance from him. He planned those bril- 
liant campaigns, and issued the orders to his lieu- 
tenants to execute. He could be a soldier at 
headquarters; but he had too much human kind- 
ness in his soul to personally participate in such 
butcheries as Gettysburg and the Wilderness. 

John Brown is still an enigma to the American 



viii PREFACE. 

liistorian, and it is too early to place him. Writers 
call him a saint or a devil, according to their polit- 
ical persuasions. When time shall have sifted all 
the evidence, and our prejudices have had time to 
cool, I believe that we shall learn that John Brown 
was neither. A saint is not usually armed with a 
gun, nor does he violate law, murder, nor stir up 
wrath. Christ rebuked Peter for striking in self- 
defence, then how much more would he rebuke the 
bloody deeds of John Brown. Brown began his 
Virginia career as a fraud, entering the State under 
an assumed name, with a premeditated plan to 
violate the laws of the State and general govern- 
ment. When captured he was as much a rebel 
against the government as was Jeff Davis or Lee 
when captured in 1805; so he could not be called 
a patriot. It is better to lay aside foolish senti- 
ment and look at these matters in a sensible light, 
even if we do shatter a cherished idol. Though 
once an admirer of John Brown, after years of 
careful study of the man and times, I can do no 
more than pronounce him a dangerous fanatic 
whom it were better to forget than to praise. In 
these days, when men are thirsting after notoriety, 
sounding the praises of a law breaker like John 
Brown, stimulates such fanatics as the Chicago 
anarchists to like deeds. Brown's motive may 
have been a good one, but a man has no more right 



PREFACE. ix 

to rob on tlie highway for charity, than had Brown 
to adopt his means for freeing the slaves. It is 
doubtfnl if his conduct did the cause he cLaimed to 
represent any good. He was as much a detriment 
to the Republican party, as the anarchists of to- 
day are to the labor party. While representing 
their righteous principles, he was lawless and un- 
scrupulous in bringing about the desired reform. 
He neither exercised prudence nor common sense 
in any of his plans. His bravery was foolhardi- 
ness which any true soldier would condemn. As 
none of his sons took any prominent part in the 
war which followed two years after their father's 
death, it has led many to believe that their Kansas 
career was more a war of plunder than sentiment. 
That is a question, however, that we do not propose 
to discuss in these pages. 

The rebellion was brought about by a few " hot- 
headed" southern politicians, of the aristocratic 
class, who held honest labor in contempt, and who 
regarded the man who toiled as no better than the 
negro slave. This class of southern aristocrats 
may be traced from the cavaliers of the Cromwellian 
period. They early learned to call the New Eng- 
landers Puritanic fanatics. Yet we would not deal 
too severely with the southern people. It is diffi- 
cult to judge the promptings of a man's heart if 
one is unfamiliar with his surroundings. We 



X PREFACE. 

should not forget that slavery had existed from the 
earliest civilization down to 1861. Cruel masters 
were an exception. The slave was valuable prop- 
erty, whom the sensible master was careful to keep 
in good working condition. Naturally the aboli- 
tionists told only the worst side of the story of 
slavery. The effect of this system was worse on 
the whites than on the blacks, yet the man born 
and reared in the midst of such an institution could 
not be made to see it. lie believed that the hated 
" abolitionists" envied him his riches, and was 
seeking to deprive him of them. He could not 
believe that the northern people were sincere. To 
him, all their pleading for the poor slave was sen- 
timental hypocrisy, and his only design was to 
deprive him of his property from malice or envy. 
The underground railroads, and John Brown raids 
only confirmed him in this belief, and made him 
more stubborn. The South was greatly to blame, 
yet the southern people are our brothers; let us 
deal charitably with them. They took up the 
sword, and their social system perished by the 
sword, — let us be content. In military achieve- 
ments, they were prodigies. They fought with a 
valor worthy of a better cause. When we consider 
that we enlisted almost two millions of men more 
than the South; that we lost in killed, wounded 
and from hospital deaths more than their entire 
forces ; that with only one hundred thousand men 



PREFACE. xi 

in the field tlie last year of the war, they fovight 
over a million, we really have not much to boast 
of. We may say what we please about general- 
ship, military skill, yet the official reports of the 
adjutant generals, give the greatest skill, general- 
ship and courage to the defeated. There were acts 
of cruelty on both sides, which had better be for- 
gotten, and I have omitted all mention of them. 
In this volume and throughout this series, I have 
endeavored to teach the great moral principle of 
patriotism both North and South. The sooner 
that the South concedes that she was in the wrong, 
the better it will be for the entire nation, for she 
is a part of the grand whole. Her sons need not 
be ashamed of their record as soldiers; but right, 
justice, and numbers were against them, and it 
was best that they should suffer defeat. 

In writing this series, I have tried to get at the 
truth, and have selected such matter as to me 
seemed most reliable. No one knows better than 
the historian how difficult it is to sift the truth 
from the great mass of error. Official records and 
documents are usually supposed to be correct; but 
in them one finds such irreconcilable contradic- 
tions, that the historian is at a loss which to choose. 
This is especially true of the official reports of the 
commanding officers in the late war. For certain 
statements in a former volume of this series a critic 
takes me to task, because I adopted the generally 



xii PREFACE. 

accepted statements of nine-tenths of the standard 
historians against an isolated favorite authority of 
his, and in a private letter expresses his amaze- 
ment that I should prefer Bancroft, Prince, Dr. 
Eobinson, and like authority to his "one book," 
which differs a hair on some immaterial points. 
In this volume, from the multiplicity of worthy 
witnesses on both sides, I have been frequently 
at a loss which to choose; but have in every 
case taken what to me seemed most authentic, 
without fear or favor. 

Mark Stevens, a brother of Arthur Stevens, hero 
of the story " Humbled Pride," and son of Albert 
Stevens, a soldier of the war of 1812, is the chief 
actor in this volume. About this fictitious family, 
whose ancestors are traced to the cabin boy on 
board the SayHa Ilaria, coming with Columbus on 
his first voyage in 1402, I have tried to weave the 
history of the United States. As every life has a 
plot of its own, each man having a destiny marked 
out for himself, so have I given to the Stevens 
family each a different career, at the same time 
preserving inherent family characteristics, chief of 
which are honesty and patriotism. I believe that 
if those principles were taught at every fireside, 
our country would never again be threatened with 
dissolution. j^jj^ ^ MUSIGK. 

KiRKViLLE, Mo., January 15, 1894. 



TABLE OF COI^TE^TS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Love and Madness, 1 

CHAPTER II. 

The Sunny South 29 

CHAPTER III. 
Saint or Devil, 50 

CHAPTER IV. 
Calhounism, . . . . 76 

CHAPTER V. 
Mrs. Anderson's Recruit 96 

CHAPTER VI. 
Mark and Elsie 118 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Pirate 146 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The Recruit, 165 

xiii 



xiv CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

PAGE 

Love and Excitement, 183 

CHAPTER X. 
First Fire, 210 

CHAPTER XI. 
Shiloh - . . 233 

CHAPTER XII. 
Alec and Mark, 256 

CHAPTER XIII. 
The Pretty Spy, 272 

CHAPTER XIV. 
The Alabama and Kearsarge, ..... 296 

CHAPTER XV. 
The Deserter, 315 

CHAPTER XVI. 
The Conflict in the Clouds, 335 

CHAPTER XVII. 

An Ether Fantasy, ....... 354 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
" I Have a Wife, " 366 



CONTENTS. XV 

PAGE 

CHAPTER XIX. 
The Clouds Roix Away, 388 

CHAPTER XX. 
Conclusion, 409 



APPENDIX. 

CHAPTER I. 
Andrew Johnson and the Reconstruction, . . 433 

CHAPTER II. 

Grant's Two Administrations— Alabama Claim — 
Trouble with Spain — Corruption of Officials 
— "The Whiskey Ring," 448 

CHAPTER III. 
Hayes, Garfield and Arthur, ..... 463 

CHAPTER IV. 

Cleveland's Administration and the Campaign of 
1888 475 

CHAPTER V. 

Harrison's Administration— Trouble with Chile 
— Defeat — Cleveland Again Elected — Ha- 
wauan Trouble— Conclusion, .... 483 

Historical Index, 495 

Chronology, ....,,,. 507 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIOJ^S. 



PAGE 

A large round shot went hissing through the air and 

struck against the solid wall of Fort Sumter, 

(Frontispiece) 

Crummels' Junction, 1 

"When will the train come?" ..... 7 
Away they flew, pursued bj' tlie angry male attendant, 

whose horse fell and dislocated his shoulder, 27 

"Florida Cracker," 41 

A swish, a swirl in the water, a rush, a clicking reel, 

the slender rod bent almost double, . . 47 

John Brown, ........ 73 

"The United States troops have arrived, and I am 

sent to demand your surrender, " . . .74 

Abraham Lincoln, ....... 90 

"I have brought you Peter Hart, " she said, . . 115 

"Elsie, I hope you realize our situation," . . . 141 
"Hold on! stop that! . . . If you ever sing agin we'll 

fire you through the lee port, " . . . 159 

How " he" looked 177 

"I pity the fellow who wears those pants, Elsie ; he'd 

have to advance and retreat at the same time, " 188 

Jeff. Davis, 201 

" Now I lay me down to sleep, " was all he could think 

of 207 

"Boys, let's talk it over," 229 

Duel between the Monitor and Merrimac, . . . 234 
xvii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

"That you, Yank?" 259 

"Even these sacred places have been made into bar- 
racks," 268 

"Tofool the Johnny Rebs?" 277 

"My commission, my honor, my life you can take, 

but you shall not have her !" .... 291 

"I'm a rebel tii'ed of the business, " .... 333 

General George G. Meade 340 

"Mark! — cousin! — old friend, has it come to this?" . 353 

Then a warm, soft, loving hand took his, . . . 3G4 

General Robert E. Lee, 374 

General W. T. Sherman, 379 

"Elsie!" 385 

"To think, I have been five years courting another 

man's wife I " . . . . . . . 408 

"When next you hear from me, it shall be in connec- 
tion with some terrible deed," . . . 413 
Booth was seen leaning on his crutches, trying to get 

a shot at his enemies, . . . . . 424 

Andrew Johnson, ........ 435 

Ulysses S. Grant, 449 

Horace Greeley, . 452 

Samuel J. Tilden 462 

Rutherford B. Hayes, 463 

Winfield Scott Hancock, ...... 469 

James A. Garfield, . 471 

Chester A. Arthur, 472 

Benjamin F. Butler, 474 

James G. Blaine, 475 

Grover Cleveland, 477 

Benjamin Harrison, ....,,.. 484 

William McKinley 488 

Map of the period, .... = ,. 302 



UNION. 



CHAPTER I. 



LOVE AND MADXESS. 




BOUT the middle of the after- 
noon on a bleak October day, 
a close carriage driven by a 
- negro coachman, drawn by 
^l--r a pair of blooded but jad- 
^■. ^ ed horses reached Crum- 
mels Junction. Crummels 
Junction in the ante-bel- 
lum days was much like the ordinary junctions of 
to-day. People who travel much, never cease to 
wonder why the crossest depot agents that can be 
found are always located at junctions, where there 
is nothing but a depot, a store and a saloon, but 
such seems to be the case. The carriage crossed 
the track, which seemed to require all the strength 
of the horses, for the rails and ties were above the 
embankment, and tlie section manager apparently 
1 



2 UNION. 

had taken special pains to have that crossing par- 
ticularly inconvenient and dangerous to anything 
lighter than an ox cart. 

The cold, raw wind sweeping across a stretch of 
bleak prairie, dotted here and there with houses, 
wood sheds, hay stacks, and rail fences, howled 
about the store, saloon and depot in a mournful 
manner. There was not a tavern or public house 
at Crummels, and the travellers in the carriage 
evidently did not expect to tarry long at this un- 
inviting spot. 

The vehicle was an elegant conveyance and, had 
the air been balmy, would have brought all the 
inhabitants of the junction out to gaze on it in 
open-mouthed wonder. The negro coachman drove 
it as near to the platform as he could and, alight- 
ing with the good manners of a well-bred servant 
in an aristocratic household, opened the door of 
the carriage saying: 

" Heah ye are, massa!" 

A young man, well muffled, alighted from the 
carriage to the platform, and assisted a tall lady, 
heavily veiled, to get out. Another gentleman 
appeared, and the two half led and half carried 
from the coach a feeble young creature, who, 
though she was closely veiled, one could see was 
an invalid. 

Her head drooped, and she seemed only half 

RBO ■ 

MoU 



LOVE AND MADNESS. 3 

conscious. As soon as she was on the platform, 
the woman who had preceded her came to her side 
and in a low affectionate tone said : 

" Do you feel stronger, dear?" 

The invalid made no response, but stared at her 
with her great eyes through the veil. Those large 
and beautiful eyes, sad to say, were expressionless. 
The blank stare of insanity or delirium beamed 
from them. She saw nothing real and her poor, 
tortured mind could scarce recognize those friends 
who were doing all possible for her comfort. 

" Let us go into the depot, " said one of the men, 
shivering with cold. 

"Do you see any one in there, George?" the 
tall lady asked. 

" No, the place seems almost if not quite de- 
serted ; but I suppose some one will be here before 
the train arrives. " They entered the depot wait- 
ing-room, — one of those diminutive affairs always 
found at out-of-the-way stations, over which the 
most ill-natured and inaccessible agent presides. 
The floor was freshly swept; there was a fire in the 
round, large stove, three of the most inconvenient 
benches which a depot architect's ingenuity can 
invent, were fastened to the walls. The 'walls 
were ornamented only with unreliable railroad 
maps, timetables and misleading railroad advertis- 
ing. There was a square box, two-thirds full of 



4 UNION. 

sawdust, well moistened and stained with tobacco 
juice. 

The sad little party did not give the apartment 
a detailed survey. Three of the party looked 
fatigued, and the poor young lady, or rather girl, 
for she was scarcely more, had an air of settled 
melancholy and indifference. 

" Here is a seat for you," said the young man 
called George, with a sigh. " It is the best we can 
do." 

" Come, dear, sit down — there now, lean your 
head on me if you are tired," the lady said to the 
invalid. 

George went to the office to see when the train 
left, and found the ticket window closed. 

"Isn't the agent in there, George?" asked the 
other young man. 

"No, Charles." 

" Well, if you will look around you may find 
him," said Charles with a grim smile. " Probably 
he is helping unload freight, or upon a side track 
coupling cars, or over across the railroad helping 
a farmer kill hogs. Or maybe he has gone to 
another town with a team to carry some passengers. " 

George felt very much inclined to utter some 
unpleasant remarks about the agent; but as his 
pitying gaze alighted on the unfortunate object of 
his journey, his eyes grew dim with moisture, and 



LOVE AND MADNESS. 5 

lie heaved a sigh. Waiting at a depot is never 
pleasant, and at a conntrv junction, such as Crum- 
mels, it is particularly unpleasant. It seemed as 
if the management of the road had determined that 
no one who passed that spot should ever forget it. 

"Are you tired?" asked the young man called 
George, going over to where the woman and invalid 
sat. 

"Oh, yes," was the answer with a half -drawn 
sigh; " but we must make the best of it; can you 
learn nothing of the train?" 

" No; the genius who presides over this impor- 
tant post seems invisible," said George bitterly. 
There was a spice of satire in his words, yet they 
were full of sadness. Hopes and ambitions 
crushed, a heart overburdened and bowed beneath 
its weight of sorrow, were all exjiressed in his low, 
sad voice. George with his hands clasped behind 
his back, began walking back and forth across the 
floor of the narrow depot. Charles went out to 
the platform and instructed the colored driver to 
go back about a mile to a farm house, feed the 
horses, and wait until the train came, then to re- 
turn for him. 

" I am going to stay with them until they are 
off," he added. 

"Yes, massa — I'll come." 

The negro was anxious to be gone, for the chill 



6 UNION. 

winds seemed to pierce his bones, and he turned 
the horses about and sped away. While all this 
was transpiring, George was sadly pacing the nar- 
row confines of the depot asking himself when and 
how this would all end. The poor young girl, 
whose white face rested on the shoulder of her lady 
attendant, had closed her eyes as if to sleep, but 
only to see visions more terrible than a sane mind 
can imagine. Suddenly a rude, heavy tramp was 
heard outside, the door was swung open, and a 
man with red face, blue cap, and pencil behind his 
ear entered. He closed the door with such a bang, 
that the poor girl, whose nerves were already 
shattered, started up with a half-uttered shriek, 
and it required the soothing words and caresses 
of her companion for several moments to quiet 
her. 

But what did the station agent care for a nervous 
girl? He seemed to have more business than the 
general manager of the road. Drawing a great 
bunch of nerve-shattering keys, he dashed one 
into the lock of the side door and, opening it, en- 
tered, banged the door after him, and threw up 
the ticket window, as if to give the outside world 
a view of the great man at work. He sat at a 
desk and proceeded to count some money which he 
took from his vest pocket with an air of importance 
of which the treasurer of the United States might 



LOVE AND MADNESS. 



well be proud. Men have an idea that inaccessi- 
bility is evidence of greatness, and there is not a 
more inaccessible man than the manager of a coun- 
try depot station. The 
smaller the stiition the more 
inaccessible. 

" When will the train 
come?" George ventured 
to ask. 

The brow of the superior 
being corrugated, and he 
went on counting a pile of 
one-dollar bills, acting as 
if he had a very dim idea / 
that he had been spoken "^ 
to; but he waited until the 
monej^ was in the safe, and 
he had turned the knob, 
and then answered, " I 
don't know," so sharply 
that, had George been 
alone, he would have walked to the next station. 
This important task done, the agent bustled out of 
his narrow box-like ofhce, slammed the door of the 
stove, as though he was afraid George would steal 
a stick of wood, or run away with the lining. 
Although George was wealthy, and the care of his 
horses cost him more than the agent's salary, the 




'When will the train come?" 



8 UNION. 

agent seemed to regard him as a three-card-monte 
man, and his entire party as intruders. 

Going out, the agent closed the door with an- 
other bang which aroused the invalid, and once 
more brought forth a cry of dread and fear. 
George was inclined to follow him and punch his 
head, but checked this impulse. He went out on 
the platform, and saw this superior being helping 
a woman, evidently his landlady, hang out clothes 
in the back yard. This task done, he fell to split- 
ting stove wood out of old railroad ties. 

Night drew nearer, it became more drear, and 
the station agent entered, lighted a greasy lamp in 
the waiting-room, chucked more wood in the stove, 
and lighted a lamp in his own apartment. 

Uncomplaining and patient, the young woman 
sat with the afflicted maiden at her side, trying to 
keep her wandering mind to the realities of life. 
This was impossible, for the vagaries of delusion 
constantly haunted her. At times she saw what 
seemed starry heavens, which were accompanied 
by indescribable horrors, so that she wanted to lly. 
There was ever present a demon of fear. She 
heard voices calling her from out of space, and, 
turning, found no one. She had the most unac- 
countable nightmare, in which she was tormented 
by fiends and goblins. At times, her tormentors 
assumed the shape of the devil, and at others of 



LOVE AND MADNESS. 9 

a sea serpent. Sometimes she seemed to go off 
into space, eluding their grasp. This was accom- 
panied by a sense of suffocation, a feeling as of one 
coming out from the influence of ether. Kaising 
her pale, yet beautiful face to the woman on whose 
shoulder she had been resting, she asked: 

" Has he come ? " 

" Who, dear?" 

" The doctor — the one who is to drive away 
these demons." 

" Not yet, be patient, dear — all will be well." 

" Oh, you say so, Lucy, yet you don't know — 
you can't know." 

" Won't you try to sleep, dear?" 

" No, this is no hotel. Call the servant — where 
is Maria?" 

The station-agent came back again. He was in 
his element, for the train was two hours late, and 
he sat working at his telegraphic instrument as if 
the world rested on his shoulders. The patient 
George listened to the constant click of the instru- 
ment, and would have given ten dollars to know 
what was going over the wires. Occasionally the 
station-agent laughed at something the instrument 
said, and just as George began to think the news 
of the world was being stored in his massive brain, 
a young country lout in blue drillen roundabout, 
his pants in his boots, entered, wiping his nose on 



10 UNION. 

his mitten. The agent turned and, in a most com- 
monplace manner, said: 

" Hello, Jack, there is goin' to be a dance at the 
hop yard at Baylis Siding to-night, and they want 
us to come up on No. 4. " 

" How d'ye know, Charley?" the lout asked. 

" Susie just now told me. " 

George now realized that the agent, all these 
long hours that he had been watching the varied 
expressions of his calm and mysterious face, had 
been chaffing with the female operator at the next 
station. The big country bumpkin took a chew of 
pi iig tobacco and said : 

" I guess I will go and brush up a little and put 
on a clean shirt before No. 4 comes. " To which 
the operator responded : 

"Be sure to be on hand, Jack; we'll have a 
daisy time at the dance. " 

Great consolation this bit of information was to 
George, who was waiting with greatest of anxiety 
to know how soon they could leave this miserable 
place. He turned away from the narrow window 
and glanced at the two females sitting in the cor- 
ner. His brother Charles who had been prome- 
nading a few moments on the damp platform en- 
tered the station and in a subdued tone asked: 

" Can you get anything out of that idiot?" 

"No; he's too much interested in a dance that 



LOVE AND MADNESS. 11 

comes off somewhere to-night, to pay much atten- 
tion to the business of the road." 

Then George turned his sad gray eyes in pity 
on the unfortunate maiden, and asked: 

" Do you think she can stand it much longer?" 

"I don't know." 

"Oh, it is awful! My God! why should the 
train be late at this time, above all others?" 

" I don't know, George. This has been one of 
the most unfortunate events of our lives. " 

" Yes; it seems like a horrible nightmare.. " He 
folded his arms across his breast and walked back 
and forth, softly, so as not to disturb the unfortu- 
nate maiden. Then he came to his brother's side 
and said : 

"Charles, try and console mother; if possible, 
reconcile her to this step. It is the best that could 
be done. " 

" I know it, George." 

" Mother is a true Christian. Tell her to put 
her faith in Him who comforts the afflicted." 

"I will, George, though I don't just now feel 
very religious, " and he cast a savage glance at the 
window of the ticket office. 

George muttered some unintelligible words be- 
tween his teeth and said something about horse- 
whipping a puppy for his impudence, then went 
out on the platform to try to pick up an acquaint- 



12 VIRION. 

ance with the man who ran the horse -power 
threshing machine. He was more communicative 
than the station agent, for lie did not live in such 
an exalted atmosphere. There is no man who 
knows more than the junction agent, about every- 
thing, if you only possess the gift of drawing him 
out. Though only four trains a day stop at his 
station, and they halt only long enough to let off 
some unfortunate wretch whom circumstances 
force to get off, however reluctant he may be to 
do so, the agent is in his element for a brief mo- 
ment. He addresses the conductor as "Jim," or 
"George," or "Billy," and asks, with a show of 
interest as deep as a division superintendent, where 
he passed "No. 1," and if "No. 6" is going to 
be on time. He may even ask something about 
railroad stocks in a manner that would convince 
one that he was bulling the market, when in real- 
ity he might not have eleven dollars left from his 
last month's salary. Such an agent was at Crum- 
mels Junction , and had not George been weighed 
down with grief and humiliation, he might have 
resented the fellow's impudence. 

After a fe\^ moments on the platform, George 
took a glance down the long railroad track along 
which it was hoped the train would come, and 
strained his ear to catch the sound. Already it 
was night, and the damp fog, which had settled 



LOVE AND MADNESS. 13 

like a pall over the entire landscape, seemed to 
cut off the entire world, and no sound save a 
farmer calling hogs, or the barking of dogs reached 
the ears of the young man. With a sigh, he en- 
tered the depot, shivering with cold and damp. 
The patient Lucy was still supporting the delirious 
maiden. 

" Is it coming?" she asked. 

He shook his head. 

" Are you tired, Lucy?" 

" Yes. " 

" Let me sit by her while you walk about, and 
rest yourself. " 

" I think we had better not disturb her now. " 

"Is she asleep?" he asked in low, cautious 
voice. 

" I don't know " 

At this the afflicted maiden started up, saying: 

" What is it? what did you say? Is she com- 
ing? I have told you all the time she would; but 
you would not believe me. George — George — 
what are you thinking about?" 

" It is all right," George said. 

" All right — that is what you have told me all 
the time; but didn't I see her put the poison in 
the cup? Where is Maria? she saw her too. 
Maria, Maria!" 

"Hush, dear, Maria is not here," Lucy said in 



14 UNION. 

a low, soothing tone. " We are travelling now, 
we are going soon. " 

" Are we going home, Lucy?" 

"Yes, dear." 

" Now you won't deceive me, will you?" 

"No, no, dear." 

" Oh, Lucy, I want to go home — I want to go 
home — why did they ever take me away ? There 
are no serpents nor insects there, such as I see 
here, day and night, — oh — there is one on my 
hand!" 

" No, dear, it is not " 

"Take it off!" 

Lucy made a gesture, as if brushing something 
away, and the invalid said: 

" There, see, Lucy, you have taken off my hand ! 
— put it on again. " 

"It is all right, dear, " Lucy responded, care- 
fully caressing her hand, and soothingly assuring 
her that she would be cared for. 

" I am so glad, Lucy, that we are going home 
at last. Oh, it has been so long — so long since I 
left my home — I have suffered so much — where is 
Maria? — Has the doctor come yet?" 

" Be quiet, dear, we have strangers about us 
now." 

" Sing to me, Lucy." 

Lucy, whose voice was choking with grief, 



LOVE AND 3IADNESS. 15 

whispered that she could not sing, and as a mother 
soothes an affrighted child, so she quieted the 
nerve -shattered maiden, coaxing her to be quiet 
until the train came, when they would go. 

For the hundredth time, George had gone to the 
platform to look for the train and came back dis- 
appointed. 

"Can I get tickets now?" he asked, going to 
the window. 

"Yes; how many do you want?" growled the 
agent. 

" Three. " 

" Eeturn-trip tickets?" 

"Only two of us will return — one will not!" 
and his voice was almost choked with grief. The 
tickets were stamped and handed to him. He put 
down a golden double eagle and received his 
change. Then he sat down near his female com- 
panions, and bowing his head on his chest, closed 
his eyes. 

People who travel soon learn to dread junction 
waiting. Nowhere in the world does time hang 
so heavily as at the station; but when one has an 
invalid with whom it is important to reach their 
destination as quickly as possible, time hangs with 
double weight upon them. George was almost in 
a state of unconsciousness when his brother Charles 
said: 



16 UNION. 

" George, it's coming." 

"At last! — thank God!" he ejaculated, starting 
up. 

There was a little bustle in the depot. A dozen 
people had entered to see the train come in. 
Most of them were countr}- boys in brown home- 
spun and slouched hats who stood with hands in 
their pockets, and in open-mouthed wonder gazed 
at the monster as it went puffing by. Through 
this crowd of idle loafers, they conveyed the un- 
fortunate maiden, who shrank from sight of every 
one, and seemed liable to go frantic at the slight- 
est noise. 

George heard the agent accost the engineer 
familiarly with: 

"Hello, Roxy, you're late." 

"Yes." 

" How long before No. 4 will come?" 

"In half an hour." 

" Glad o' that, we're goin' up to the dance." 

"Where?" 

" At Baylises Siding. " 

"Wish T could go." 

It required the united efforts of the three rela- 
tives to get the unfortunate maiden through the 
noisy crowd and hissing steam to the cars. The 
conductor was shouting: 

"All aboard!" 



LOVE AXD MADXESS. 17 

" Do you run a sleeping coach on this train?" 
asked George. 

"No." 

Sleeping coaches at this time were very uncom- 
mon. They were shown to the rear car, which 
was reserved for ladies, and found seats upholstered 
with dark leather, but more comfortable than the 
benches of the depot. Tlie elegant red velvet 
plush seats and reclining chairs which make rail- 
road travel a luxury to-day were not common 
then. 

They got comfortable seats, and George said: 

" Lucy, I will sit by and watch over her to-night- 
Take this vacant seat behind us and try to get 
some sleep. " 

Charles, who had followed them into the train 
with bandboxes and travelling bags, bade George 
adieu, kissed Luc}" and the invalid affectionately, 
and then darted out as the car began to move. 
The louts on the platform uttered diabolical and 
senseless yells as the train rolled away. 

" What is it? George — George, are you here?" 

"Yes." 

"What is it?" 

" We are going now I" 

"Home?" 

"Yes, home!" he answered with a suppressed 
sob. 

2 



18 UNION. 

Then he thought that only two of them would 
come back, and a moisture gathered in his eyes. 
"It's for the best — I know it's for the best," he 
said. 

At his side the unfortunate being crouched, 
sometimes covering her head, and shivering with 
fear. The conductor passed through taking up the 
tickets. When George, worn out from excessive 
watching and anxiety, closed his eyes for a mo- 
ment, he was startled by a movement on the part 
of the girl at his side. Looking at her, he found 
her sitting bolt upright staring about her, with her 
great, insane eyes, as if she were seeking some 
one, or looking for an opportunity to fly. 

" Lie down ; place your head on my shoulder, " 
he said in a low, gentle tone. 

She obeyed and, nestling her head on his broad 
shoulder, as she had so often done in childhood, 
she whispered : 

" George, are we going home?" 

"Yes." 

It almost broke his heart to deceive her; but he 
could not tell the truth. Yes, George lied. The 
home to which he was taking her was one from 
which all shrink with dread. He had ever been 
her favorite brother, for he was almost fifteen 
years her senior, and she had looked up to him in 
early childhood with the utmost confidence. In 



LOVE AND 3IADNESS. 19 

all her career of fantastic madness, even thougli 
she denied father and mother, George was to her 
the same George of her early childhood, ever 
trusted, ever noble and grand. His voice soothed 
her alarm and drove away those demoniacal crea- 
tures of " bromide," when no other would. 

" George, am I going home?" 

"Yes." 

Then she was quiet for awhile. Only the sullen 
roar of iron wheels on the damp cold rails fell on 
their ears. The seat before them was occupied by 
a large middle-aged bald-headed gentleman, who 
half lay and half sat in it. Over the back of the 
seat could be seen his bald cranium, bare and 
white, glistening in the dim light, and when the 
train stopped as it occasionally did, the snoring of 
the sleeper attested that his slumber was profound. 

The sleeper was in blissful ignorance of the fact 
that a madwoman was in the seat behind him, and 
in his dreamland wanderings had forgotten railroad 
travel and all its inconveniences. 

George never slept. Once or twice he was 
dozing, but at the slightest rustling of his sister's 
silk dress, he was aroused. He found her sitting 
up again leaning forward with fingers read}' to 
pluck something, and, to his mortification, found 
the bald head of the sleeper in front the object of 
her diseased fancy. 



20 UNION. 

" Come, come, sister," lie said soothingly, " don't 
do that! lie down," and he drew her head on his 
shoulder. 

"George, am I going home?" she asked again. 

" Yes. " 

" I don'tbelieve it. This is not the road," 

" We will come to the right road." 

" Where is Maria? I want Maria." 

" Don't you remember you became angry at her 
and said she should not come with you?" 

" Yes, I believe I did ; but how am I to do 
without a maid?" 

"Lucy will be your maid," he answered. 
" Come now, try to go to sleep. " 

"I can't — when I try, there is something that 
comes crawling all over me. " 

"It is nothing; it is only your imagination. 
Don't you know I won't let you be harmed?" 

She was again soothed, and this time he thought 
she slept. He was so tired that he could scarcely 
keep his eyes open; and despite all his anxiety 
and watchfulness, had once more begun to sink 
away into slumberland, when the rustling of the 
silk dress at his side awoke him. Again she was 
sitting up leaning over the seat in front. That 
bald head before her seemed to have some special 
attraction, and fingers and thumb were held as if 
to grab something. He was only in time to pre- 



LOVE AND MADNESS. 21 

vent her giving the sleeper's bare pate a nip which 
would undoubtedly have aroused him. 

" You must not do this, — you must not." 

"Why?" 

" You must not wake the stranger. " 

" But I saw it crawling there!" 

"What?" 

" The bug or spider. It's on his head, and I 
want to pluck it off; look and you will see it." 

"No, no; it's only your imagination. Do lie 
quiet. Don't disturb the stranger." 

"Stranger? why, brother, he is no stranger." 

"He is." 

" Isn't that brother Charles?" 

" No ; Charles was left back at Crummels Junc- 
tion." 

" Is that so? well, I had forgotten. I thought it 
was him, and that the spider might bite him." 

Then she laid her head down against her 
brother's shoulder and slept a long time. Fatigue 
had at last overcome the abnormal activity of her 
brain, and she did not awake until broad da3^ 
The train was still flying along through a wooded 
country. The trees and fences were dripping from 
the dampness, and as they were whirled past farm 
houses, they saw evidences of life. At one a man 
was feeding some hungry pigs, at another a farmer 
was seen washing his face in a tin basin by the rain- 



22 UNION. 

water barrel. He took a towel and wiped his eyes, 
then stared at the train. A little further on they 
saw a negro boy riding a colt, which was fright- 
ened at the train and trying to run away. On, 
on and on they whirled, across a creek spanned 
by a bridge and through a grove. Next they sped 
through a village without stopping. They saw a 
negro woman standing on the rear porch with a 
broom in her hand, and a red bandanna handker- 
chief about her head. There were people in the 
streets, in stores and at the depot. 

On they sped like the wind and a few moments 
were among the stony hills. The train whirled 
on, and as the hour grew later, they saw men and 
negroes going to the villages in wagons, on horse- 
back or on foot. The face of the country had 
changed. 

Soon there was evidence of approaching a larger 
town or city. Lucy, who had been awake for 
some time, asked George: 

" Is she asleep?" 

" No. " 

" Did she sleep during the night?" 

" Yes, some." 

At this, the invalid started up and asked: 

"What is it?" 

" We will soon be there, dear, be quiet." 

" Lucy, take my place in this seat, " said George. 



LOVE AND 3IADNESS. 2d 

She did so. The sick girl had by this time at- 
tracted the attention of nearly all in the car. 
George went to the conductor, who was entering 
at the front door, and held a short consultation 
with him. On returning, the bald-headed man, 
who had waked up, heard him say: 

" The conductor says we will find carriages at 
the depot to take us. " 

"How far is it?" 

" We will be there in ten minutes. " 

" I am so glad. " 

George was both glad and sorry. He was like 
one going to the funeral of a near relative, glad 
when it would be over, yet filled with grief while 
it was transpiring. He was a young man, tall 
and handsome, with a strong and vigorous frame, 
but care had furrowed his cheeks, and there were 
flecks of gray in his hair, which could not have 
been seen six months ago. 

At last the train ran into the depot, and the in- 
valid was assisted from the coach. The two young 
women sat in a great crowded depot, while George 
went out to hunt for a convej^ance. He found 
one and came back. There was a lunch room 
near, and he said: 

" Lucy, won't you have a bite of breakfast and 
some coffee?" 

" No. " 



24 UNION. 

"Don't you feel faint?" 

" Yes; but let us get tliis over with." 

She asked the invalid, who sat staring into 
vacancy, if she would not have some breakfast, 
and she shook her head. The carriage was ready, 
a trunk and travelling bags were placed on it, and 
the three were soon ensconced in the vehicle, speed- 
ing out of the town. 

" Charles, Charles," called the invalid. 

" Don't call, dear; it is not Charles." 

" Isn't that Charles with Pete on the box?" 

" No, dear. " 

" Then tell Pete to go back. " 

" It is not Pete; see, we are going to your new 
home. " 

At this moment, the carriage made a sweep 
round the bend in the road and came in full view 
of a large, elegant building several stories in 
height, with vast wings and windows, and beauti- 
ful grounds ornamented with trees. There was 
ease and elegance evinced there; but the windows 
had iron gratings like a prison. At sight of it, 
George's head fell. The carriage rolled up a beau- 
tiful drive to the front of the building, and the 
party alighted. A negro slave showed them into 
the institution, and on the right was an office where 
the president and principal physician, a large, well- 
preserved man, past middle age, with black eyes 



LOVE AND MADXESS. 25 

and iron-gray hair, was found sitting at his desk. 
He rose on their entrance, for by the air and rich 
dress of the people, he saw at once that they were 
of the wealthy class. It only needed a glance for 
him to see his patient, and he said: 

"She is tired, let her sit in this easy-chair." 
When she was seated he asked of George, " How 
long has she been in this condition?" 

" It is about three weeks since we noticed any 
change, doctor. " 

Then the doctor opened a book, in which he 
wrote a history of the young maiden and her dis- 
ease. When he had done so, Lucy, whose anxiety 
to understand the cause overcame all medical pro- 
priety, asked : 

"Doctor, what is it?" 

The lii)s of the doctor were compressed a mo- 
ment, and then he said: 

"Bromide." 

" Can she be cured?" 

" There is a hope. " He got up, muttering 
something about " accursed quackery," and rang a 
bell. A lady with a mild, kind face appeared, 
and to her the new patient was consigned, the doc- 
tor merely saying: 

" Take her to the hospital ward. " 

They accompanied her through long corridors, 
where there were iron doors, which closed with a 



26 UNION. 

bang. They passed gibbering, cbattering idiots and 
wild-eyed lunatics, until a quiet wing of the insti- 
tution was gained, where they were raet by another 
sweet-faced woman, a professional nurse. With her, 
George and Lucy held a conversation, in which the 
latter, with tears streaming down her cheeks, said: 

" Be good to lier, give lier all the advantages you 
can, and you shall be well paid for your trouble." 
Some jingling coins fell in the nurse's hands. The 
parting was heart-breaking. How could it be 
otherwise, when the poor sick girl, scarcely more 
than a child, begged them not to leave her in this 
strange place? But necessity compelled them to 
do so, and tliey went away. 

Three weeks later the newspapers all over the 
land published one of the most sensational stories 
of which the American press can boast. As the 
reader will see from the following clipping from 
one of the daily papers, the names were sup- 
pressed. This was obviously done to shield the 
officials in charge of the institution, who must 
have been guilty of the grossest negligence. One 
of the newspaper statements was as follows : 

"LOVE AND MADNESS. 
"a pair of lunatics elope fkom an insane asylum 

AND WED. 

"A fact has just leaked out, which rivals anything in 
romance. The novelist might cudgel his brain for years, 




AWAY THEY FLEW, PIHSUED BY THE ANGRY MALE ATTENDANT, WHOSE HORSE 
FELL AND DISLOCATED HIS SHOCLDER. 



LOVE AND MADNESS. 27 

and never invent a story more exquisitely fantastic. It 
seems that an insane asylum, less than a thousand miles 
from this city, is the theatre of this remarkable episode. 
A few weeks ago, a young man, suffering from some 
nervous complaint, aggravated by quack treatment, until 
he was laboring under delirium, was confined in the 
asylum. He soon evinced some signs of recovery and was 
given the privilege of the grounds. One day, while with 
his attendant, he met a young and very beautiful female 
patient. Insane people have strange freaks, and it is sup- 
posed that with these two lunatics it was a case of love at 
first sight. How they wooed each other in the asylum, 
where the male and female wards are kept separate, and 
where they could hardly see each other, unless when with 
attendants, is a mystery which the investigation now in 
progress may clear up. Perhaps he, Romeo-like, met his 
insane Juliet on the balcony while the nurses slept, as did 
Capulet. Be that as it maj', they certainly met more than 
once, and their plan of escape had method in it, even if it 
was madness. The two, being children of wealthy parents, 
had, among other privileges, saddle horses, and one day 
while riding about the grounds, the insane Romeo espied 
his Juliet mounted, and riding with her attendant, and at 
a preconcerted signal the lovers dashed out at the open gate 
like the wind, and away they flew along the road, pursued 
by the angry male attendant, whose horse fell down and 
dislocated his shoulder. On they sped for ten miles to the 
house of a local minister, whom they asked to marry them. 
Here the cunning peculiar to madness was exercised, and 
the good parson who performed the ceremonj- had not the 
slightest idea he was wedding a pair of lunatics. Having 
imposed on the good parson, the youngster paid him ten 
dollars in gold, and, with his bride, set out — Heaven only 
knows where, when they were overtaken by the authorities 
of the asylum, and taken back. It is said that these young 
folks are both from wealthy and respectable families, and 



28 UNION. 

under ordinary circumstances the wedding would have 
been unobjectionable. As it is, however, the indignant 
friends and relatives of these romantic patients have re- 
moved them from the institution, and the atmosphere in 
that locality is growing decidedly warm, in the nature of 
a legal investigation." 



CHAPTER II. 

THE SUNNY SOUTH. 

Jacksonville, Florida, is famous all over the 
world. To the pale-faced northerner it is the 
Mecca of his hopes, and yet in the ante-bellum 
days it was scarce known outside the State. It is 
not two score years since there was a corn-field on 
the site of Bay Street, now the chief avenue of a 
city of over seventeen thousand inhabitants, which 
from 1880 to 1890 increased in population 124.85 
per cent. Jacksonville was once known as " Cow 
Ford. " There the " King's Road" in the old days, 
crossed the river, and connected the northern set- 
tlements with St. Augustine. During the war, it 
ran to decay. It was strongly fortified, and was 
clung to desperately by the Confederates. The 
Union troops occupied it several times, and on the 
third assault a fire broke out, which did much 
damage. At the close of the great struggle, the 
grass stood waist high in the streets, and the cattle 
had taken refuge from the sun in the deserted 
houses. Since Florida became famous as a health 

29 



So VISION. 

resort and winter garden, northern people have 
swept in so resistlessly that so far as its artificial 
features are concerned, the city has grown up 
according to the New England pattern, though the 
foliage, climate and sun arc the antipodes of those 
of the North. 

It is not the Jacksonville of to-dav, but the 
town or village which nestled there in 1858 and 
1859 to which we call the attention of the reader. 
It was a small, insignificant spot, yet as the to- 
pography of the country never changes, one may 
judge something of its characteristics then, by see- 
ing it now. It was a frosty morning in January, 
when the wheezy little coast steamer ran up the 
river to the village of Jacksonville. Thin flakes 
of ice had formed in the little pools along the 
shore, and the pale young man who stood on the 
deck, drew the folds of his cloak closer about him, 
and grumbled : 

"If this is the tropical region, where winter 
never comes, I see but little change after all." 

In vain those who had been there before told 
him that this was an exceptional winter for Florida, 
that this " cold snap" would last but a few hours; 
he still grumbled and vowed he would find warmer 
weather or cross the line. The scenery along the 
shore was drear and uninviting. Here and there, 
in the forest gaps, the negroes had kindled huge 



THE SUXNY SOUTH. 31 

fires, and were grouped about them, toasting their 
heads, and freezing their backs. Now and then 
the traveller caught glimpses of beautiful thickets; 
or long stretches of field carpeted with thick 
growths of palmetto, while in other places might 
be seen the distant pine barrens, and log cabins 
swarming with black-skinned negroes. 

Mark Stevens was entering the " Sunny South" 
for the first time. Of northern climes and middle 
States he was thoroughly familiar. He was a na- 
tive of Kentucky; but the principal part of his 
boyhood and young manhood had been spent in 
Massachusetts. His pale cheeks and thoughtful 
mien betokened the student. He had completed 
a course at Harvard, and, as his health had suf- 
fered from over-exertion, he had taken the advice 
of some friends and gone South. Mark's parents 
still lived in Kentucky. He had relatives in Mas- 
sachusetts and some distant relatives in Florida, 
whom he expected to meet. Reuben Stevens was 
a wealthy planter in Florida. His son Alec, a wild, 
harum-scarum 3'oung fellow, yet kind-hearted, 
and generous, was with Mark one year in college, 
and made him promise to come to Florida and visit 
them. He was now on his way to make that visit, 
and as he entered the gatewa}' of the great penin- 
sula, he paused for a moment to reflect upon its 
history. Fact and fancy here wandered hand in 



32 UNION. 

hand. The aiiy chronicles of the ancient fathers 
hovered upon the confines of the impossible. The 
austere northerner and the cynical European mur- 
mur incredulously at the tales of modern writers 
who grow enthusiastic over the charms of this new 
winter paradise. Yet what of fiction should ex- 
ceed in romantic interest the history of this vener- 
able State? What artist could paint foliage whose 
splendors would ecfual that of the virgin forests 
of the Oclawaha and Indian rivers? What " foun- 
tain of youth" could be imagined more redolent 
with enchantment than the " Silver Spring, " which 
is to-day annually visited by fifty thousand tour- 
ists? The subtle moonlight, the perfect glory of 
the dying sun as he sinks below a horizon fringed 
with fantastic trees, the perfume faintly borne 
from the orange grove, the murmuring music of 
the waves along the inlets, and the mangrove-cov- 
ered banks are beyond words. 

This American Italy lies in the latitude of north- 
ern Mexico, the desert of Sahara, Central Arabia, 
Southern China, and northern Hindostan; but its 
heats are tempered by the Gulf of Mexico on one side, 
and the Gulf Stream, which fiows along the eastern 
coast for three hundred miles, on the other. Over 
the level breadth of ninet}' miles between these two 
waters, constantly blow odorous and health-giving 
ocean winds, and under their influence, aided by the 



THE SUNNY SOUTH. 33 

genial sun, springs up an almost miraculous sub- 
tropical vegetation. It is the home of the pal- 
metto, and the cabbage palm, the live-oak and the 
cypress, the mistletoe, with its bright green leaves 
and red berries, the Spanish moss, the ambitious 
mangrove, the stately magnolia, the smilax china, 
the orange, the myrtle, the water-lily, the jasmine, 
the cork tree, the sisal-hemp, the grape, and the 
cocoanut. There the northerner, wont to boast 
of the brilliant sunsets of his own clime, finds all 
his past experiences outdone. In the winter 
months, soft breezes come caressingly; the whole 
peninsula is carpeted with blossoms, and the birds 
sing sweetly in the untrodden thickets. It has 
the charm of wildness, of mystery ; it is untamed ; 
civilization has not stained it. No wonder the 
Seminoles fought ferociously ere they suffered 
themselves to be banished from this charming 
land. 

The vessel landed, and Mark was conducted to 
one of those old-fashioned southern taverns by a 
negro slave, while two or three more carried his 
luggage. The sea air and frosty morning had 
quite chilled his frame, and he asked to be taken 
to a room at once where there was a fire. There 
were fire-places in nearly all the rooms, but no fire. 
Two negro boys brought pine sticks to his apart- 
ment, and a fire was soon kindled. His room was 
3 



34 UNION. 

carpetless. There was a bed, two or three large 
arm-chairs, an old-fashioned mantel on which were 
a pair of old-fashioned candlesticks, a pair of fire 
tongs, a centre table, and a quaint old bookcase, in 
which were four or five odd -looking volumes. 

"Won't you have breakfast?" the landlord 
asked, entering the room. 

" Can you serve it here?" 

"Yes." 

"I am so infernally chilled, I don't want to 
leave the fire. " 

" I guess it's a leetle airish on the river this 
mornin'. " 

" I thought you never had wnnter here?" growled 
Mark. 

" Wall, we do sometimes have a cold snap ; but 
this'll be gone afore mo'nin'. Ye'll see it warm 
enough in a few hours." 

" I hope so. " 

Breakfast was served as Mark requested in the 
room. His host came and sat at his side, and 
talked with him in the interval about the north 
and the ever-interesting question of slavery and 
thje "doings in congress." The landlord was a 
typical southerner, who declared if the " Aboli- 
tionists succeed, we'll secede." Mark was tired, 
and the landlord, who was a kind-hearted man, 
saw his condition, so he left him, advising him to 



THE SUNNY SOUTH. 35 

lie down and take a nap. He took the advice and 
extended his nap late into the day. He had sup- 
per and dinner together, and again went to bed to 
sleep until sunrise. 

The Jacksonville landlord proved to be a 
weather prophet. There was a wonderful change 
in a few hours. To Mark it was remarkable. 
Transferred from the trying climate of the North 
into the gentle atmosphere of the Florida penin- 
sula, seemed like being transported to fairy land. 
The sun was shining brightly and the balmy breeze 
of summer was wafted in at the open casement. 
After breakfast he went out on the veranda and, 
seating himself in an arm-chair, gazed over the 
pretty square in Jacksonville. His face was 
fanned by the warm January breeze, and the chip- 
pering of the birds mingled with the music of a 
negro's banjo over in a shanty. The lazy, ne'er- 
do-well black boys, sporting in the sand, so abun- 
dant in all the roads, had the unconscious pose 
and careless grace of Neapolitan beggars. Occa- 
sionally a dusky Indian maiden, with her almost 
Grecian features, and long, straight hair, was seen 
crossing the road, with a face beautiful in its 
duskiness, as was ever the face of olive-brown 
maid in Messina. This is the South, slumbrous, 
voluptuous, round and graceful. Here beauty 
peeps from every door yard. Mere existence is a 



36 UNION. 

pleasure, exertion a bore. Througli orange-trees 
and grand oaks, thickly bordering the broad 
avenues of the village, gleamed the wide current 
of the St. John's river. 

Mark sat gazing listlessly, dreamily upon the 
enchanting vision before him, when he was sud- 
denly startled from a revery, painful, but sweet, 
by a merry peal of rippling laughter, and, turning 
his eyes in another direction, he saw two lovely 
girls, shy, blushing and mischievous, coming 
slowly along the street. They could not have 
been over eighteen years of age, perhaps not so 
old. Mark saw that the one nearest him had 
golden hair flowing in sunny waves about a pair 
of beautiful shoulders. Her face was slightly 
averted at first; but anon she turned the gaze of a 
pair of large blue eyes full upon him. If the 
peal of merry laughter was like rippling music to 
his sad soul, the face was like a burst of sunshine 
at midnight. The face was wondrous fair, every 
feature was exquisite in its perfection, regularity 
and the beauty of its curves. The form was 
symmetrica], and as she walked by, it was with the 
grace of a queen whose every motion might be set 
to music. 

Mark stared at her longer than good manners 
would have warranted. She blushed slightly, her 
head drooped, and she passed on, like a bright 



THE SUNNY SOUTH. 37 

dream which, once gone, "is forever beyond recall. 
He thought of her, he dreamed of her, and in his 
imagination wove bright castles for his nameless 
love. How foolish he was — he knew her not — 
and perhaps would never see her again. He spent 
a whole week in Jacksonville before Alec arrived 
to take him a twenty -five-mile ride to the plantation 
of his father, and did not see the bright being 
again. Had he known her name, he might have 
inquired for her. 

One bright day. Alec arrived in a two-wheeled 
gig, quite suitable to Florida roads. He was the 
same harum-scarum care-for-naught, but good- 
hearted fellow , Mark had known three years before 
at college. Leaping from his vehicle, he came 
bounding up to the veranda where Mark sat, 
crying : 

" Hello, Mark ! Mark, old boy, what are you 
doing here? Why didn't yo\x hire a nigger to 
bring you out?" 

" I was taking a rest. Alec. " 

"A rest! by Jove, I believe you. Say, old 
boy, how long have you been here?" 

" A little over a week. " 

" A week — great guns — over a week ! Why 
didn't you send me word sooner, and I'd a been 
after you in no time?" 

" As I said. Alec, I was a little tired, and I 



38 UNION. 

wanted to rest; besides I found this country an 
excellent study — - — " 

"Study! — by thunder, you've been studying 
too much; that's what ails you. Why, you are 
as pale as a ghost. Did you break down before 
you got through?" 

" No, I graduated with honors, " Mark answered 
proudly; " but I was sick a long time afterward," 
he added sadly. 

" And you came here to recruit " 

"Yes." 

"By George, you couldn't a come to a better 
place, my boy. Well, it's too much of a trip to 
start back to-day. I'll stay over until to-morrow, 
and then we will start early. " 

This arrangement made, the mules were removed 
from the vehicle to the stable by a pair of lazy 
negroes, and Alec and Mark took a walk about 
the village, talking over their old college days, 
and laughing at some of their merry frolics more 
easily remembered than Greek lessons. 

" I am glad you came, Mark. It's just the 
thing to do. We'll bring the color back to your 
cheeks. Such hunting and fishing as we will 
have, you never dreamed of in your philosophy. " 

They sat up until late that night, and, like 
school boys, both slept in the same bed and talked 
each other to sleep. They got an early start next 



THE SUNNY SOUTH. 39 

morning and, with Mark's lightest trunk strapped 
on behind the vehicle, rolled away along the sandy 
road, which was a constantly shifting panorama of 
scenery. 

Eounding a bend in the road, they came npon a 
scene which might have made a fortune for an 
artist. Before them could be seen the deep, glossy 
green of a thrifty orange grove, where nestled 
enough well-set young oranges and white blossoms 
to make glad the heart of the owner. In the fore- 
ground was a mule, whose characteristics were a 
meek and lowly carriage of- the head, a general 
lack of adipose tissue and a gait that would have 
made Jehu weep. Adorning her lank person was 
a harness, mostly collar, by which she was attached 
to an ancient buckboard. On the seat were two 
persons, whom they failed to recognize because of 
the broad rims of their sun-hats. Each held a 
child, and the gentleman was supplied with a 
small tree with which he evidently entertained 
some hopes of animating the statue-like mule. A 
lunch basket, wraps and fishing-rods were strongly 
suggestive of a picnic excursion. The Ijttle group 
of persons gathered near consisted of a white-haired 
man who looked on the turnout with the proud 
gaze of ownership, a lady in a sun-bonnet, who 
took equal satisfaction in a brood of nine chickens 
she was feeding, and a man with a hoe resting 



40 UNION. 

on his shoulder, who resembled an exaggerated 
exclamation point. About three-fourths of his 
height was given up to a pair of spider-like legs, 
and the other fourth to a set of ribs and a pair 
of drooping shoulders from which dangled arms 
reaching well down to the knees. An elbow in 
his neck thrust his head far in advance of his body. 
He had a weazened face, pinched features, and a 
shaggy brown beard. This man is known to fame 
all the world over by two euphonious titles — 
" Before taking, " and " Florida Cracker. " 

Passing over a slight eminence, this interesting 
group was lost to their view, and they toiled on 
through the deep sand. A landscape indescribably 
beautiful lay about them. On every side was a 
picture. On one side woods, thickly pillared with 
tall pines and richly carpeted with their long 
brown needles. Yellow, white and purple wild 
flowers lifted their bright faces to be kissed by the 
slanting sunbeams that fell through the scanty 
foliage overhead. It seemed as if summer had 
come in a day. Not two weeks before Mark had 
seen thin flakes of ice near the coast, and not lift}' 
miles away, he was in the midst of perpetual 
blooming Spring. Mocking-birds, blue-birds, 
butcher-birds and song sparrows vied with each 
other in entertaining their feathered friends of less 
vocal talent. Robins ran on the ground silent, big 



THE SUNNY SOUTH. 



41 



and brilliant butterflies flitted to and fro, and the 
wind soughing through the pines, breathed a tran- 
quillizing lullaby over all. In other directions, 
through clearings, lakes of various sizes and shapes, 
having neither inlet nor outlet, yet clear as crystal, 
gleamed in the morning sun. The graceful slopes 
reaching to their banks were 
covered with mingled forests 
of pine and groves of ora-nge- 
trees. Orchards of peach, 
plum, persimmon and other 
fruit trees, with large vegeta- 
ble gardens in which negro 
slaves were at work, told why 
this country was called the 
" winter garden" of the fro- 
zen North. 

They arrived at Alec's 
home before nightfall. It was 
one of those palatial houses of 
the ante-bellum days. Before 
the war, the wealth of the 
South was in the country, where the rich planta- 
tions were supported by slave labor, where each 
planter was a petty feudal lord with his dusky 
subjects. Mr. Reuben Stevens was a typical south- 
erner. He had only emigrated from the cotton 
districts of Georgia because he believed the devel- 




Florida Cracker 



42 UNION. 

opment of orange groves in Florida would pay 
better. He was a cavalier of the old type; one 
who believed that slavery was a divine institution, 
and yet he was one of the kindest men in the 
world. He would protect one of his dusky sub- 
jects with his life, and when they were sick, he 
and his amiable wife nursed them. Those who 
have travelled in the South will bear me out in the 
statement that there does not exist more hospitable 
people than the people of the South, They are 
easily touched by a story of wrong or oppres- 
sion; they are patriotic as they understand patri- 
otism ; they were, as a rule, kind and indulgent 
masters with their slaves. Only the worst side of 
the picture of slavery was presented by the Aboli- 
tionists. Some masters assigned their slaves 
tasks, and all over the task was their own, and 
many of the thriftier darkies accumulated consid- 
erable money in this way. The author knew 
many masters, who, after President Lincoln's 
proclamation, freed their slaves, gave them nice 
little homes of thirty or forty acres of land, 
mules and wagons, and set them up in their new 
life. 

Uncle Eeuben Stevens, as he was known, was a 
kind master and loved by all his slaves, save one 
or two vicious fellows incapable of gratitude. 

The old planter, with his Panama hat on his 



THE SUNNY SOUTH. 43 

head, stood in sliirt sleeves on the broad piazza, 
when the young men drove up. 

" Well, this is Mark Stevens, is it?" said Uncle 
Reuben, grasping Mark's hand with an assuring 
welcome. 

'* Yes, sir, and I suppose we are distantly re- 
lated. " 

" Oh, yes, all o' the same branch. My folks 
came from Virginia. Sit down ; Alec, send Cater 
to put up the mules. " 

Alec called a negro who was playing with a 
hound on the grass, and sent him to unharness the 
mules. 

"Sit down, Mark; let me see; — is 3'our father 
livin'?" 

"Yes, sir; he still lives in Boone County, 
Kentucky. " 

" What's his name?" 

" Fernando. " 

" Yes, warn't he in the war of 'twelve?" 

" Yes, sir, he was a major and fought at New 
Orleans. " 

" Yes, yes, I remember now. I was thar my- 
self. I tell you, boy, we did some good shootin' 
that day. I was with the Tennessee troops and he 
with Kentucky ; but we were stationed close 
enough together to swap jokes." 

" I don't suppose you did?" 



44 UNION. 

" Some of the boys said some jiretty sassy tilings. 
I tell you the Americans showed spunk there. 
What was your grandfather's name?" 

"Albert^' 

" That's it. He and my father were brothers, 
I reckon, well w^e are all of one branch, why I 
trace my family back to Captain John Smith." 

" Farther than that, father, " interposed Alec. 
" It goes clear back to Columbus. " 

" Oh, Alec, you always want to overdo the 
thing. But, Mark, was your father in the war 
with Mexico?" 

" No ; my brother Arthur was. " 

"Where is he?" 

" Living in Boone County; married a Mexican 
wife, and is now one of the richest planters in the 
county ; but I believe he is going to Mexico to 
live. " 

" Foolish to do it. Well I warn't in the Mexican 
w^ar. Didn't take much stock in it. Shouldn't 
wonder we have to whip the Abolitionists yet. 
Hope you and Alec didn't imbibe any o' the doc- 
trine o' the North while at college." 

Mark hoped there would be no war between the 
North and South. At this moment Mrs. Betty 
Stevens came out to form the acquaintance of Mark 
and scold Uncle Keuben for talking politics while 
the young man was tired. The colored cook soon 



THE SUNNY SOUTH. 45 

had supper ready, and the journey had given Mark a 
splendid appetite. Alec, with a glow of satisfac- 
tion, noted Mark's increased appetite, and said: 

"I told you we'd bring the color back to your 
cheeks, ray cousin." 

Next day Alec planned a fishing excursion. 

" You must come back to-night, Alec, " said his 
mother. " Clara and Richard will be here to- 
night, with Miss Elsie Cole from Charleston." 

" I wish Dick had come this morning to go with 
us. I tell you, Dick is a jolly good fellow; but 
if Elsie is coming, I'll be back." 

The young men set out on a buckboard on their 
fishing expedition. The scenery was somewhat 
similar to the day before. A thick jungle of semi- 
tropical trees and plants was penetrated, and they 
came to a huge spring, boiling from the earth in a 
volume sufficient to form a stream twenty feet 
wide and deep enough to row a boat upon. On 
all sides was a great " bay head," with its wealth 
of palmettoes, cactuses, live-oaks, ferns and flowers 
like an immense conservatory. The trees were 
festooned from their highest branches to the ground 
with the graceful gray Florida moss and a tangled 
network of vines. Here and there a great monarch 
had fallen and, unable to reach the earth, rested 
in the outstretched arms of his comrades, who 
pityingly wove a shroud of trailing plants about 



46 UNION. 

him. The boys, leaving mule and buckboard 
among the trees, launched a skiff and, climbing 
into it, glided noiselessly down the stream, until 
they suddenly came into a lake, several miles wide, 
fringed for many rods with lily-pods, reeds and the 
wonderful " Cypress Knees, " looking wonderfully 
like so many champagne bottles set in the water to 
cool. White herons and other water fowls glided 
along the margin, or floated gracefully overhead. 

The boat had come to a stop, and while Mark 
was contemplating the scene, Alec with all the 
keen instincts of a sportsman was busy preparing 
his rod, line and bait. A swish, a swirl in the 
water, a rush, a clicking reel, the slender rod bent 
almost double, — and a big black bass lay flopping 
in the boat at Mark's feet. He awoke to the 
realities of sport. In a short time they had an 
abundant supply, and started homeward. 

The sun had set, and the new moon was looking 
down upon them out of the liquid blue of a cloud- 
less sky that Ital}^ herself might claim. The 
crescent moon and her infinite number of starry 
companions shone witli that softened splendor only 
seen in southern lands. The air was heavy with 
dew-kissed orange buds. Night birds were flitting 
by; katydids gossiped merrily, and from the lake 
came the deep tones of an alligator, very much like 
the hoarse croaking of a bull -frog. As they jour- 



THE SUNNY SOUTH. 



47 



neyed on, a weird and novel sight came in view — 
a large pine forest on fire. The trees were ablaze 
from the ground to the top branches, and great red 
tongues leaped and danced fantastically in the 
air. Leaving the blazing forest, they came to a 




A «WISH, A SWIRL IN THE WATER, A RUSH, A CLICKING REEL, 
THE SLENDER ROD BENT ALMOST DOUBLE. 

quaint nook in which stood a negro's cabin. 
There were no windows, but the door stood wide 
open, showing an immense log fire over which the 
"old mammy" bent, preparing the evening meal. 
There was only one room in the house, scantily 



48 UNION. 

fiirnisLed, with " yarbs" in abundance hanging 
from the rafter overhead. There were big darkies, 
little darkies and middle-aged darkies. A young 
negro man was picking an old banjo and singing 
"Nelly Grey." They still heard his not un- 
musical voice when the lights of the old mansion 
house came in sight, and they drove hastily for- 
ward. 

"Here we are!" cried Alec leaping out at the 
great front gate. " Cater, Cater come here. " 

" Yes, raassa." 

" Take this mule out and put him in the barn." 

"Git many, massa?" asked Cater straining his 
eyes to look into the basket. 

" Yes, more than you would catch in a week, 
you can't fish. " 

" Bet I kin, massa, Cater'll show ye some 
time, — golly, ain't dis a whopper!" 

" Carry them in to Liza, Cater, and then come 
and get the mule. " 

"Golly, ain't dey heaby, massa? Dem's all 
whoppers. " 

"Hurry up, Cater; the mule is hungry and so 
are we." 

" Is that Alec?" asked a voice which the young 
men recognized as Uncle Eeuben. 

" Yes, father. " 

" Come right in. Dick's come with the gals. 



THE SUNNY SOUTH. 49 

Go in the back way and slick np a bit, for them 
Charleston gals are monstrous fine. " 

The young men soon arranged their toilet. 
Mark seemed to evince eagerness. 

" You never saw my cousin Clara, did you 
Mark?" asked Alec. 

" No. " 

" She's a beauty; you can fall in love with her; 
but you must let Elsie Cole alone. I'll get jealous 
there in a minute. " 

" Never fear, Alec, I'll not rob you of your 
sweetheart," said Mark with a sigh which might 
have been interpreted as meaning that he had liad 
his love's romance. 

They met the young folks in the large parlor, 
where Dick, a tall, handsome young fellow, and 
two young ladies were awaiting them. Alec did 
the presenting and right gracefully too. 

Mark glanced at Elsie Cole, then started back 
covered with confusion. She was the vision of 
his last week's dreams, seen but a moment from 
the veranda of the Jacksonville hotel. 
4 



CHAPTER III. 

SAINT OR DEVIL. 

The confusion of Mark Stevens was so great 
that all present observed it. The effect on Elsie 
was strange. She recognized the young man as 
the person who had given her an impudent stare 
at Jacksonville, and for whom she had entertained 
no other thought than that he was some impudent 
fellow from the North. Alec noticed Mark's em- 
barrassment and said: 

" By Jove! have you folks met before?" 

" If I mistake not I saw these young ladies in 
Jacksonville about two weeks ago, " said Mark. 

" We were there," said Elsie, " and if I mistake 
not you sat on the hotel veranda and stared at us, " 

" Don't talk that way, Elsie," put in Clara. 

"Well, Clara, you said lie stared at one just 
like an impudent northerner. " 

" But I did not know he was a Stevens then." 

" Oh !" said Elsie with a curve of her pretty lip. 
" I suppose his being a Stevens makes a difference. 
Are the Stevens family infallible?" 

50 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 51 

" Yes. " 

"Thank you, cousin Clara," put in Mark, 
whose face was flaming crimson. " One ma}^ well 
be proud of a relative that always comes to help a 
fellow out of a bad scrape." 

" Come, come, you folks get out to supper," in- 
terrupted Uncle Reuben. " Let us not have a 
quarrel the first meeting." 

" We are not quarrelling Mr. Stevens, I was 
Just rebuking your kinsman for staring at us," 
said Elsie. 

" I appeal to Uncle Reuben, who has not lost 
his gallantry, if I was not justified." 

It was Elsie's turn to blush, and look confused, 
and Uncle Reuben answered: 

" He's got ye, Elsie. By Gineral Jackson, I'd 
not think much of a young man's taste who 
wouldn't stop and stare a second on such faces as 
yours. " 

Aunt Betty came to the rescue by declaring 
that Uncle Reuben ought to be ashamed of him- 
self, and the party were soon in the ample dining 
room seated at the table. The young people from 
Charleston were vivacious; conversation never 
flagged, and Mark soon overcame his temporary 
embarrassment, and before the evening was over 
was one of the merriest of the happy group. 

Alec noticed with some degree of uneasiness 



53 UNION. 

the interest which Mark seemed to take in Elsie. 
He gave his attention to both young ladies, but 
Alec thought he devoted most of his time to Elsie. 
That evening Alec said: 

" Well, Mark, what do you think of her?" 

"Who, Alec?" 

" Elsie. " 

" She is a very pretty girl." 

" Yes and as good as she is beautiful. I'll tell 
you a secret, Mark; now don't tell anybody for the 
people might laugh at me; — I like that girl. I just 
want to put you on your guard, Mark ; I love her. " 

" Are you betrothed?" 

" No——" 

" Well , have you ever proposed ? " 

" No, I never had a chance. That is, I mean I 
never could pluck up courage when I had a 
chance. I've tried to, but when I get at it I 
always feel just like a fool, and quit." 

"Is Dick a rival?" 

" Oh, no, she's Dick's own cousin, — his 
mother's niece, you see, but that makes her no 
relative of mine. " 

Mark felt little interest in Alec's love affair; 
but his friend went on telling him that Dick had 
said he didn't believe she cared a fig for him, but 
he knew better. Dick was not in the way; but 
be feared Mark might be, 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 53 

" Fact is, Mark, you are a plaguy fine-looking 
fellow, and it would just be my luck for Elsie to 
take a fancy to you, and it might cause me a 
thundering lot of trouble.'' 

Mark Stevens could not refrain from smiling; 
but his answer did not alleviate the anxiety of 
Alec. Long after the other members of the house- 
hold had sunk into slumber Alec tossed restlessly 
on his bed unable to sleep. After heaving sighs 
which would run up into the third notation he 
muttered : 

" I do wonder, now, if I have played the very 
devil with my chances by bringing Mark here. 
Well, I don't care; Mark's a good fellow; I like 
him, and if Elsie prefers him to me, let her have 
him. " 

With this sensible conclusion he fell asleep. 

Weeks rolled on. Mark Stevens evinced more 
pleasure in the society of the young ladies than 
with the gentlemen. He went on picnic excur- 
sions with them, while Dick and Alec were hunt- 
ing and fishing. There could be no question that 
Mark was a great favorite with the girls. Josie 
Stevens, Alec's sister w^as about the same age as 
the visiting ladies, none of whom exceeded seven- 
teen or eighteen. For awhile, Mark seemed an 
equal favorite of all, but at last, by law of instinct 
or mutual attraction, it became evident that Elsie 



54 UNION. 

and Mark were partial to each other. They were 
seen walking and talking together often, her blue 
eyes seemed brighter when with him, and her cheek 
glowed with a warmer tint when at his side. 

" Alec, if you don't watch, you will be cut 
out!" declared Josie to her brother. 

"Why?" 

" I saw Mark and Elsie talking very low last 
evening, as we came from the lake. They were 
walking behind us, some distance, and Clara says 
that she believes he squeezed her hand. " 

Alec sighed and then, like the generous fellow 
that he was, said : 

" I like Mark better than a brother, and he's 
worthy of her. If she prefers him to me, I have 
nothing to say, only God bless them." 

The winter passed and the time came for Mark to 
go to Virginia where he had some business to trans- 
act. On the night before his departure he and Elsie 
once more walked alone in the delightful orange 
grove. Her small hand rested gently on his arm, 
her beautiful face was upturned to his, half seri- 
ously half roguishly, but ravishingly beautiful. 
Their voices were low and tender. The heart of 
each was throbbing violently, and she finally said: 

" You are going away in the morning?" 

" Yes, Elsie ; but I hope to see you again before 
many months. " 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 55 

" Where are you going?" 

" To Harper's Ferry, Virginia." 

" I thought 3-our home was in Kentucky." 

"It is; but I am not going home: I am going 
to meet Mr. Smith at Harper's Ferry. I Jon't 
know the nature of the business. A friend has 
written me to meet Mr. Smith. That friend is an 
old college classmate, and I am going on his honor 
and judgment. But I shall see you again, Elsie." 

"Why?" she asked, sighing. 

" I must. Please say I ma}^ come to visit you 
at Charleston. I can say something to you there, 
which I cannot say here. " 

" Perhaps you had better not say it at all," and 
she glanced archly at him from the corners of her 
eyes. 

" We have passed many pleasant hours in each 
other's society, Elsie. Let us hope they will not 
be the last. " 

She hoped they might not, and then began prais- 
ing the beauty of Florida and talking of Ponce de 
Leon and his fountain of youth. He thought 
there was but one fountain of youth and that was 
in the honest love of a fond heart, which never 
grew old. She again warded off the subject by 
saying the gray hairs of a father or mother en- 
hanced their beauty, in the eyes of a loving child. 
Mark, all the while he was making or trying to 



56 UNION. 

make love to Elsie, felt that he was serving his 
cousin Alec a mean trick. His conscience smote 
him in more wa_ys than one. He wanted Elsie to 
know he loved her; he wanted to know whether 
he was loved in return ; yet he would have been 
horrified at the thought of a betrothal. 

Their interview that evening was unsatisfactory 
to either party. Alec took Mark to Jacksonville 
next day. The old college friends had for several 
days been a little cool toward each other; for Alec 
thought Mark had treated him badly. As they 
rode along the sandy thoroughfare, Alec said : 

" It was all right, Mark. I hoped you wouldn't 
take Elsie away from me; but you have; yet it is 
all right. She is a lovely girl. Southern, too. You 
are a handsome fellow, and I can't blame you for 
loving her. When is it to be, Mark?" 

Mark started, and answered: 

" Alec, we are not betrothed." 

" Not betrothed ! then what in the name of 
General Jackson were you doing so much courting 
for?" 

" I don't know, " he sighed, looking guilty. " I 
like Elsie, — I believe I do — but" — he hesitated. 
" Alec, I am miserable — if you knew my heart, you 
would pity me. I don't intend to be a villain — I 
don't want to; but circumstances seem driving me 
to crime, ruin and wretchedness. " 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 57 

Alec's eyes opened wide in wonder, and he gave 
his unfortunate relative a fixed stare, as if he 
feared he was losing his mind. He had never 
seen him until they met at Harvard, and after he 
left the college, almost three years before Mark's 
visit, he had not heard from him, until he received 
the letter in which he stated that his health was 
shattered and he was coming South to rest and 
recruit. Mark had always seemed to live in an 
atmosphere of mystery, that was sometimes puz- 
zling and aggravating to Alec, who was like an 
open page to be read by ever3"body. 

"Well, Mark, if she likes you I— I shan't 
blame you. We've been good friends, and I'd 
do anything for a friend, " said the noble Alec. 

" Thank you. Alec ; you are the best friend I ever 
had, and God forbid I should ever wrong you. I 
don't know that Miss Cole cares for me; but if 
she did not, — if she preferred you to me, I should 
not blame her. Alec, you are better than I." 

"Oh, nonsense! — a great harum-scarum good- 
for-nothing fellow like me better than you?" 

" Yes, you are. " 

"No; but let us change the subject. Mark, 
whdt are you going to Virginia for?" 

" I don't know. Mr. Sewall of Boston wrote 
me to call on Mr. Smith near Harper's Ferry and 
he would explain." 



58 UNION. 

" Mark, I'll bet it's an abolition scheme." 

Mark thought not, for the question of slavery 
seemed about to take a long rest. 

" But you used to declare in our debates at col- 
lege that slaverj' was a curse to our institutions, 
and that you wished there was not a slave in the 
United States. " 

" I did ; yet the abolition of slavery cannot be 
brought about suddenly, without violence. I 
would favor gradual emancipation. The abolition- 
ists want to obtain by violence, what cannot be 
obtained by law." 

"That's so, Mark; and I heard that there was 
a plot on foot to set all the niggers in the South 
free. To rouse the slaves to an insurrection and 
have them murder their masters." 

" Such a thing could not be accomplished. It 
would only result in the suffering of the slaves. 
Masters now lenient would become severe and dis- 
trustful." 

Jacksonville was reached and the cousins bade 
each other adieu, and Alec drove sadly away, 
while Mark stood on the veranda of the hotel gaz- 
ing after him. 

" Noble fellow !" he sighed. " Would to heaven 
I had such a heart! but I am either a fool or a 
knave. Ah, fate, fate, you have played me some 
scurvy tricks. " 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 59 

Mark retired early, for he expected to start on 
his northward journey early in the morning. We 
need not give an account of that journey, as it 
would prove uninteresting to the reader. He 
reached Harper's Ferry in due time, and at once 
began to inquire for Mr. Smith. 

"Mister Smith? dun know any sich a man, 
stranger," said an old Virginian in blue drillen 
trowsers and straw hat. " Maybe they kin tell ye 
at the post-office or over at Sheppard's store." 

At the former place, he learned that a stranger 
named Smith had just come into the neighborhood 
and hired a farm a few miles from Harper's Ferr3^ 
He was a queer old case everybody declared, and 
always had a suspicious gang about him. Yet 
they all seemed civil and polite. Mark resolved 
to call upon the mysterious farmer as soon as he 
could, and he set out next day for the home of 
Mr. Smith. It was late in the evening when he 
reached the house of the pretended farmer. 

The cloudless June day was almost done, and 
the farmer was resting from his toil, if he toiled 
at all. He was sitting on the broad piazza of an 
old-fashioned Virginia mansion. Mark advanced 
to the gate and the man rose. He was tall and 
rather ungainly looking. His beard was long 
and almost white; his eyes were restless and stern. 

" Are you Captain Smith?" Mark asked. 



60 UNION. 

"Yes, sir," was the answer, after a moment's 
hesitation. 

" I have a letter here which may explain itself 
to you." 

Mark gave him Sewall's letter, which he read 
carefully and then, glancing keenly at the young 
man, seemed to size him up, as a recruiting officer 
would a candidate for enlistment. 

" You are Mr. Mark Stevens, who graduated at 
Harvard?" 

"Yes, sir." 

" Are you willing to follow the commands of 
God Almighty?" 

Mark gazed at him as if he had met a lunatic. 
He was speechless with astonishment, while the 
old man went on. 

" Your fame has gone forth. We know you 
are on our side, young man, and there is a great 
work to do; let us do it. Don't you believe that 
one should do his duty?" 

" Certainly. " 

" Are you willing to die for your country and 
your principles?" 

" Yes. " 

" Give me your hand. Come in. " 

Mark was bewildered and mj^stified. He 
entered the old-fashioned Virginia house, where 
he met half a dozen white men who seemed to 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 61 

have no particular business, and with them fully 
as many negroes. There existed among the blacks 
and whites a certain degree of social equality quite 
disgusting to a man of Mark's taste. 

Captain Smith did not fully explain his business 
then. He was a shrewd man and moved with the 
utmost caution. He sounded Mark carefully as 
to his views on the question of slavery and found 
him strongly opposed to it, but at the same time 
he did not favor violation of law. fie was op- 
posed to anarchy or insurrection. If they had 
laws, observe them. 

" Well, you sav you want to go home to Ken- 
tucky. Go, and return here in the fall. I'll be 
ready to tell you all then. " 

" Mr. Smith, I can hardly understand what you 
want with me,'' said Mark. " This mystery is to 
me inexplicable. If you require any act of law- 
lessness from me, I assure you I will not take any 
hand in it. " 

Mr. Smith, or Captain Smith, as he called him- 
self, ansTi'ered: 

" I ask nothing of you save what will be ap- 
proved by God Almighty." 

" I must be the judge of what my God deems 
lawful." 

" Have you faith in the author of that letter?" 

"Yes."^ 



63 UNION. 

" Then believe in me." 

Mark went home, after having first promised 
Mr. Smith to keep secret their interview. Mark's 
health and spirits were fully restored. He kept 
up a correspondence with his southern friends 
Elsie, Clara, Jack and Alec, and promised on the 
next winter to return. 

In the fall of 1859, there was a brighter hope 
of peace than the country had known for years. 
The vehement discussion of the slavery question 
had somewhat subsided; there was a lull in the 
border war in Kansas; the Mormons were quiet; 
difficulties between the United States and Paraguay, 
in South America, had been settled ; troubles with 
Indians on the Pacific coast were drawing to a 
close, and the filibustering operations of Walker 
in Nicaragua were losing much of their interest. 
The summer had passed away like a peaceful 
dream, and such wholesome topics as the Pacific 
Railway, Homestead and Soldiers' pension bills, 
and other measures for the promotion of peace and 
national prosperity were engaging the attention of 
the people. The slavery agitators seemed to be 
quiet, and it was hoped the question might be at 
rest; but all the while ambitious if not unscrupu- 
lous men were at work fomenting discontent and 
using every effort to kindle civil war. 

It was late in October when Mark returned to 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 63 

Virginia, determined to have an end of the late 
mystery with Captain Smith. He found the phiin, 
unassuming, strange and incomprehensible old 
man at the farm house. He was told to wait until 
the morrow and he would outline his plans and 
business to him. On the morrow he led Mark to 
the forest above the bluff of Harper's Ferry and 
said : 

" Here we can talk alone and understand each 
other. Sit down on that stone, my friend." 
"When Mark was seated, he asked, " Do you be- 
lieve that slavery is against the law of God?" 

"I do." 

" I knew I was not mistaken. Slavery curses 
our land, and I feel that I am ordained by Heaven 
to free these toiling millions. First, I shall com- 
* meuce here!" and the speaker swept his hand over 
toward the valley below him. " I will liberate 
these first. " 

" How, Mr. Smith?" asked Mark. 

" Mark Stevens, it is time that we let the mask 
fall. Let us understand each other fully. You 
are a mystery to me and I to you. Call me, when 
alone. Brown, not Smith. I am John Brown, the 
hero of Ossawattomie, Kansas, of 1856. Have you 
never heard of that battle?" 

Of course Mark had, and he gazed in amazement 
at the man before him. Old John Brown was 



64 UNION. 

thoroughly hated or admired at the time of this 
story, and friends and foes both tended to give 
him a liberal advertisement. He had participated 
in the Kansas troubles and it is said by his enemies 
that he murdered and plundered. That he took 
human life cannot be denied, perhaps not for the 
sake of plunder, but from the extreme fanatical 
bent of his mind. Brown was a native of Connec- 
ticut, and at this time in the sixtieth year of his 
age. He espoused the cause of abolition very 
early in life, and was enthusiastic and brave. If 
history is to be believed, he was unscrupulous as 
to the methods by whicli he sought to gain his 
ends. He had been active in the midst of the 
troubles in Kansas, and had suffered much; and 
he believed himself to be the destined liberator of 
the slaves in the American Eej^ublic. 

" We have established Freedom in Kansas, and 
we can do it here, " he said, 

"How?" asked Mark. 

Then he explained that with a few white fol- 
lowers and twelve slaves from Missouri, he had 
gone into Canada West, and at Chatham a conven- 
tion of sympathizers was held in May, 1859, 
whereat a " provisional constitution and ordinances 
for the people of the United States" was adopted, 
" not," as the instrument declared, " for the over- 
throw of any government, but simply to amend 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 65 

and repeal. " This was, of course, a part of the 
scheme for promoting the uprising of the slaves 
for obtaining their freedom. 

Mark listened carefully to the wild plans of 
Brown, and when he had concluded asked: 

" How do YOU propose to succeed, Mr. Brown?" 

" The blacks will rise in a body and flock to my 
standard. Do you see that?" he asked pointing 
to the United States arsenal. 

"Yes." 

" We will seize that first, and arm every negro, 
and free Virginia. " 

Mark looked at him a moment incredulously 
and said: 

" Mr. Brown, you must be mad. Such a thing 
is impossible. " 

" All things are possible with God." 

" But God does not ordain any such work." 

For the first time in his acquaintance with John 
Brown, he saw his face flame with a passion. The 
old man's eyes gleamed from under his shaggy 
eyebrows, as he cried : 

"Does not God ordain me for this work? — I 
know it — I know it! I shall go down in history 
as the liberator of slaves. " 

" Mr. Brown, you are a mistaken man. Your 
faith will be shattered when you see how your 
plans fail. You do not understand the negroes as 



66 UNION. 

well as I. They will not flock to your standard. 
You people of the North count too much on the 
intelligence and patriotism of the black man. 
While I believe he should be free, while I believe 
his slavery is a curse to the land, yet I have no 
confidence in the negro's fidelity and intelligence. 
You forget that he is of an inferior race, and that 
his only enlightenment from barbarism has been in 
his slave state. It would take one hundred years 
of freedom to bring the negro to the point in per- 
fection you* now believe he has attained, even if 
he ever reaches it. You will hardly be able to 
muster a score to your side, when you strike a 
blow for freedom." 

" I am called of God " 

"No, no, Mr. Brown," interrupted Mark. 
" Again you are deluded. God does not call upon 
you to commit murder. Christ said to Peter, 
'Put up thy sword,' and He healed the ear of the 
high priest. To succeed, you would have to shed 
rivers of blood. Thousands of ignorant, half -sav- 
age negroes would be turned loose to murder and 
plunder their masters. I hope you will forbear so 
mad a project. " 

Pleading with a man of Brown's temperament 
was in vain. He had so long brooded over the 
subject of slavery that he saw but one vision, that 
of freedom of the negroes. He had only one idea. 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 67 

To him there was but one wrong, and to right that 
wrong any amount of wrongs might be committed. 
John Brown is a study for the impartial histo- 
rian. With those who lived in his day he was a 
saint or a devil, a man ordained of God to bring 
about the redemption of the black race from 
slavery, or a dark-hearted, ambitious murderer. 
The sooner the American people get over their 
prejudice on one hand, and foolish admiration of 
John Brown on the other, the sooner will they 
come to a just and true apprehension of the man. 
He was neither a saint nor was he a devil. He was 
more nearly a madman than either. John Brown's 
whole soul was wrapped up in the liberation of 
the slaves, his motive was good ; but his means 
were foolish and diabolical. He was no Christian; 
for he killed and incited others to do the same. 
He was no soldier ; for a good general would never 
have allowed himself to be caught in such a trap, 
as he was at Harper's Ferry. To tell the real 
truth, John Brown's act was a piece of stupendous 
folly, which must cause any fair-thinking man to 
smile. Just what he intended is a mystery. Be- 
fore his capture, while seizing Harper's Ferry, he 
declared his intention to " free the slaves. " After 
his capture, he stated that he never intended a 
general insurrection. John Brown violated the 
laws of Virginia by inciting the slaves to rise 



68 UNION. 

against their masters; he violated the laws of the 
nation in seizing United States arms ; he committed 
murder while resisting arrest; was tried, convicted 
and hung. When we come to look calmly at the 
cold facts in the light of reason, with eyes unprej- 
udiced and mind unbiased by the nonsensical sen- 
timentality of the abolitionist, John Brown de- 
served his fate, as much as the Chicago Anarchists, 
or any other failures at a revolution. That he 
was a martyr to the freedom of the negroes, there 
is cause for dispute, for it may be doubted if his 
death had anything to do with their freedom. 

While Brown was trying to convert Mark 
Stevens to his mode of thought and action, his 
son, John Brown Jr., was in Canada. His father 
had sent him there to enlist the active support of 
the better class of colored men who had escaped 
from bondage; in fact to recruit soldiers for their 
cause. He had been quite successful, and had 
just returned to their home in Ashtabula County, 
intending to rejoin his father near the scene of 
action, when the combat took place. It was the 
intention not to make the attack for some months ; 
but when Mark Stevens, on whose support Brown 
had calculated, refused to enter into his scheme, 
the liberator determined to strike at once. 

Mark Stevens was perplexed as to what he 
should do. Although born and raised in Ken- 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 69 

tuckj, and the son of a slave-holder, he had been 
an advocate of abolition. He was a strong ad- 
mirer of the new Republican party, which had 
freedom of mankind for its platform ; bnt he dared 
not enlist under the banner of this madman. He 
dared not raise his hand against the laws of his 
land to bring about a reform. 

" Two wrongs cannot make a right, " he thought. 
Besides the plan must fail. Brown's only hope of 
success was in a general uprising of the negroes, 
and Mark knew negro character too well to believe 
any concert of action on their part possible. Many 
loved their masters too well to slay them, even 
though they might desire their own freedom. 

Mark went to the house of Mr. Beverly near 
Harper's Ferry, a gentleman of strong common 
sense, who was cool, unprejudiced and capable of 
advising in such a matter. He reached his house 
Sunday, October 16, 1859. Brown and his spies 
had been watching him, and Mark was really in 
danger. Those men fresh from the battlefields of 
Kansas did not hold life in the highest esteem. 

He held a long consultation with Mr. Beverly 
as to what he should do in the premises. Mr. 
Beverly was a Republican, but a law-abiding citi- 
zen, and he could not favor such a scheme as John 
Brown's. 

" He must be arrested," said Mr. Beverly. " It 



70 UNION. 

will not do to permit so dangerous a, man to be at 
large. We will inform on him in the morning." 

But John Brown acted on that very night. One 
Ijy one, his followers had been stealthily congre- 
gating, and pikes, guns and ammunition gathered 
together for striking the first blow at Virginia and 
arming the slaves. The refusal of Mark to take 
part in the insurrection, and the fears that he 
might betray his plans caused him to act at once. 
Under cover of profound darkness. Brown, at the 
head of seventeen white men and five negroes, 
entered the village of Harper's Ferry on that fatal 
Sunday night, put out the street lights, and seized 
the armory and the railway bridge, and quietly 
arrested and imprisoned in the government build- 
ings the citizens found in the streets at the earliest 
hours of the next morning, each one being igno- 
rant of what had happened. The invaders seized 
Colonel Washington, living a few miles from 
Harper's Ferry; with his arms and horses, and 
liberated his slaves, and at eight o'clock on Mon- 
day morning, the 17th of October, Brown and his 
followers (among whom were two of his sons) had 
full possession of the village and government 
works. His action was as much an act of open 
rebellion as the attack and capture of Fort Sumter. 
When asked what his purpose was, and by what 
authority he acted, Brown replied: 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 71 

" To free the slaves, and by the authority of 
God Almighty. " 

He thought that when he struck this blow the 
negroes of the surrounding country would rise and 
flock to his standard. He believed that a general 
uprising of the slaves of the whole country would 
follow, and that he would win the satisfaction of 
being a great liberator. He was mistaken. While 
the martyr to their liberty was offering up his life 
and the lives of his sons at Harper's Ferry, a 
dozen miles away, the negroes were singing, play- 
ing the banjo and dancing, not caring a fig for 
Brown and his sentimental notions. 

Mark was sleeping soundly, when Mr. Beverly 
came to his room and cried: 

"Awake, Mark! for Heaven's sake, wake and 
fly for your life! Brown has already struck." 

Plurriedly dressing, Mark raised his window and 
looked down on the village not a fourth of a mile 
away, but all was utter darkness. Only the wild 
tumult of voices and deep, stern tones of John 
Brown in command told of danger. 

" The madman has done his work, " thought 
Mark, as he hurried away from the house, went to 
a farmer's, mounted a horse and riding to the 
nearest telegraph station, telegraphed the news all 
over the country. Governor Henry A. Wise, at 
once ordered out the militia, and by noon a com- 



72 UNION. 

pany of the State Guards was at Harper's Ferry. 
Mark returned to the town with the militia and 
from an eminence saw the puffing of smoke and 
heard the sharp crack of musketry. Brown and 
his forces were driven into the fire-engine house, 
where they defended themselves with great bravery. 

On Monday evening, Colonel Eobert E. Lee 
arrived at Harper's Ferry, Mnth ninety United 
States marines and two pieces of artillery. The 
instructions of President Buchanan were to use 
caution. The last orders from Secretary Floyd to 
Lee was to, " Give 'em h — 1, colonel." 

When Colonel Lee arrived on the scene, he 
found Brown with his band and the prisoners he 
had taken, in the engine-house. It was a small 
house inside the grounds of the arsenal, exactly 
like an ordinary fire-engine house in cities — with 
large folding -doors. The Virginia militia had 
been deliberating upon the best means of assault; 
but when Colonel Lee arrived he assumed com- 
mand, and the first step he took was to send Lieu- 
tenant J. E. B. Stuart forward to demand a sur- 
render. He accordingly walked into the enclosure, 
and approached the engine-house, waving a white 
handkerchief, and, when he got to the door, called 
out that he wished to see Captain Smith ; for up 
to this time but few knew that the insurrectionist 
was in reality John Brown of Kansas fame. At 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 



73 



Lieutenant Stuart's call, Brown came and opened 
one fold of the door a little way. Behind it was 
a heavy rope stretched across, better security than 
a bar, as it would yield if a 
battering ram of any sort were 
used, but would not give way. 

Brown had a gun in his 
hand, and below appeared the 
head of a big bull dog, which 
kept snarling at Stuart, and 
causing him to feel unpleas- 
antly. No sooner had the 
Lieutenant seen the insurgent, 
than he remembered him and 
asked : 

" You are Ossawattomie 
Brown of Kansas, are you 
not?" 

Old John Brown gazed at him keenly from 
under his grizzly, shaggy eyebrows, and coolly 
answered : 

" Well, they do call me that sometimes, Lieu- 
tenant. " 

" I thought I remembered meeting you in Kan- 
sas, " the lieutenant gravely said. " This is a bad 
business you are in. Captain. The United States 
troops have arrived and I am sent to demand your 
surrender. " 




John Brown. 



74 UNION. 

" Upon what terms?" he asked without display- 
ing the least sort of excitement. 

" The terms are that you must surrender to the 
officer commanding the troops, and he will protect 
you from the crowd, and guarantee you a fair trial. " 

Brown shaking his head answered: 

" I can't surrender on. such terms. You must 
allow me to leave this engine-house with my com- 
rades and the prisoners, and march across the river 
to the Maryland side: there I will release the 
prisoners, and, as soon as this is done, your troops 
may lire on and pursue us. " 

Lieutenant Stuart answered that he had no 
authority to agree to any such arrangement, and 
was ordered to demand his surrender on the terms 
first proposed. 

"Well, Lieutenant," Brown answered, coolly, 
" I see we can't agree. You have the numbers on 
me ; but you know we soldiers are not afraid of 
death. I would as lief die by a bullet as on the 
gallows. " 

"Is that your final answer, Captain?" asked 
the Lieutenant.* 

"Yes." 

Stuart turned sadly away and went back to 
Colonel Lee, saying they refused to surrender. 

* Historical account in Cooke's "Surry of Eagle's- Nest." 




"the united states TROOrS HAVE AlUtlVED, AND I AM SENT To DEMAND VOUR 
SURRENDER." 



SAINT OR DEVIL. 75 

" Take that ladder and batter down the door, " 
commanded Lee of the marines. As they ap- 
proached the door, Brown and his party opened 
fire and two or three fell. The fire was returned 
and for several moments the conflict raged. One 
of Brown's sons lay dead on the floor, another lay 
dying in his father's arms; yet with one hand he 
felt the pulse of his dying child, held his gun 
with the other and coolly issued his commands. 
The door was battered down and after a brief 
struggle the whole party was captured. 

Brown was tried for treason, convicted and hung 
on December 3d, 1859, and ever since his enthusi- 
astic admirers have sung: 

"John Brown's soul goes marching on." 



CHAPTER IV. 

CALHOUNISM. 

It is easy, after events have transpired, for 
would-be philosophers to see what means brought 
them about; but it requires a sage or prophet to 
penetrate into the future. The war of 1861 had 
its origin in the constitutional convention. Wash- 
ington and Hamilton foresaw the danger of State 
supremacy, when they urged a strong centralized 
power. A Union of sand was dangerous, and they 
knew it. Thomas Jefferson and his school, equally 
as patriotic as Washington and Hamilton, never- 
theless from their bitter experience with mon- 
archies and centralized power, advocated different 
principles in the doctrine of State supremacy. 
This doctrine, however, was first fully promulgated 
by John C. Calhoun and may be attributed to 
him. This pernicious doctrine gave warning of 
the evil fruits it was bearing long before it cul- 
minated in the tempest of carnage and blood. We 
can see its effects as early as 1812, when the New 
England States refused to obey the order of the 

76 



CALHOVNISM. 77 

general government for troops to defend the north- 
ern frontier; again m the revolt of South Carolina 
under Jackson's administration. Again and again 
the republic was warned of its danger, until the 
sages of the day predicted that State supremacy 
was a nice point of constitutional law which must 
be settled in the highest court, a resort to arms. 

The time for that appeal was coming. When 
James Buchanan was inaugurated the fifteenth 
president of the United States on the 4th of 
March,' 1857, and chose for his constitutional ad- 
visers, Louis Cass, secretary of state; Howell 
Cobb, secretary of the treasury; John B. Floyd, 
secretary of war; Isaac Toucey, secretary of the 
navy ; Jacob Thompson, secretary of the interior, 
Aaron V. Brown, postmaster-general, a new era 
in the history of our country dawned. It was the 
beginning of a great political and social revolution 
in the republic which entirely changed the indus- 
trial aspects in many of the States of the Union. 

It was during the administration of Mr. Buchan- 
an that the preliminary skirmishes, moral and 
physical, which immediately preceded the war, 
occurred. Both parties were then putting on their 
armor and preparing their weapons for the struggle. 
There were two wings of the democracy at this 
time. One leaning toward an anti-slavery policy, 
advocating gradual emancipation, and the other 



78 UNION. , 

declaring slavery a divine institution. The doc- 
trine of Calhounism was no doubt advocated 
merely as a convenience for the promulgation of 
slavery; but in the nomination of Mr. Buchanan 
the two branches of democracy harmonized. In 
their resolutions, put forth as a platform of prin- 
ciples, they approved the invasion and usurpation 
of Walker in Nicaragua, as efforts of the people of 
Central America " to regenerate that portion of the 
continent which covers the passage across the in- 
teroceanic isthmus." They also approved the 
doctrine of the " Ostend Manifesto," by resolving 
that " the Democratic party was in favor of the 
acquisition of Cuba. " 

One of the most vital preliminary skirmishes, 
though wholly of a moral nature, to the great civil 
war began just about the time of the accession of 
Mr. Buchanan to the presidency. 

This skirmish is known in history as the " Dred 
Scott decision." Dred Scott was a young negro 
owned by Dr. Emerson of the United States army, 
living in Missouri. When the doctor was ordered 
to Rock Island, Illinois, in 1834, he took Scott 
with him. There Major Taliaferro of the army 
had a female slave, and when the two masters were 
transferred to Fort Snelling (now in Minnesota) 
next year, the two slaves with the consent of their 
masters were married. They had two children 



CALHOUNISM. 79 

born in the free-labor Territory, and the mother 
was bought by Dr. Emerson in order to keep the 
family from being separated. He brought the 
parents and children to Missouri and sold them to 
a New Yorker. Scott sued for his freedom, on 
the plea of his involuntary residence in a free- 
labor State and Territory for several years, and the 
circuit court of St. Louis decided in his favor. 
The supreme court of Missouri reversed the deci- 
sion of the inferior court, and the case was carried 
by an appeal to the supreme court of the United 
States, presided over by Chief Justice Eoger B. 
Taney, a Maryland slave-holder. A majority of 
the court was composed of men in sympathy with 
slavery, and their decision, about to be given in 
1856, was, for prudential reasons, withheld until 
after the president's election. 

The chief justice who rendered the decision 
went out of the way to so firmly establish the in- 
cubus of slavery on the government, that nothing 
save arms could free it. He declared that any 
person " whose ancestors were imported into this 
country and held as slaves" had no right to sue in 
any court of the United States. The only ques- 
tion upon which the court could have legitimately 
decided was the question of jurisdiction; but the 
chief justice, with the sanction of a majority of 
the bench went outside to declare that the fraraers 



80 UNION. 

and supporters of the Declaration of Independence 
did not include the negro race in our country in 
the great proclamation that " all men are created 
equal;" that the patriots of the Revolution, and 
all their progenitors " for more than a century 
before," regarded the negroes as beings of an in- 
ferior race, and altogether unfit to associate with 
the white race either in social or political relations, 
and so far inferior that they had no rights which a 
white man was bound to respect, and that the 
negro might lawfull}^ be reduced to slavery for the 
white man's benefit. 

Chief Justice Taney then hurled a firebrand 
into the camp of friend or foe which kindled the 
destructive war that followed, by declaring that 
the Missouri Compromise Act and all other acts 
for the restriction of slavery were unconstitutional, 
and that neither congress nor local legislature had 
any authority for restricting the spread of the in- 
stitution all over the Union. Although a State 
or Territory might be supreme and independent of 
the general government in all other things, it had 
no power to settle the question of slavery accord- 
ing to the Dred Scott decision. 

There was civil war in Kansas in the earlier 
part of 185(). As is always the case, outrages too 
terrible to mention were committed by both parties. 
Lawlessness has ever hovered on the frontier and 



CALHOUNISM. 81 

under the mask of Free-State or Proslavery many 
depredations were committed. During 1856, the 
war in Kansas assumed an alarming aspect. The 
actual settlers of Kansas from free-labor States out- 
numbered the emigrants from elsewhere, and a 
regiment of young men from Georgia and South 
Carolina, under Colonel Bufford, fully armed went 
into the territory for the avowed purpose of mak- 
ing it a slave-labor State " at all hazards." They 
were joined by armed Missourians, and for several 
months spread terror over the land. They sacked 
the town of Lawrence, and murdered and plundered 
people in various places. Steamboats ascending 
the Missouri Elver with emigrants from free-labor 
States were stopped, and the passengers were fre- 
quently robbed of their money, and persons of the 
same class, crossing the State of Missouri, were 
arrested and turned back. Lawlessness reigned su- 
preme in all that region. Justice was bound, and 
there was general defiance of all mandates of right. 
The civil war in Kansas was more wasteful than 
bloody. It was more a war more for personal gain 
than principle. Eobbery and horse-stealing was 
practised more than military movements. Assas- 
sinations were common and conflicts few. Neither 
side did anything praiseworthy. John Brown, 
with twenty-eight emigrants, fought H. Clay Pate 
of Virginia with fifty-six armed men, on the 
6 



82 UNION. 

prairie at Ossawattomie. An early account of the 
fight reports Brown as defeated, and sa3^s he re- 
treated. It also gives the number of border ruf- 
fians or proslavery men at six hundred. Later 
histories say Brown gained a victory. It was very 
insignificant either way. The term border ruffian 
might be applied alike to the free -soil and pro- 
slavery men. Finally, John W. Geary, afterward 
a major-general and governor of Pennsylvania, 
who succeeded Shannon as chief magistrate of 
Kansas, by judicious administration of affairs 
there, smothered the flames of civil war, and both 
parties worked vigorously with moral forces for 
the admission of Kansas as a State of the Union, 
but with ends in view diametrically opposed. 
Though the war in Kansas never fully subsided 
until it was swallowed up by the great rebellion, 
there was a lull in hostilities after John Brown 
left the Territory, and human life became more 
safe. Most of the killing was done by assassina- 
tion. Men were called to their doors at night and 
shot down by unknown assassins. 

The fugitive -slave law now began to bear bitter 
fruit, and it soon became one of the most prolific 
causes of the continually increasing controversies 
between the upliolders and opposers of the slave- 
labor system. It was made more offensive by the 
evident intention of the friends of the institution 



CALHOUNISM. 83 

everywhere to nationalize slavery, and the perver- 
sion of the obvious meaning of the vital doctrine 
of the Declaration of Independence, by the judicial 
branch of the government, while the executive 
branch was ready to lend his tremendous power in 
giving practical effect to the system, which awak- 
ened in the breasts of the people of the free -labor 
States a burning desire to wipe the stain of human 
bondage from the escutcheon of the Republic. 
Seizures under the fugitive-slave law were becom- 
ing more and more frequent, with circumstances 
of increasing injustice and cruelty. The business 
of arresting and remanding to hopeless slavery, 
men, women and children, was carried on all over 
the free-labor States, and the people stood appalled. 
By that dreadful law, every man, under certain 
conditions, was compelled to become a slave hunt- 
er; and every kind-hearted woman, who might 
give a cup of cold water, or the shelter of a roof 
to a suffering negro, bleeding from intolerable 
bondage, incurred the penalty of felony. The 
law became a broad cover under which the kid- 
napping of free persons of color was extensively 
carried on, and scores of men, women and chil- 
dren, born free, were dragged from their homes 
and consigned to hopeless bondage. 

The abolitionists were not wholly blameless. 
They were constantly irritating the proslavery 



84 UNION. 

peoj^le and inciting their negroes to run away. 
Many a poor negro witii a good master was living 
comfortably and contentedly at home until the dis- 
turber came to put the idea of escape into his head. 
Then came flight and misery. There is no im- 
partial historian in America who has dealt with 
this subject. No historian will deal impartially 
with it for the next hundred years — if ever. The 
author confesses that his prejudices against the 
slave-holder mislead him to some extent, yet from 
personal observation he knows that only the worst 
examples of slavery were recorded in history. 
Those rare examples were made to represent the 
conditions of human beings in bondage. While 
they were rare exceptions of cruelty and degrada- 
tion, they showed to what ends the system might 
go. The abolitionists placed a barrier between 
master and man and often increased the severity of 
the former, and misery of the latter. 

On a cold day in January, 1856, two slaves, 
with their wives and four children, all thinly clad, 
escaped from Kentucky into Ohio. They crossed 
the frozen river to Cincinnati, closely pursued by 
the master of three of them on horseback. In 
Cincinnati, they were harbored by a colored man. 
Their retreat was discovered by the pursuing mas- 
ter, who repaired to the house with the United 
States marshal and his deputies, and demanded 



CALHOUNISM. 85 

their surrender. They refused ; and after a des- 
perate struggle, the door was broken open and the 
fugitives were secured. They had determined to 
die rather than to be taken back into shivery. 
The mother of the three children, in despair, tried 
first to kill her offspring and then herself. When 
she was seized, she had slain one of her children. 
A coroner's jury decided to hold the mother for 
murder under the laws of Ohio; but it was dis- 
covered that the fugitive-slave law had been made 
so absolute by the terms of its enactments and the 
opinion of the chief justice of the United States, 
that a State law could not interfere with it; so the 
mother and her surviving companions were taken 
back into slavery. 

We see by this construction of the fugitive- 
slave law and the Dred Scott decision, the incon- 
sistency of the enemies of the Union. On the one 
hand, they were States-rights men, strong be- 
lievers in State supremacy, when the working of 
that doctrine was to their own advantage; but 
wlieu the authority of a State was attempted to be 
exercised against a woman who had murdered her 
own child, the government was strong enough to 
take her across the river and restore her to her 
master. 

It was the ok] fable over again of whose ox was 
gored, 



86 UNION. 

Early in 1857, the public mind was for awhile 
diverted from the absorbing topic of slavery by 
trouble with the Mormons in Utah Territory. The 
Mormons incensed because their Territory was 
not admitted into the Union as a State, commenced 
revolutionary proceedings. Under the instruc- 
tions of Brigham Young, the successor of Joseph 
Smith, and their spiritual head and appointed 
governor, they destroyed the records of the United 
States Court in their district. They also resolved 
to set up an independent government, and looked 
to Young for all laws, in defiance of those of the 
United States. President Buchanan resolved to 
enforce the latter, and, depriving Young of the 
office of governor of the Territory, he put Colonel 
Alfred Cumming, a superintendent of Indian 
affairs on the upper Mississippi, in his place. Pie 
also ajDpointed Judge Eckles chief justice of the 
Territory, and sent twenty-five hundred armed 
men, with experienced officers to protect them in 
the discharge of their duties. Young at first de- 
termined to resist the national government. He 
issued a proclamation denouncing the army as a 
mob, forbidding it to enter the Territory, and call- 
ing the people of Utah to arms to repel its advance. 
When it entered the Territory early in Autumn, 
it was assailed by Mormon cavalry who destroyed 
several supply trains and seized eight hundied of 



CALHOUNISM. 87 

the oxen at the rear of the army. The little force, 
thus crippled, and caught among the snows in the 
mountains, went into winter quarters. Colonel A. 
Sidney Johnston was in command of them ; and 
Governor Gumming proclaimed the Territory of 
Utah to be in a state of rebellion. The spring of 
1858 howeyer, found the Mormons in a less bel- 
ligerent mood. The president offered to pardon 
all who should submit to national authority, and 
Brigham Young, evidently believing discretion a 
better part of valor, received the new governor 
courteousl}', but I'esolved to leave the country 
rather than submit to gentile rule. He changed 
his mind, however, and lived there until he died. 

The Republican part}^ had been rapidly acquir- 
ing strength. It was not an abolition party in the 
sense that is usually supposed ; that is, it was not 
the intent of the party, nor its leaders to forcibly 
free all the slaves in the South, though the Repub- 
lican party was in apogee to the burning crime of 
slavery. The great leaders of the party favored 
first checking the spread of the disease, and then 
gradually extinguishing it. Just how they would 
do so, the wisest among them could not determine; 
but they trusted to God to help them out of the 
difficulty. 

One thing is certain, — such grand men as Lin- 
coln and Sumner never desired bloodshed and war. 



88 UNION. 

That idea was inculcated by foolish fanatics like 
John Brown, the surviving members of whose 
family took scarcely any part in the war after it 
began. There was talk of purchasing the slaves 
at the expense of the government, of gradual 
emancipation and many theories proposed, none of 
which would suit the southern people, who, hug- 
ging to their l)reast the idea of divine right of 
slavery with the twin delusion of State supremacy, 
prepared to ruin themselves or their country. 

One author said : " It was the dream of the 
chiefs of the Great Rebellion to dissolve the Union 
and set up a great slave empire. " We hardly be- 
lieve that. The South was not fully organized 
when the time came, or between Lincoln's election 
and his inauguration they would have throttled the 
government. It might have been the dream of a 
few; but they must have been few indeed. 1860 
came, and, being a presidential year, the State- 
rights Democracy determined that they would 
nominate a man of their proclivities or divide the 
part}^ The history of the convention \vhich met 
in the South California Institute Hall, in Charles- 
ton, is interesting to tlie scholar, but has no place 
in a novel like this. Jefferson Davis was a prom- 
inent candidate of the State-rights Democracy, 
while Stephen A. Douglas, the Union Democrat, 
was the favorite of his class. The Democratic 



CALHOUNISM. 89 

convention, after adjourning to meet in Richmond, 
and again adjourning to meet in Baltimore, finally 
split, and one faction nominated Stephen A. 
Douglas, and the other faction John C. Breckin- 
ridge. A third faction, or party, called Constitu- 
tional Union Party, nominated John Bell. 

The Republican party nominated Mr. Abraham 
Lincoln for president, with Mr. Hannibal Hamlin 
for vice-president. The party could not have 
made a wiser choice for the head of its ticket. 
Lincoln was a man who came from among the 
people. He had drunk the cup of poverty to its 
bitter dregs. He had lived in a slave State where 
he knew the curse that slavery was to the poor 
whites. He knew the curse of slave-holding aris- 
tocracy. Neither Lincoln nor his party intended 
the freedom of the negroes. Their platform never 
hinted at it, and subsequent events prove that 
Lincoln was averse to the act. It was forced upon 
him in the third year of the war, when he was 
compelled to do so, first warning the States in re- 
bellion. 

Had the Democratic party not been divided, the 
Republicans would probably have been defeated, 
for although Lincoln received 180 electoral votes to 
84 for Breckinridge and 12 for Douglas, he did 
not receive one-half of the popular vote. Be that 
as it may, he was fairly and honorably elected, and 



90 



UNION. 



the loyal Democrats of the Stephen A. Douglas 
school resolved to support him, while the State- 
supremacv Democrats once more revived in full 

force the pernicious doc- 
trines of Calhoun, and 
were loud in their de- 
mands for disunion. 
The plans taken to force 
States out of the Union 
were contemptible. 
Wild, incendiary 
speeches were made 
everywhere, calculated 
to drive the people to 
the most desperate meas- 
ures. One orator named 
Yancey, of Alabama, 
during the canvass is re- 
ported as having said: 
" Organize commit- 
tees all over the cotton States; fire the southern 
heart; instruct the southern mind; give courage 
to each other ; and at the proper moment, by one 
organized, concreted action, precipitate the cotton. 
States into revolution." 

Calhounism, or State-supremacy was the rock 
on which dashed the ship of state, producing the 
war, all sages, statesmen and philosophers to the 




Abraham Lincoln. 



CALHOUNISM. 91 

contrary notwithstanding. The seed of secession 
sowed by Calhoun was independent of slavery. 
Slavery was only an excuse for testing the theor}^, 
and had it not been tested by slavery it would 
have been tried by a minority holding some other 
view. It was a question of unwritten constitu- 
tional law which had to be settled by blood. No 
court was high enough to appeal to for a decision, 
save the appeal to arms. A close student of our 
government will see at once that there was some 
excuse for the error. Like all qviestions it had 
two sides. We were on the side that prevailed. 
Our southern brother was on the side which failed, 
consequently we were right and he wrong. As 
historians we have been unduly harsh with our 
southern brother, though as soldiers we showed 
great magnanimit}' to him when conquered. Had 
there been no slavery to uphold by the South, 
perhaps they might never have put in force the 
dangerous doctrines of Calhoun. Had there been 
some local question in the North which affected 
that section as did slavery affect the South, who 
knows but that the North might have adopted the 
same theory and become the secessionists? 

Before the articles of confederation, Virginia 
was as independent of Massachusetts or any other 
colony, as is Mexico of Peru ; but the confederation 
of States united them for mutual protection, and 



93 UNION. 

then came the constitution, making the Union still 
stronger. Mr. Calhoun treated the union of States 
simply as a copartnership, from which an}^ member 
of the firm might withdraw at will. There is 
direct evidence to prove that the politicians of 
South Carolina and elsewhere had been making 
preparations for revolt for many years, and that 
the alleged violations of tlie fugitive-slave act and 
the election of Mr. Lincoln were only made pre- 
texts for stirring up the " common people" to sup- 
port and do the fighting for them. The testimony 
of the speakers in the convention at Charleston, 
that declared the secession of that State from the 
Union, was clear and explicit. 

"It is not an event of a da}^" declared Mr. 
Robert Barnwell Rhett, one of the most violent 
declaimers of his class; "it is not anything pro- 
duced by Mr. Lincoln's election, or by the non- 
execution of the fugitive slave law. It is a matter 
which has been gathering head for thirty years. 
In regard to the fugitive-slave law, I myself 
doubted its constitutionality, and doubted it on 
the floor of the senate when I was a member of 
that body. The States, acting in their sovereign 
capacity, should be responsible for the rendition 
of slaves. " 

Mr. Francis S. Parker, another member of the 
convention, declared: 



CALHOUNISM. 93 

" It is not a spasmodic effort tLat lias come sud- 
denly upon us; it has been gradually culminating 
for a long period of thirty years. " 

Had he added, ever since Mr. Calhoun began 
teaching and preaching his fallacious doctrines of 
State sovereignty, he would have been more correct. 

The South was now in a fever of the wildest ex- 
citement. There were many loyal men in the 
South who opposed secession until they were ab- 
solutely driven into it by the politicians and 
leaders. Long before secession was declared, there 
were secret orders and minute-men. There were 
midnight musters and enrolments. Arms were 
secured and every effort made for a terrible war. 

When the election of Mr. Lincoln was certified, 
the political leaders in South Carolina were eager 
to begin the contemplated revolution. To be pre- 
pared for immediate action, an extraordinary ses- 
sion of the legislature was assembled at Columbia 
on the 15th' of November; and as the news of the 
result of the election went over the land, the gov- 
ernor of the State received congratulatory dispatches 
from other commonwealths wherein the politicians 
were in sympathy with the secessionists. " North 
Carolina will secede," a dispatch from Raleigh 
said. " A large number of the Bell men have de- 
clared for secession; the State will undoubtedly 
secede, " said another from the capital of Alabama. 



94 UNION. 

Another from Milledgeville, Georgia, said, " The 
hour for action has come. This State is ready to 
assert her rights and independence. " 

The men sending those telegrams perhaps only 
gave their individual opinions, yet they claimed to 
bind the whole State by them. The South Caro- 
lina legislature was bent on separation from the 
Union; and on November 12, 1860, an act was 
passed authorizing a convention. The legislature 
also formulated the doctrine of " State sovereignty, " 
or State supremacy, in a resolution that declared 
that a " sovereign State" of the Union had a right 
to secede from it, adopting as its own the doctrine 
that the States of the Union are not subordinate 
to the national government; were not created by 
it, and do not belong to it; that they created the 
national government; from them it derives its 
powers; to them it is responsible, and when it 
abuses the trust reposed in it, they, as equal sov- 
ereigns, have a right to resume the powers respec- 
tively delegated to it by them. This is the sum 
and substance of the doctrine of State supremacy 
(" State rights, " as it was adroitly called) , which 
dwarfs patriotism to the narrow dimensions of a 
single State, denationalizes the American citizen, 
and opposes the fundamental principles upon which 
the founders of the republic securely built our 
noble superstructure of a free, powei-ful and sover- 



CALHOUNISM. 95 

eign commonwealth. It perverts the plain mean- 
ing of the preamble to the national constitution, 
which declared that the ^;eo/)/e (not the States) of 
the whole country had given vitality to that fun- 
damental law of the land, and to the nation. 
James Madison, one of the founders of the repub- 
lic, in a letter to Edmund Eandolph in April, 
1787, wrote: "I hold it for a fundamental point, 
that an individual independence of the States is 
utterly irreconcilable with the idea of aggregate 
sovereignty," and Washington wrote in a letter to 
John Jay, in March, 1787, on the subject of the 
national constitution, " A thirst for power and the 
bantling — I had liked to have said monster — sov- 
ereignty, which have taken such fast hold of the 
States individually, when joined by the many 
whose personal consequence in the line of State 
politics will, in a manner be annihilated, form a 
strong phalanx against it. " In the face of these 
sage remarks, Mr. Calhoun sowed the fatal seed, 
and now the harvest of woe, misery and death was 
ripening. Could all the poor boys in blue and 
gray rise from their tombs and confi'ont John C. 
Calhoun, they would point their skeleton fingers 
at him and sa}^ : 

" This is the result of Calhounism."' 



CHAPTER V. 

MRS. Anderson's recruit. 

Never did the ship of State so need a master at 
the helm as in the dark hours which marked the 
dose of Buchanan's administration. Oh, for a 
Washington, Jackson, or Jefferson to throttle the 
growing monster, rebellion, before it could gain 
dangerous proportions! 

Mr. Buchanan was ill fitted for the exalted 
place he held. Never did a man have a greater 
opportunity to immortalize himself than Buchan- 
an, but he failed to avail himself of the opportu- 
nity, and his name- is the insignia of weakness, 
while his memory is darkened with obloquy. We 
suspect that in after years, when the American 
people have had time to cool down, it will be 
found that we have done Mr. Buchanan an in- 
justice. He was a weak man, incapable of grasp- 
ing with great questions. He was a lawyer, and 
a- good lawyer too. In fact, Mr. Buchanan was 
too much of a lawyer to be a good practical states- 
man. He depended upon precedents, while " honest 

96 



MRS. AXDERSOXS RECRUIT. 97 

old Abe Lincoln" depended on common sense. 
While Mr. Buchanan was ransacking the law 
books and studying the constitution for some legal 
escape from the dilemma, the South was preparing 
and arming for battle. Had Mr. Buchanan been 
a farmer in youth, instead of a college student; 
had he been compelled to wrestle with the world 
for existence in early life, he would have realized 
that exigencies arise in the lives of nations as well 
as people, where common sense counts for more 
than law or precedent, and instead of burning mid- 
night oil to see if there were any way in the con- 
stitution whereby he might put an end to the 
trouble, he would have ordered an army into 
South Carolina, and nipped the rebellion in the 
bud, by arresting the ringleaders. 

Some accuse Mr. Buchanan of being a traitor 
to his country, but I would prefer to place a man- 
tle of charity about his shoulders, and call him 
"weak." Mr. Buchanan was a native of a free - 
labor State, and had never lived in a slave State; 
so he could hardly have been in sympathy with 
them ; but he was surrounded by traitors and spies. 
He trusted men who hourly betrayed him. John 
C. Floyd, his secretary of war, was prostituting his 
office to aid the enemies of his country. Howell 
Cobb, the secretary of the treasury, was endeavor- 
ing by every possible means to ruin the credit of 
7 



98 UNION. 

the government; yet in the beginning, lie trusted 
these men as his constitutional advisers. A weak 
man lil^e Buchanan could not do otherwise than 
he did. He was surrounded by public and secret 
foes of the nation, he lived in an atmosphere of 
secession and unconsciously breathed it. Many 
of his regular army officers, such as Pillow, Lee, 
and others, on whom he depended, were secretly 
conspiring to aid the State in rebellion. South 
Carolina, at a quarter before one o'clock, Decem- 
ber 20, 18()0, passed the following ordinance of 
secession : 

" We, the people of th.e State of South Carolina, 
in convention assembled, do declare and ordain, 
and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the 
ordinance adopted by us in convention, on the 23d 
day of May, in the 3'ear of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-eight, whereby the con- 
stitution of the United States was ratified, and 
also all acts and parts of acts of the general assem- 
bly of the State, ratifying amendments of the said 
constitution, are hereby repealed, and the union 
now subsisting between South Carolina and other 
States of America, is hereby dissolved." 

The cry at once went forth, " The Union is dis- 
solved!" It was echoed and re-echoed in the 
streets of Charleston, and hurried on the wings of 
lightning all over the republic. The people in 



3IRS. ANDERSON'S RECRUIT. 99 

Charleston were wild with excitement. All busi- 
ness was suspended and liuzzas for " Southern Con- 
federacy" filled the air. Women appeared in the 
streets with secession bonnets, the invention of a 
northern milliner in Charleston. Flags waved; 
church-bells pealed merrily, and cannon boomed ; 
and some enthusiastic young men went to the 
grave of John C. Calhoun, in St. Philip's church- 
yard and, forming a circle around it, made a sol- 
enm vow to devote their " lives, their fortunes, 
and their sacred honor, to the cause of South 
Carolina independence." A drunken rabble ran 
through the streets crying, " The old union is gone 
toh— 1." 

Before night, the ordinance of secession was en- 
grossed on a sheet of parchment; and at the ap- 
pointed time, in the evening, Institute Hall was 
crowded with eager spectators to witness the sign- 
ing of the instrument. Back of the president's 
chair was suspended a banner of cotton cloth, on 
which was painted a significant device. At the 
bottom was a mass of broken and discolored blocks 
of hewn stone, on each of which were the name 
and arms of a free-labor State. Kising from this 
mass were two columns made of perfect blocks of 
stone, each bearing the name and arms of a slave- 
labor State. The keystone of an arch that crowned 
the two columns had the name and arms of South 



100 UNION. 

Carolina upon it, and it bore tlie figure of Cal- 
houn. In the space between the columns was a 
palmetto tree, with a rattlesnake coiled around its 
trunk, and on a ribbon the words, " Southern 
Republic." Beneath all, in large letters, were the 
significant words, " Built from the ruins. ''^ 

As time went on, and other States either passed 
articles of secession, or sent South Carolina assur- 
ances that they would enter into a confederacy for 
the destruction of the Union, Charleston harbor 
became the theatre of stirring events. John B. 
Floyd, Buchanan's treacherous secretary of war, 
was secretly weakening the physical power of the 
government by stripping the arsenals of the North 
of their arms and ammunition, and strengthening 
the secessionists by filling the arsenals of the South 
with an abundance of weapons. He paid no at- 
tention to the words of General Winfield Scott, 
the chief of the arm}^, when, so early as the end 
of October, he observed signs of incipient insur- 
rection in South Carolina, and recommended the 
strengthening of the forts near Charleston. And 
when, at the close of the same month, Colonel 
Gardener, in command of the fortifications near 
that city, attempted to increase his supply of am- 
munition, Floyd removed him, and in November 
placed Major Eobert Anderson, a meritorious 
officer in the war with Mexico, in his place. That 



MRS. ANDERSON'S RECRUIT. 101 

loyal Kentuckian surprised and disappointed Floyd. 
Perceiving at once by various acts, the designs of 
the secessionists to seize the fortifications in the 
harbor, he urged his government to strengthen 
them with men and munitions of war, especially 
Fort Moultrie, in which there was but a feeble 
garrison ; but his constant yearnings were unheeded, 
even when he wrote: 

" The clouds are threatening, and the storm may 
burst at any moment. J need not say to you how 
anxious I am, indeed determined, so far as honor 
will permit, to avoid collision with the people of 
South Carolina. Nothing will, however, be better 
calculated to prevent bloodshed, than our being 
found in such an attitude that it would be madness 
and folly to attack us. " 

He continually urged the war department to 
give him more strength, and send him explicit in- 
structions; and when he found his warnings treated 
with contemptuous silence, he wrote: 

" Unless otherwise directed, I shall make future 
communications through the regular channel — the 
general-in-chief." Little did Major Anderson 
dream that he was addressing an enemy of his 
country. 

The secretary of war found Major Anderson too 
loj'al for his purpose ; but it was too late to displace 
him, so he left him to his own feeble resources, 



102 UNION. 

satisfied that the military companies then in proc- 
ess of organization in South Carolina would be 
able to seize the forts of Charleston harbor in good 
time. Moultrie was weak, and many of the little 
garrison in Sumter were known to be disloyal. 
The latter fort was by far the stronger and more 
important work; and as evidence hourly increased, 
especially after the passage of the ordinance of 
secession, that the South Carolinians intended to 
seize Fort Sumter, Anderson being commander 
of all the forts in the harbor, resolved to transfer 
the garrison of Fort Moultrie to Sumter. It was 
a delicate undertaking, for the secessionists had 
watch-boats out upon the waters. Of course he 
did not entrust his secret to the secretary of war, 
for Floyd was even then supplying the Confeder- 
ates with arms at the expense of the govern- 
ment. 

Only three or four of Major Anderson's most 
trusted officers were aware of his intentions. He 
resorted to a stratagem to get the women and chil- 
dren into Fort Sumter first. They were taken 
in a vessel, with ample provisions, to Fort Johnson 
on James Island, where, under pretext of difficulty 
in finding quarters for them, they were detained 
on board until evening. Three guns fired at Fort 
Moultrie were to be the signal for immediately 
consigning them to Fort Sumter. The move- 



MRS. ANDERSON'S RECRUIT. 103 

ment was regarded by the people of Charleston as 
a natural and prudent measure of Anderson, who, 
they knew, believed they were about to attack 
Fort Moultrie, and so all suspicion was allayed. 

The sun had set; an almost full-orbed moon 
was shining brightly, when the greater portion of 
the little garrison of Moultrie embarked for Sum- 
ter. The three guns were fired ; the women and 
children were quickly taken from before Fort 
Johnson to Sumter, and the movement was suc- 
cessful. Two or three officers remained at Fort 
Moultrie to spike the guns, and cut down the flag- 
staff, that no secession banner might float from the 
peak from which the national flag had so long 
fluttered. When the soldiers and their families, 
with many weeks' provisions, were safely within 
the granite walls of Fort Sumter, Major Anderson 
wrote to the secretary of war: 

" I have the honor to report that I have just 
completed, by the blessing of God, the removal to 
this fort, of all my garrison, except the surgeon, 
four North Carolina officers and seven men." 

Floyd had already received intelligence of the 
act by a telegram from the Confederates, and he 
was enraged that his plans to entrap Anderson had 
failed. Governor Pickens sent a boat to Sumter 
with a demand to Major Anderson to ev^acuate the 
fort and return to Moultrie. This he courteously, 



104 UNION. 

yet firmly refused to do, and he was denounced as 
a traitor to the South. 

Floyd sought to have Anderson removed ; but 
Buchanan refused to do so, and Floyd left the 
cabinet in a huff, and was succeeded by Joseph 
Holt, a loyal Kentuckian, who wrote to Major 
Anderson that his movement in transferring the 
garrison from Moultrie to Sumter, " was in every 
way admirable, alike for its humanity and patriot- 
ism, as for its soldiership." 

Major Anderson's cause was approved by loyal 
people everywhere, for they saw in it nothing but 
wisdom and patriotism ; but Major Anderson and 
his little band of soldiers, were in extreme peril 
from the hour when they entered Fort Sumter. 
His friends knew that he was exposed to treachery 
within and foes without, and all were anxious. 

Mark Stevens, one of the characters of this 
story, was an acquaintance of Major Anderson. 
His brother Arthur had served with Anderson in 
the Mexican war, and the strong friendship which 
sprang up between the two soldiers, was kept up 
after Arthur, the volunteer, was discharged. 

While Major Anderson was transferring his 
forces from one fort to another, and undergoing 
trials of patience and temper almost unendurable, 
Arthur was on his way by rail to New York city. 

He had taken a lively interest in the political 



3IRS. ANDERSON'S RECRUIT. 105 

situation. Mark had been in Charleston during the 
autumn and witnessed something of the excitement. 
He had heard the most inflammatory speeches 
of the " fire-eaters" with cabmiess; yet every word 
they uttered was sophistry and fallacy to him ; but 
Mark kept a close mouth, for he had many friends 
in Charleston. Elsie Cole was still the great ob- 
ject of attraction to him. He loved Elsie desper- 
ately, though no avowal had as yet passed his lips. 
Mark was a mystery to all who knew him. Alec, 
an unfavored suitor for Elsie's hand, often asked 
himself why Mark did not propose. He was sure 
all was clear sailing. 

Mark reached New York and, having transacted 
his business, was almost ready to go home, when 
one day, boarding the uptown stage, he saw sitting 
opposite him, a pale, small lady, whom he thought 
he had seen before. He noticed that her gaze was 
fixed upon him, and a half smile of recognition 
started two or three times upon her face, but faded 
away, as if in doubt. 

" Who the deuce is she?" he asked himself 
again and again. He tried to look out of the stage 
window on the busy throngs hurrying along Broad- 
way; but he found his glance again and again re- 
verting to the little pale lady. They had gone 
several blocks before he finally determined to 
know who she was. 



106 UNION. 

" I beg pardon," be said polite]}^, bowing to tbe 
unknown ; " it may seem rude in me ; but I have 
surely seen you before. Are 3'ou not from Ken- 
tucky?" 

" I am, and you are Mr. Stevens, are you not?" 
she asked. 

•" I am Mark Stevens. " 

" I thought you must be one of the boys, as I 
recognized a family resemljlance. " 

" May I make so bold as to ask your name?" 

" Anderson." 

" I knew Major Anderson; are j-ou his wife?" 

" Yes, sir. " 

Mark shook her hand, and she, recognizing in 
him a friend and acquaintance, made room for him 
at her side. They had attracted some attention 
from the people in the stage; but Mark paid no 
heed to the other passengers. 

" Mrs. Anderson, is your husband still in the 
South?" 

" Yes, sir; he is in Charleston." 

"Charleston? why, it is thought that the first 
blow will be struck in Charleston." 

" Yes ; I have great fears ; but, " she added in a 
low tone, " let us not talk here. It is too public. 
Will you come to my house? I want to consult 
with you." 

" Where do you live?" he asked. 



3IRS. ANDERSON'S RECRUIT. 107 

Slie hastily wrote lier address on a card and 
handed it to him. 

" When shall I call?" he asked. 

" Any time this evening. I need your counsel, 
and must talk with you. Be sure and come." 

He promised, and she motioned for him to pull 
the strap and stop the stage. Mark did so, and 
the brave little woman got out. He rode two 
blocks further, then alighted from the vehicle and 
went to a public house, where he ordered a meal. 
After supper he called on Mrs. Anderson. 

The little lady was pale but calm. She was an 
invalid and certainly the last person one would 
expect to engage in a hazardous enterprise. Mrs. 
Anderson was the daughter of General Clinch of 
Georgia, and a more devoted wife, or a more pa- 
triotic woman never lived. Mark found her sur- 
rounded by her children whom she was endeavoring 
to amuse. 

She warmly greeted the young man, and asked 
about his father and mother and the remainder of 
the family, especially his brother Arthur, who had 
married a Spanish lady. He told her that Arthur 
had gone to Mexico to live. His father-in daw, 
Senor Kodrigo Estevan, had died leaving a vast 
fortune to be divided between his son and daughter. 

" He has left in time to escape a terrible war, 
Mr. Stevens." 



108 UNION. 

" Do you think there will reall}^ be war?" 

"Undoubtedly!" 

" I hope not ; yet I am willing to do all I can 
for my country's cause, if it comes to blows," he 
said. 

" I want your assistance, Mr. Stevens." 

" You can have it in anytliing, Mrs. Anderson." 

" I have resolved to go to my husband." 

" And you want me to accompany you? I will 
do it," said Mark, as hope of meeting Elsie once 
more rose in his mind. There was an impassable 
barrier between him and Elsie, yet it was so 
pleasant to be with her, to gaze on her face and 
listen to the music of her voice, that he could not 
resist the temptation though it seemed a sin to 
think of her. To him that voice was the unfor- 
gotten music of some delightful dream recalled in 
after years. 

Mrs. Anderson dispelled his pleasant delusion 
by saying : 

" I did not send for you with that design, Mr. 
Stevens; but there is a man in this town who was 
a sergeant under my husband in Mexico. I want 
to find him." 

" What is his name?" 

" Peter Hart. He is brave, faithful and shrewd, 
perfectly devoted to my husband, and I want to 
take him to Major Anderson." 



MRS. ANDERSON'S RECRUIT. 109 

" Have you seen this Peter Hart since you came 
to the city?" 

" No, sir, nor have I communicated with him 
in any way; but to-day I incidentally learned that 
there was a man named Peter Hart on the police 
force. " 

" If that be true, it will be the easiest matter 
possible to find him. " 

" Yet you will have to exercise some caution, 
Mr. Stevens, for New York is not entirely free 
from traitors. If they should learn that I was 
preparing to visit ray husband, I would in all 
probability be prevented. " 

" Leave the matter of finding Peter Hart to me, 
Mrs. Anderson. I will manage it so carefully, 
that should it turn out to be some other Peter 
Hart than the one you want, he shall not suspect 
why I want him." 

Next day Mark went to the chief of police and 
inquired if there was a man on the force named 
Peter Hart. There was. Was he an Irishman? 
That was his nationality, the l)ald-headed clerk 
answered. Next Mark asked if he could see 
officer Hart. When he was off duty, he could, 
and he took the policeman's address and went to 
look him up as soon as he was at liberty. 

To his ring at the door of the small house, a 
stout Irish woman appeared. Was this the home 



110 UNION. 

of Mr. Hart? " To be sure it was. " Was he in? 
He was, the Hibernian female answered. Could 
Mark see him? "Indade," he could, and then 
she called, " Paythur, here's a gintleman as wants 
to see ye." 

Peter Hart appeared in the hall, and Mark ex- 
pressed a wish to ask him some questions, and the 
policeman, supposing that he had some grievance 
to lay before him, suggested that he had better go 
to the station. 

"But this concerns you personally, Peter," said 
Mark. " Do you know Major Eobert Ander- 
son?" 

" Do I know the major? why, sir, I know him 
as well as me own wife Maggie. I was his ser- 
geant when we fit the Mexicans. " 

" Then you are acquainted with his wife?" 

" Know her like a book." 

" She wants to see you, Peter, on some very 
important business. " 

" Faith, I'll go at once," Peter declared. 

That evening, accompanied by his wife, Peter 
Hart called on Mrs. Anderson. The meeting was 
very cordial and friendly. 

" I have sent for you, to ask you to do me a 
favor," said Mrs. Anderson. 

"Anything Mrs. Anderson wishes, I will do," 
was Hart's prompt reply. 



3IRS. AyDERSON'S RECRUIT. Ill 

" But it may be more tlian you imagine," added 
Mrs. Anderson. 

"Anything Mrs. Anderson wishes," the brave 
fellow declared. 

" I want you to go with me to Fort Sumter. " 

Peter looked at his wife a moment, and promptly 
responded: " I will go, madam." 

Then the earnest woman added : 

" But, Hart, I want you to stay with the major; 
you will have to leave your family and give up a 
good situation. " 

Again Hart looked at his wife and, receiving an 
assenting glance, replied: 

" I will go, madam !" 

Mrs. Anderson, not willing to take away the 
husband without his wife's consent, turned to Mrs. 
Hart and asked: 

" But, Maggie, what do you say?" 

" Indade, ma'am, an' it's Maggie's sorry she 
can't do as much for you as Paythur can," was 
the reply of the warm-hearted woman. 

" Then, Peter, be ready to start in twenty -four 
hours," said Mrs. Anderson. 

Mark interposed a mild remonstrance. 

" Mrs. Anderson, will you be strong enough?" 

" I must be strong enough." 

" Do 3^ou make this journey with the advice of 
your physicians?" 



113 UNION. 

"I do it against their advice," she declared; 
" but Robert is there peaned up in the fort. I 
must see him; he needs Peter Hart's aid, and he 
shall have it. " 

Mark Stevens decided to accompany them to 
Charleston, for he wished to see Elsie once more 
before the chasm between them widened into im- 
passibility. 

Twenty-four hours later, Mrs. Anderson, con- 
trary to the advice of her physicians, started by 
railwa}^ for Charleston, accompanied by Peter 
Hart in the capacity of a servant, and Mark Stevens 
as friend and protector. 

As the train thundered along the iron rails, 
Mark Stevens, who occupied the seat behind Mrs. 
Anderson, leaned his head against the cushion 
and, closing his eyes, tried to sleep; but strange 
fancies came into his head and drove slumber 
away.- Why was he making this journey ? In one 
sense it was a crime to even think of Elsie Cole. 
When he remembered his relative, the tender- 
hearted Alec, desperately in love with Elsie, and 
yet willing for his friend's sake to yield her to 
him, Mark thought himself the greatest villain on 
earth. He had played the traditional dog in the 
manger; but even with the knowledge of how he 
had wronged poor Alec, he seemed drawn by some 
irresistible force to further crimes for which he 



MRS. ANDERSOX'S RECRUIT. 113 

despised himself. This journey could only result 
in additional misery, yet he could not forego it. 

" No, no, " his weaker self seemed to plead with 
his better self, " let me go and bask in the sun- 
light of those bright blue eyes once more ; let me 
hear the music of that voice again ; let me dream 
just a little longer, then I will awake and shake off 
this guilty vision. It is so sweet to dream on, 
that I cannot awake just yet. " 

Self condemnation, the ruin to which he was 
rushing, the misery he was entailing, not only for 
himself but for the being who had for months been 
the bright vision of his fancy, could not drive the 
subject from his mind. Mark was selfish even 
against his own interests. For the pleasure of a few 
days he would endanger life, honor and happiness. 

It is ever thus. Pleasure is always deceptive, 
so alluring that one runs great risks to enjoy the 
present. Mark had always been a dreamer, and 
as he lay back in his seat, he seemed to mingle 
the present, past and the impenetrable future into 
one glorious picture the central figure of which 
was Elsie Cole. 

As the train thundered on, the sullen roar 
seemed a lullaby to Mark's waking senses. He 
slept; he dreamed. As usual, the vision of his 
dreams was a fairy-like creature. She seemed an 
angel hovering over him with the sweetest smiles. 



114 UNION. 

On either side of her were two dark clouds, on one 
of which was painted the past, on the other the 
future. She wore sweet, entrancing smiles and 
whispered peace to his soul. That dread, that 
long doubt of years was removed by a single 
whisper, and he clasped her in his arms. Impara- 
dised in a vision of glory, he seemed wafted from 
the world to happiness unknown to mortals on 
earth ; but such joys are always delusive. He 
awoke to find himself on the train, still thundering 
southward on a doubtful mission. 

According to authentic history, from Thursday 
night, the time of her departure, until Sunday 
morning, when she arrived at Fort Sumter, Mrs. 
Anderson neither ate, drank nor slept. When they 
reached the State of Virginia, her ears were con- 
stantly greeted with curses and threats of violence 
against her husband. 

" Old Bob Anderson at Sumter won't surren- 
der to General Beauregard," said one of the Vir- 
ginians, who had but just come aboard the train. 
"D — n him for a traitor! We'll hang him when 
we get him." 

" That we will," another declared. 

The pale little woman shuddered as these words 
fell on her ears; but she did not allow them to 
suspect that she was the wife of Major Anderson, 
whom they were maligning and slandering. 




"1 HAVK BROUGHT YOC PeTER HaRT, ' SUK SAID. 



116 UNION. 

" Anderson is a southern man," said one. " He 
was born in Kentucky and is, or has been a slave- 
holder. Why does he cling to the Union?" 

" Oh, it's some false notion of duty to the 
nation." 

" Well, that false notion of his may stretch his 
neck." 

She had difficulty at times to suppress her rising 
indignation ; but she controlled herself, and the 
train thundered on. She gained considerable in- 
formation which was valuable to her husband, for 
the Confedei'ates talked quite freel3^ Having 
reached Charleston, on Sunday morning, after 
some difficulty she procured permission to visit 
Fort Sumter with Peter Hart. As the little boat 
touched the wharf of the fortress near the sally- 
port, and the name of Mrs. Anderson was announced 
to the sentry, the major, informed of her presence, 
rushed out and clasped her in his arms with the 
exclamation in a vehement whisper, intended for 
her ears only : 

" My glorious wife!" 

"I have brought you Peter Hart," she said.. 
" The children are well ; I return to-night. " 

She then partook of some refreshments, and 
after resting a few hours, returned to New York, 
wliere she was for a long time threatened with 
brain fever, the result of excitement and her long, 



MRS. ANDERSON'S RECRUIT. 117 

toilsome journey. This. devoted wife and patriotic 
little woman, had given her husband a most faith- 
ful friend and assistant under all circumstances, in 
the fort, during the three months of severe trial 
that ensued. She had done what the government 
would not or could not do, — not sent but taken a 
most valuable reinforcement to Fort Sumter. A 
recruit, as history shows, that saved the fort from 
burning two or three times during the siege. 



CHAPTER VI. 

MARK AND ELSIE. 

The suburban home of Mr. Henry Cole, father 
of Elsie, was a neat cottage of the familiar south- 
ern type, which nestled near the bosom of a grove 
of sweet gum and pine trees, in a little village 
about three miles from Charleston. In the grove 
sang a mocking-bird family. Around the house 
were a few acres of ground, which were carefully 
cultivated. In one corner grazed a group of beau- 
tiful Minerva-eyed Jerseys. At one side of the 
house, hives of bees were placed near a flower gar- 
den, sloping down to the street, which passed in 
front of the house several rods distant. At the 
foot of the hill was a bubbling spring, whose 
sparkling waters supplied the needs of the house- 
hold. A superb English mastiff eyed with digni- 
fied glance the casual visitor, whose coming was 
apt to be announced by the bark of two of the 
finest dogs in the country ; one a Newfoundland, 
and the other a white English bull-terrier. The 
interior of the cottage was simple and unassuming. 
118 



MARK AND ELSIE. 119 

Bric-a-brac and trumpery " articles of bigotry and 
virtue" were wanting. The places tbey usually 
occupy were taken up with wide windows and 
generous hearths. There was a library of choice 
books in the house, for Mr. Cole was not only one 
of the leading lawyers of Charleston, but a man of 
considerable literary attainments ; but this summer 
cottage, as he called it, was neither a library, a 
museum, nor an art gallery, but a delightful home. 
He had two sons and a daughter. One son was 
an oflicer in the army; one had graduated in the 
naval academy and was in England on business; 
while his daughter, the peerless Elsie, was at 
home. She was the idol of her parents, and, had 
she not possessed remarkably good sense, would 
have been spoiled. Mr. Cole was wealthy and in- 
fluential. He not only enjoyed a very lucrative 
practice, but owned half a dozen cotton and rice 
plantations and several hundred slaves. In 1860 
and 1861, no man in South Carolina was better 
or more favorably known than Henry Cole. He 
had served several terms in the State Legislature, 
and had been " talked of for congress. " While Mr. 
Cole was decidedly Southern in sentiment, he 
lacked that peculiar " fire-eating," reckless speech, 
necessary to make him popular. He was conser- 
vative in his views, and when it came to the dis- 
cussion of questions of secession, he counselled 



120 UNION. 

moderation. In a speech shortly after Lincoln's 
election he said: 

" My heart is with South Carolina, for her des- 
tiny is mine. On her soil I was born, in her ter- 
ritory I found my wife, in Charleston my children 
were born, and I love my dear native State next 
to my God and family. As to slavery, an institu- 
tion tolerated since the Christian era began, I be- 
lieve it must be right. As for the negro, I know 
his condition in slavery is better than when free. 
Give him his freedom, and he becomes a worthless, 
drunken vagabond. The northern people envy 
our wealth and prosperity, which they see consists 
in slaves, and they have worked up their sympa- 
thies for the downtrodden African race, until they 
believe they have a religious cause at stake. Some 
may be sincere; but the masses are instigated by 
envy. Nevertheless, felhnv citizens, they dare 
not touch a slave. They have elected Mr. Lincoln 
president" — at this some one in the audience cried, 
"Yes, by fraud" — ^" T am not sure it was as 
much Republican fraud as Democratic foil}-. Had 
we not become divided, the Republican party 
would have dwindled away, the craze have blown 
over, and, like the Know-Nothings, the Whigs 
and Federalists, the Republicans would have 
quietly passed out of existence. But Mr. Lin- 
coln has been elected; let us give him a chance. 



MARK A^D ELSIE. 121 

Let him take his seat. If he breaks the constitu- 
tion, or abrogates the decisions of the supreme 
court, then we can easily impeach him. 

" If South Carolina does secede, I will go with 
her : but I warn you that only war and misery can 
follow such an act. We have a powerful North 
with unbounded resources, and the South must be 
the battle-ground. They can grow up and import 
soldiers faster than we can kill them. This fair 
city, these lovely plantations, and our beautiful 
homes will be ruins ere the war is over; and the 
chances are that humiliation, defeat and the loss 
of every slave will be the result. " 

Mr. Cole's remarks were greeted with hisses 
and groans. No sooner had he quit the stand, 
than a fiery South Carolinian mounted it and be- 
gan in an eloquent wa}' to "' show up" the fallacy and 
sophistry of his remarks. lie asserted that if they 
lay supinely on their backs until Lincoln was 
seated, and had their hands tied, they would be 
powerless. Let Lincoln once get in control, and 
the}' would find an armed host in the South, and tlie 
abolition of slavery declared. Better be cautious 
and, as Patrick Henry of old said, resist while they 
could. The doctrines of the immortal Calhoun had 
established the proof of State-supremacy and he 
who was not with South Carolina was against her. 
He who was against South Carolina was a traitor. 



122 UNION. 

Mr. Cole was an even-tempered man, and did not 
become angry at the tirade. He was as lo3'al as 
the speaker before him ; but he foresaw what the 
inevitable result would be, if war should follow. 

But as time went on, and as the southern States, 
one by one went out, and formed the Southern 
Confederacy, he became an enthusiastic supporter 
of the new republic, and was chosen colonel of one 
of the provisional regiments which had been organ- 
ized. He displayed as much military genius as he 
hatl legal ability, and his regiment was thoroughly 
equipped and well drilled long before the shot was 
fired on Fort Sumter, and when General Beaure- 
gard came to Charleston as commander of the Con- 
federate armies, he was among the first to apply 
for an assignment. 

The war was still brewing. Since the 9th of 
January, 1861, when Major Stevens, in command 
of a Confederate battery on Morris Island, fired on 
the Star of the TFes^ sent with supj^lies for Fort 
Sumter, and drove her from the harbor, all had 
been comparatively at peace, though drilling and 
mustering was constantly going on, and all prepa- 
rations were being made for war. 

It was near the close of day, in the first w^eek 
of April, which in that semi-tropical land was like 
summer, that pretty Elsie Cole stood at the gate 
gazing down the broad street, which, after leaving 



MARK AND ELSIE. 123 

the village, gradually became a country turnpike. 
The excitement in the city was so great, that Colo- 
nel Cole had removed his family to this quiet 
nook, where they might for awhile be free from 
the shock of war. 

Merry, light-hearted Elsie had little thought of 
the coming storm. She was like a sunbeam, dis- 
pelling gloom wherever she went. Some who 
were intimate with Elsie thought she had never 
known a sorrow, or that no cloud had ever passed 
over her sky; yet there were times when she was 
sad, and sighed as if there had been a dark period 
somewhere in her life. Those melancholy mo- 
ments came when she was alone. On this CA^ening 
her face had lost some of its sunlight. Was it 
because her brothers were away, or that her father 
was in danger? 

She had a rose in her hair, and as she stood 
leaning against the gate post which was overgrown 
with creeping vines, she looked the very picture 
of loveliness. 

A carriage driven at a brisk pace came down 
the quiet street. The clattering of hoofs and roll 
of wheels first attracted her attention, and, glanc- 
ing up, she discovered that the negro coachman 
was driving toward the gate. Her large blue eyes 
grew round with wonder as the door was thrown 
open, and a young man leaped from the vehicle. 



124 UNION. 

"Elsie!" he cried. 

" Mr. Stevens! where did you come from?' 

For a moment it would have been difficult to 
tell whether she was more astonished than de- 
lighted at the appearance of the stranger. In the 
dimming light of the departing day, her face 
flushed to the hue of the rose in her hair. 

" I came from the North," Mark answered. 

"From the North, and dare come here?" and 
she tried to assume a haughty expression, but 
failed. 

"Yes, Elsie; I must come and see you once 
more, before " 

" Before the war begins?" 

" Yes; for it now seems inevitable." 

" Have you come to the South to join the noble 
race of Stevens who have sworn to die for their 
country? It was like a Stevens for you to do so. 
Your name can claim the honor of firing the first 
gun of the war. It was Major Stevens, a relative 
of yours, who fired the first shot at the Siar of (he 
West.'' 

" I do not wish to discuss the war," said Mark. 
" Let us forget the past and cease to speculate on 
the future. The present is too glorious to think 
of either, Elsie. To be with you, to hear your 
voice, to gaze into your eyes is a joy which I 
would not have alloyed by dread for the future. " 



MARK AND ELSIE. 125 

"Don't be sentimental, Mr. Stevens," said 
Elsie, as they walked toward the vine-clad cottage. 

" Then let us talk of other matters. Where is 
your cousin Dick?" 

" He is in England. " 

"When did he sail?" 

" A few weeks ago. " 

" I suppose he will return soon?" 

" I don't know." 

"And Clara?" 

" Didn't you see her in Charleston?" 

" No. " 

" Surely 3-ou did not stop long." 

" Only long enough to change, and hire a coach 
to bring me here. " 

" She is in Charleston and would have been 
glad to see you." 

There was a beautiful vine-clad veranda in front 
of the house, with a rustic seat on which she asked 
him to be seated. The twibght hours flew bv as 
silent and free as birds on the wing. The sable 
cloak of night pinned with millions of glittering 
stars, had already been flung over the earth, and 
the disk of the rising moon began to appear over 
the distant city. Tliere is a charm in a southern 
night, with all its voluptuousness, that seems to 
enchant one. Those who have experienced an 
evening in South Carolina never forget it. The 



126 UNION. 

balmy breezes, the soft southern skies and the 
voluptuous foliage all bespeak richness, splendor 
and generosity. But the South is not now what it 
was before the war. Almost thirty 3^ears have 
not sufficed to restore the ravages and devastation 
of four years. 

"Did you come from Kentucky?" Elsie asked, 
plucking a ffower. 

" No, not direct. I came from New York." 

" I read in the paper this morning that Major 
Anderson's wife had come. I hojie she will per- 
suade him into surrendering." 

"Why?" 

" Because it will save bloodshed. " 

" Do 3'ou believe Beauregard will fire on 
Sumter?" 

" As sure as the world moves. The people 
don't like the actions of Anderson. His remov- 
ing his troops from Fort Moultrie into Fort Sumter 
is regarded as an act of open hostility. " 

" But was it not prudent?" 

"If he expects to resist, it was: but he sliould 
surrender and save bloodshed. " 

Mark had it on his lips to answer that it was his 
duty as a soldier to defend his fort as long as he 
could; but he refrained from saying anything. 
He could not find it in his heart to quarrel with 
Elsie, no matter how much they might differ. 



MARK AND ELSIE. 121 

After several moments' silence and deliberation, he 
said : 

" Elsie, I have come to i)ay a short visit to my 
friends in Charleston, more to you than to any 
other. I will not discuss the present political 
trouble. Friendship is dearer than all, Elsie, and 
though persons may differ it is no reason they 
should quarrel. I leave soon, perhaps never to 
return. We may never meet again on earth; let 
our last meeting be pleasant." 

She assented, and both being sensible agreed to 
refrain from discussing the situation at all. Mark 
remained until late. Colonel Cole came home be- 
fore he left and shook the hand of the young Ken- 
tuckian warmly. He wore the uniform of his 
rank; but there was nothing offensively partisan 
in his conversation. He talked of the coming 
trouble as a matter of news, and seemed to regard 
it more as a calamity than a blessing to the South. 

Mark met Mrs. Cole, a mild, sweet woman of 
forty-five or fifty, whose cheek was furrowed with 
care, and whose hair was becoming streaked with 
gray. Both father and mother joined Elsie in 
extending a warm invitation to the young man to 
return every day during his stay. He accepted 
gladly. In fact, had they forbidden his coming, he 
could not have refrained from doing so. 

Next day he was standing on the [)iazza of the 



128 UNION. 

city hotel, when his attention was drawn to a fresh 
arrival, consisting of a spruce rockaway carriage 
drawn by a fine pair of spirited horses, which were 
driven by a self-possessed, good-looking young 
gentleman. As he drew up at the door, the clerk, 
bar-tender, porter, hostler, and " boots" were at 
the side of his carriage in a jiffy, obsequiously 
assisting the young man to alight and bring in his 
baggage. Giving these worthies a cool survey, as 
if he would judge by their appearance whether the 
remainder of the establishment occupied a satis- 
factory standard of respectability, he threw the 
reins to the colored hostler and sprang to the 
ground. Casting a rapid glance at his baggage to 
see that all was right, he turned upon his heel and 
for the first time saw Mark. Fixing his eyes upon 
him for a moment, he made a rush at him, and, 
grasping his hand with a vigor that recalled to 
Mark's mind all he had ever read of the thumb 
screws of the inquisition, he cried: 

" How are you, my dear fellow? What? don't 
know me ! Well, that's a good joke, as sure as you 
are my old friend and cousin Mark Stevens, whom 
I have roomed with, ate with and fought with for 
a whole year and a half at Harvard. Why, you 
precious old muff! Oho! you do remember me, 
do you?" 

Mark recotiiiized him at ouce, when he heard 



MARK AND ELSIE. 129 

his voice. It was his chum at school, Alexander 
Stevens, his cousin and rival. 

Though a few months had made quite a change, 
yet he could now recognize in the newly polished 
individual before him the harum-scarum, devil- 
may-care boy of school days. Before he had time 
to mumble out his surprise. Alec in his roistering 
way continued: 

" But come in, come in ! I must get the dust 
out of my oesophagus, my throat, gullet, or what- 
ever you have a mind to call it. Ah!" said he as 
his eye caught the glitter of the contents of the 
bar, " 'is this a dagger which I see before me, the 
handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch 
thee' — what'll you have, mon cher? As for me, 
give me brandy in the virgin state, I thank you. 
Water is very good for navigable purposes, some 
one says, but for a constant beverage give me 
pony brandy. Come, name the nectar. Under 
what disguise will you imbibe a modicum of the 
invisible spirit of wine? If you are not familiar 
with its nomenclature, call it a cocktail, hey!" 

Mark, who had had hardly time to get in a word 
edgeways until now, managed to say that his 
habits, religion and constitution all combined 
would not permit his taking anything stronger 
than lemonade. Alec made a wry face and, shiv- 
ering, declared that Mark had surel}- become 
9 



130 UNION. 

■wholly Yankeefied in the last few months ; but 
nevertheless he declared that he was willing to 
allow his friend to indulge his whim to its utmost 
on this their first meeting. 

Who does not feel his heart leap with joy in 
meeting such a friend and relative as Alec Stevens? 
War, storm, and disaster, even rivalry in love 
made no difference with him. He was still the 
rattle-headed chatterbox, possessed of a gift of 
word and an endless flow of language, that would 
run Webster's unabridged dictionary to the very 
last syllable every day in the year if enough listen- 
ers could be obtained. It seemed almost impossi- 
ble for him to desist, when he had fairly com- 
menced talking, and should he be fortunate enough 
to get a fellow cornered for a long evening, he 
would inundate him with conversation and be in 
his most delightful element. 

His happiness at this meeting was fully recipro- 
cated by Mark. He shook hands with him half 
a dozen times within twenty minutes, and then 
they could be content with doing nothing less than 
joining arms as they walked the piazza, reviewing 
the cherished reminiscences of their first acquaint- 
ance. He insisted so stoutly on Mark's taking 
dinner with him, that he was forced to do so. 

" You see, my boy, I have a great deal to sa}' 
to you and a very limited time to say it in, as the 



3IARK AND ELSIE. 131 

fiat lias gone forth that I depart from tliis burg in 
the morning at precisely ten A.M. There sounds 
the loud hewgag. Let us grub. I am as fero- 
cious as a vulture, and if there is any thing in this 
world I like when I am hungry, it is victuals and 
drink. Come " 

At the stroke of the gong, they joined in the 
general rush for the dining-room door, and by dint 
of good generalship secured seats in the vicinity of 
the most tempting viands, where, after they became 
firmly settled. Alec continued his conversation. 

" It is barely possible you may have some curi- 
osity to know why I am in Charleston, and it is 
also quite possible that you may guess," remarked 
Alec, as he proceeded to make use of the best of 
the viands placed before him. " You might guess 
that I was an ofiicer recruiting for the southern 
army, or on some secret mission from Jefi^ Davis. " 

" Aha!" grunted Mark, his mouth full of beef- 
steak. 

" But I am not. Then again you might think 
that I am here on a certain love affair in which I 
am so unfortunate, and somebody else is so suc- 
cessful " 

" Ahem ! pass the biscuit, please. " 

" But I am not, " answered Alec, as he passed 
the plate of biscuit to his friend. " I have de- 
generated into a negro hunter. " 



132 UNION. 

" Why, Alec, I thought you were opposed to 
the traffic." 

" Well, on general principles I am ; but Aunt 
Aggy is old and weak. She is not long for this 
world. Father has bought her children one by 
one in order to have them near the poor old 
thing; but one boy named Eph for a long time 
disappeared. He had been sold to a rice planter, 
and we did not know where he was, until by acci- 
dent we learned that Eph was near Charleston. 
Father, with his great heart overflowing with sym- 
pathy, resolved to send his wayward boy with 
sufficient of the filthy lucre to purchase Eph, and 
take him home wliere he might make glad the 
kind heart of his mother." 

" Your mission is a noble one. Alec, " said 
Mark. " But won't you stojD on your return?" 

" Why, Mark, do you want me to?" 

" Of course I do. " 

" You know you and I are so unfortunate as to 
both love the same girl " 

" Don't allow that to interfere with our friend- 
ship. " 

" It shall not, my good fellow, so far as I am 
concerned. Win Elsie, and I wish you much jo}^, 
and hope you won't forget me when it comes to 
naming babies. Again, I more than suspect that 
this big rumpus which is coming on will find us 



:\IARK AXD ELSIE. 133 

holding different opinions. It won't affect my 
friendship. Nothing wilL" 

"Alec," said Marie, grasping his friend's hand, 
" you are a noble-hearted fellow and ten times 
more of a man than I!" 

"Hush, hush! There is no need of that. I 
am only a wild, rattle-brained fellow; but I like 
you, Mark; I can't help it. You always have 
been a little mysterious to me; but all the same I 
like you. If you really wish me to stop on my 
way back I will do so; but, Mark, you never 
loved Elsie more than I. I may be wrong, for 
she loves you; but I can't help it, though it 
makes me feel like a fool." 

" I want you to stop, Alec, and stay as long as 
I do. I am going away, and I feel that we will 
not meet again soon." 

Alec declared he would stop, hoped Mark would 
not grow sentimental, and promised if he could 
help it, not to interfere with him and Elsie. 

" But, Mark, I want to warn you to go in, or I 
shall not wait always. Win that girl, you can — I 
may never do it; but as sure as you leave Charles- 
ton without having popped the question, I will 
lay siege. Now I have been fair with you, and 
given you a clear road for a long time. If you 
don't take advantage of it, don't blame me." 

"I won't." 



134 UNION. 

Mark was miserable that night and almost 
wished he was dead. While unable to win Elsie 
himself, he was standing between the best man in 
the world, and the truest woman. But for him, 
she might love Alec, and to him, she was lost. 

Next morning, Mark called on his friend after 
breakfast. 

"Aha!" cried Alec in a loud, cheery voice. 
"Good morning, old chap! how d'ye feel this 
morning? Let's go and get a cigar." 

They adjourned to a cigar store, in front of 
which was a wooden Indian, to procure a weed. 
The man behind the short, dingy counter passed a 
box out to them, and Alec, taking one, said: 

" Here's a light. Those cigars cost about 
twenty-five cents a hundred, and were made in 
Pennsylvania, or I am no judge. What a hum- 
bug ! Real Havana ! They have the poorest 
cigars in Charleston imaginable. Now, this roll 
of leaves, for instance, is more of cabbage, and 
less of nicotina., than is desirable. I am exceed- 
ingly fond of savory cauliflower, broccoli colewart 
h-aut-salaat, and other plants of the genus Bras- 
sica, but then I don't like them put up this way, 
by any manner of means. " 

" When do you start. Alec?" 

" Within an hour and sixty minutes, my cher- 
ished friend and cousin, and now, by the way, as 



MARK AND ELSIE. 135 

I have half a dozen letters to post and wish to get 
twice as many, let us go to the post office. The 
carrier does not know me well enough to bring the 
mail to me." 

Sauntering leisurely along the sunn}" side of the 
street, they came to the post office, and Alec 
called out his name. One was handed out b}- the 
putty-faced individual who presided within. 

"If this isn't provoking!" said Alec. "Only 
one solitary epistle, when I expected a dozen at 
least. If they can't keep a better and fuller 
assortment of this kind of literature on hand, I've 
a mind to lease a room across the street and start 
an opposition post office, where I will supply nice 
printed letters in any quantity at two cents apiece. " 

The individual who glanced lightning at Alec 
through the orifice made no response. Alec re- 
marked that the envelope was a dainty, perfumed 
affair, and the writing in a neat, feminine hand. 
Opening it, he cried: 

" Hello, what is this? How did she know I 
was here! Why, Mark, here's an invitation to a 
ball at the home of Major Stevens, my uncle, on 
the evening of the eleventh, given in honor of the 
nineteenth birthday of cousin Clara. Look here, 
Mark, I'll bet my head for a football, there is one 
for you. Ask that hatchet-faced Lord Bj'ron, if 
he can't treat you as well as me." 



136 rxioN. 

Mark did so and found a similar invitation for 
himself. This made Alec more determined to stop 
on his return. "It will he just one week," he 
said. " I will be here by that time and for once 
we will shake off dull care and enjoy ourselves. 
I will buy Eph and send him home to his old 
mother, with the horses and rockaway, and then I 
can go home by rail." 

Alec departed at the time agreed upon, and 
Mark hastened to assure his cousin he would be 
present at the ball. Most of the intervening time 
was spent with Elsie, and Mark was a score of 
times on the point of declaring his love, but from 
a sense of right refrained from doing so. They 
walked and rode together, sang together, played 
duets, and she never seemed more nearly perfect. 
Sweet, happy days were those, days which Mark 
to the hour of his death will never forget. While 
all about him was a furious uprising, wild excite- 
ment, maddening speeches, the marshalling of clans 
for the conflict, he was living a life of bliss and 
peace, — a sweet dream, without a single care. 
Oh, that such a lot could be his, forever, though 
guilt at times made him almost hide his face in 
shame. 

The Confederacy had been formed out of the 
seceded States, and on February 9, 1861, Jeffer- 
son Davis and Alexander H. Stevens were elected 



3IARK AXD ELSIE. 137 

president and vice-president of the new republic. 
Fort after fort in the South had been surrendered 
by treacherous commanders, until the South had 
almost complete control of the principal strong- 
holds in that territory. E'loj^d had planned and 
executed matters with a cunning hand. Southern 
congressmen and United States senators were re- 
signing their seats. On the 29th of January, 
Kansas, over which there had been so much dis- 
sension, became the 34th State of the Union. 
Lincoln had been inaugurated on the 4th of 
March as fourteenth president of the United States, 
and he was taking vigorous measures to stop the 
progress of tlie rebellion. 

While lounging about the rotunda of the hotel, 
Mark learned much of what was goina; on. He 
heard one man sa}^ that their agents and friends in 
New York had telegraphed them that the steamer 
Atlantic had sailed with troops and supplies for 
Fort Sumter on the Tth. He also learned that 
there was a rumor that troops were soon to gather 
at Washington, and that the government of South 
Carolina had been notified that provisions would 
be sent to Major Anderson by force if necessary ; 
but Mark hardly realized the danger. He was too 
much lost in the mazes of a happy dream to dread 
a coming shock. 

The evening of the 11th came, and the palatial 



138 UNION. 

mansion of Major Stevens was a scene of brilliance. 
The dlite and beauty of Charleston, that proud city 
of the South, were there. Major Stevens was ad- 
mired by all. He had commanded the battery 
that fired on the Star of the TFes^, was a brave and 
determined man and known by all to be an honor- 
able, upright gentleman. His daughter Clara was 
quite a favorite, and the young people anticipated 
an excellent time. Mark was there among the 
first. Alec had come back ; but Mark, with Elsie 
leaning on his arm as he passed through the bril- 
liant halls and art galleries beneath gilded chande- 
liers, seemed to have almost forgotten his cousin. 

"Well, Mark is enjoying himself," Alec said 
with a sigh. " It's at the cost of my happiness; 
but I don't blame Mark. Let him go in and win 
her, — I would. If he don'tdo it, I will. I prom- 
ised Mark a clear field while he is here, so he 
had better make hay while the sun shines. " 

Mark was enjoying just a little while longer the 
music of a voice which reason had taught him he 
was never more to hear, was basking in the sun- 
light of a pair of lovely eyes he was soon to see 
no more. The crowd was gay. The room was 
brilliant with uniforms and glittering epaulettes. 
General Beauregard himself was present early in the 
evening, but urgent duties called him elsewhere. 

The home of Major Stevens overlooked the bay, 



3IARK AND ELSIE. ■ ia9 

and far in the distance Fort Sumter loomed. 
Mark, in his love, bewilderment and self-condem- 
nation, had almost forgotten his country and the 
brave men in the distant fort. 

When music rose in its softest strains and with 
voluptuous swell, he joined in the dance with 
Elsie. Once she left him for a few minutes for a 
Confederate colonel ; but he sought her as soon as 
the set was over, and when they were again apart 
from the others, he said: 

" Elsie, I want to be with you all the remainder 
of the evening. " 

"Why?" she asked. 



" Because I leave earlv in the morning, and- 



and- 



" We may never see each other again ! " 
" That is exactly what I mean, Elsie. I go 
perhaps never to return." 

They went into the conservatory where the light 
of a southern moon fell gently upon them. For a 
long time both were silent, and then he said : 
" Elsie, I hope you realize our situation." 
"I do," she sighed. It was a favorable omen, 
yet how dared he propose? He a loyal unionist, 
about to engage in a desperate struggle, could not 
avow his love for this pretty rebel even had he 
been otherwise at liberty to love. After a long 
silence, he said : 



140 UNION. 

" Elsie, you have two brothers and a father, 
who will probably engage in the coming struggle. 
You appreciate what it is, and for your sake I 
hope it may not come. " 

By an effort she threw off the spell, which 
seemed bowing down her spirits, and said : 

" Let us not be gloomy. Nothing is so bad as it 
seems. Did you notice Captain Taylor, how atten- 
tive he was to Cousin Clara? Now she don't care a 
fig for him, and he is almost breaking his heart for 
her. I would not allow myself to be so ridiculous. " 

" Were you ever in love?" 

" Oh, Mr. Stevens, what a question!" she cried, 
her eyes growing round with wonder. 

" It is a question that admits of an answer by 
yes or no. " 

" It is a question that provokes one to falsehood. 
One in love never admits it, save in the most sa- 
cred confidence to a special friend. If one has 
never been in love, — but this is all nonsense." 

" Do you ever feel melancholy?" 

" Sometimes. " 

" Do you believe in presentiments?" 

" I hardly know. " 

Before they could say more, Alec came hur- 
riedly forward ; his face flushed with excitement. 

" Mark, you here? I have been hunting you 
and Elsie. Have you heard the news?" 







XiS"^ 










^^v 



"Elsie, I hope you realize our situation." 



143 UNION. 

" What news?" both asked. 

" General Beauregard has demanded the sur- 
render of Fort Sumter, and if it is not surrendered 
by four o'clock they will fire on the fort." 

" Heaven forbid !" 

"It is true. The soldiers have been summoned 
to their posts, and four thousand new troops have 
entered the city." 

Mark now remembered having noticed a consid- 
erable stir among the soldiers and citizens. Elsie, 
who had been inclined to make light of the pros- 
pect of war, shuddered with dread, when she found 
it so near a realization. " I am going down to the 
battery to see what all that whooping and yelling 
means, " cried Alec. " Come along, Elsie, you 
had better go home. There will be trouble soon, 
for the big shells from Sumter may reach Charles- 
ton." 

Alec was gone in a moment, and Elsie, shud- 
dering, said: 

" Let us go in." 

As they passed along the narrow 'garden path 
toward the house, he said: 

" Elsie, I regret this. " 

" Will it drive you away?" 

"Yes." Then, after a moment's silence, he 
asked, " Will you think of me when I am gone?" 

"Yes." 



MARK AND ELSIE. 143 

They entered the house, where all had been joy 
and gayety a few moments before ; but people were 
now dispersing. Men were hurrying down to the 
batteries in their ball dress, and crossing over to 
James Island. 

Mark consulted his watch and found that it was 
after three o'clock. He would just have time to 
reach the battery before the fearful blow was 
struck. The city was ablaze with torches, and 
although the throngs were silent, there was uneasi- 
ness in their manner. 

" Elsie, I must go. I don't know why; but I 
shall die if I don't," said Mark. 

" Will you come back?" 

"I hope to, Elsie!" he whispered in her ear. 
" Forgive me, — it is wrong, I know it. God 
knows I would not say this if I could help it; I 
ought never to have come here ; but I could not 
help it ; — you are the magnet which drew me. 
Elsie, I hve you!" 

They were alone in one of the many bay win- 
dows which adorned the house. She started back 
and gave him such a look of horror that he never 
forgot it. She was turning coldly away, when he 
hoarsely gasped : 

" Forgive me !" and was gone. 

No sooner was she alone than she fell weeping 
on a sofa. 



144 UNION. 

Mark, meanwhile, was hurrying as rapidly as 
he could toward Cumings' Point. He saw wild- 
eyed men on every hand. There were no yells 
nor cheers; but a silent excitement, more awful 
than the loudest thunders of battle, seemed to pre- 
vail. Mark gained the island just as some one 
said : 

" Time is up!" 

The battery was lighted by brilliant torches, and 
he saw the wild, excited faces of men everywhere. 

" There is old Ruffin at the gun," said one man, 
" Beauregard gave him permission to fire the first 
shot." 

Mark looked and saw an old man with a face 
like a devil, his long, gray hair streaming in the 
night wind. This was the white-haired Virginian 
Euffin, who begged the privilege of firing the first 
shot, — a deed of which he boasted as long as he 
lived.* 

When the hour of four in the morning arrived, 
the fort had not surrendered. Then came an order 
from Beauregard to fire the shot. The old white- 
haired monster could be seen dancing about like a 
fiend incarnate. Suddenly he seized the lanyard 
and gave it a jerk. There was an earth-shaking 

* In tlie summer of 1865, Ruffin, at the age of seventj' 
years, committed suicide, declaring in a note left behind, 
"I cannot survive the liberties of my country." 



MARK AND ELSIE. 145 

report, and a large round shot went hissing through 
the air and struck against the solid wall of Fort 
Sumter with fearful force. 

A few moments' silence, — then tremendous yells 
rose on the air, and a storm of cannon-balls and 
shells flew over Fort Sumter. 

Not a shot was returned until after seven o'clock. 
Mark, in his anxiety, asked himself again and 
again : 

" Can it be that they will surrender without 
firing a shot?" 

Day dawned, and the thunder of guns went on. 

" Hello, Mark, are you here?" suddenly cried 
a voice at his side, and, turning about, he saw 
Alec. " The terrible war has begun, and God 
only knows how it will end; but Sumter don't 
seem to be doing anything. The fight is all on 
one side. By the way, Mark, do you know tliat 
cuss of a nigger Eph has played me a mean trick. 
I bought him to send him to his old mother, be- 
fore she died. I started him home with my fine 
team. Some of the infernal abolitionists persuaded 
him to escape, and he has gone North, horses and 
all. I say cuss a nigger, anyhow " 

At this moment, a puff of smoke was seen to 
issue from the top of Fort Sumter, and a shell 
came screeching through the air. The famous 
siege of Fort Sumter had begun, 
lu 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE PIRATE. 

The first year of the war, Dick Stevens, whom 
we met in Florida, was in England. He had been 
travelling in Europe, and his father, having some 
interests in a Liverpool cotton house, ordered his 
son there to look after them. This was not un- 
pleasant to Dick, especially as he had met with a 
Miss Lorena Lancaster, a Liverpool girl, while 
travelling on the continent, and had formed a warm 
attachment for her. 

Dick had heard much of the war. He knew 
that his father was in the command of a regiment, 
had fought valiantly at Bull Run, and that his 
country was all in the wildest state of excitement; 
yet so wholly were his thoughts taken up with his 
love affair, that war, country and friends were of 
minor consideration. Of course the South would 
gain her independence. Such a thing as defeat had 
never entered his mind. He did not suppose that 
Yankees could fight. They had taken but little 
part in the war of 1812, and practically no part in 
146 



THE PIRATE. 147 

the war witli Mexico. The West and South had 
fought those battles, and the idea that the specu- 
lating, canting, psalm-singing Puritan could or 
would fight, was too ridiculous to be entertained. 
The}' could organize negro -stealing societies, and 
incite slaves to murder masters; but he never 
dreamed they would fight. In France and in 
England he found strong sympathizers with the 
South. He was assured again and again that 
Great Britain would declare war against the United 
States and assist the South to obtain her indepen- 
dence. 

He reached Liverpool in May, and one day, as 
he was walking leisurely down the street, he was 
accosted by some one with : 

"Hello, Dick Stevens, what are you doing here?" 

Dick looked up and saw a young man coming 
toward him. His voice and face were familiar, 
and, recognizing him a moment later, he cried: 

"Charley Cole, can it be possible this is you? 
Where have you been?" 

" Cruising about, my fine fellow. I supposed 
you were at home in the army, winning battles for 
your country. " 

" No, " Dick answered blushing. " I am looking 
after some of my father's interests here; though I 
am going to help the South. But Charley, why 
are you not in the service?" 



148 UNION. 

"lam." 

" And why are you here?" 

With a smile, Charley Cole said: 

" I am engaged in a service for the South, Dick. " 

"What is it?" 

" Do you really wish to help your country?" 

" Certainly. " 

" Then you can have an opportunity," Charley 
Cole remarked. " We are organizing a crew, and 
are building a vessel to driva the Yankee com- 
merce from the seas. This ship will soon be com- 
pleted and will want recruits." 

" I am no sailor, Charley. You graduated at 
Annapolis and served in the United States Navy ; 
— you have experience, and I have none." 

" But we'll soon make a sailor of you. I am 
going to ship as a common seaman. You can 
also." 

" What is to be the name of this ship?" 

" T/ie ^290* The Lairds of Birkenhead, Eng- 
land, are building her for the Confederate States 
government. Captain James D. Bullock, as agent 
for the Confederacy, is superintending her con- 
struction." 

" How will you get her out?" 

" As a ruse, she is to be sent on a trial trip with 
a large party of ladies and gentlemen." 

*The name by which the Alabama was first known. 



THE PIRATE. 149 

After that, Dick met his cousin Charley Cole 
quite frequently ; but although Charlej- often en- 
deavored to persuade him to join the cruiser, his 
argument had little effect, until one day, while in 
company with Miss Lancaster, she asked : 

" What are you doing for the South, Mr. 
Stevens ? " 

Stammering and blushing, he answered : 
" I am superintending my father's business." 
" And your State, your kindred, all struggling 
with an invader! Oh, Mr. Stevens, I thought 
you a brave man ! " 

Dick blushed to the tips of his ears and felt his 
blood tingling to the ends of his fingers. How he 
got through the evening he never exactly knew. 
To be called a coward by the woman he loved, 
and, what was worse, in his own heart to realize 
that he was a cow^ard, was humiliating. In his 
bewilderment, he asked : 

" Would you advise me to ship as a common 
sailor?" 

" Certainly, if your country needs your services." 
He thought of the new privateer and his cousin's 
desire to have him ship with him. He left the 
house like one in a daze. The street lights glim- 
mered, and he saw as through a mist. He had 
been reproved by the only being for wdiose opinion 
he cared. Dick resolved to prove his courage. 



150 UNION. 

Next day, July 3, 1862, he signed the articles 
which made him one of the " '290, " afterward the 
Alabama. The shipping agent, Mr. Campbell, 
warned him against Yankee spies, and assured 
him that in three months Great Britain -would de- 
clare war against the United States. 

Dick hurriedly arranged his father's affairs, 
wrote a letter to his iTiother informing her of what 
he had done, and called on Miss Lancaster. She 
was out riding, the servant said, but would return 
soon. Would Mr. Stevens wait? He would, and 
it seemed ages before she returned. He spent 
most of the time in the picture gallery and library, 
trying to entertain himself, but feeling decidedly 
miserable. At last her coupe dashed up to the 
door; the lady was assisted to alight, and entered 
the house. A few minutes later she was at his 
side, her great blue eyes smiling as she said: 

"I know all about it, Mr. Stevens; you have 
enlisted. " 

" How did you learn it?" 

" Mr. Campbell told me. I am going on the 
trial trip." 

" I shall be pleased to see you aboard, Miss 
Lancaster, and I hope that I may prove to you 
that I can defend my country." 

She smiled, and he, in a very serious tone, 
added, " You first inspired me with the thought. 



THE PIRATE 151 

and I trust you will not think me bold when I say 
that you inspire me to do only what is right and 
noble." Her eyes drooped and a faint flush suf- 
fused her face. He said when his ship had cleared 
the seas of Yankee merchantmen, and the great 
and glorious Confederacy had l)een established, he 
would ask her hand in marriage. Dick was of a 
good family ; his father was wealthy, and there 
was no obstacle to such a union. 

Witli a naive smile and an arch look from the 
corner of her pretty eyes, she intimated that when 
he had built up the great southern empire, she 
might say yes. Until then she preferred single 
blessedness. 

The following day, Dick went aboard the vessel, 
and was very well pleased with it. To even an 
unpractised eye, everything indicated the character 
of the ship. There were no platforms, but the 
places for the pivot guns were plainly marked. 
Her magazines were iinislied, and shot boxes were 
lying about. 

It was the 28th of July that the 290 went 
out of the Mersey, on what was supposed to be 
a trial trip, loaded with ladies and gentlemen. 
Among the former was Miss Lancaster, of course. 
Though Dick was trying to learn the mysteries of 
seamanship, he managed to snatch a few moments 
and hold a short conversation with her. He 



152 UNION. 

squeezed her hand at parting and received an as- 
suring squeeze in return. 

The vessel anchored in a bay on the Welsh 
coast, where the ladies and gentlemen left, and 
they "were joined by most of the crew. They had 
about one hundred men aboard now, half of them 
sailors, the others being coal-passers and long- 
shoremen, and, in fact, a more motley crowd per- 
haps was never seen. They represented every 
nationality and every type of vice. After a day's 
delay, they sailed around the northern coast of 
Ireland, and in thirteen days arrived at Terceira, 
one of the Azore Islands. 

Charley Cole was one of the crew, and he and 
Dick were assigned to the same mess and quarters. 
But for Charley, who had some knowledge of 
sailor life, Dick would have fared hard. The 
290 was by no means as fast as had been ex- 
pected. During her first trip, she did not make 
over ten knots an hour, and had a most disagree- 
able habit, when driven to the top of her speed, of 
burying her head and setting everything afloat. 
This was decidedly unpleasant for the crew in the 
berth deck. 

A few days later, they were joined by an Eng- 
lish bark, loaded with guns and munitions of war, 
and went to work laying platforms for the heavy 
guns and mounting the pivot guns, one a very line 



THE PIRATE. 153 

Blakely hundred -pound rifle cannon, and the other 
an eight-inch sixty-eight-pounder smooth bore. 
The Portuguese governor having ordered them out 
of the harbor, they were compelled to do their 
work in a rolling sea, three miles from an anchor- 
age. Before they had finished, the steamer Ba- 
hama came alongside, bringing Captain Semmes 
and the remainder of the crew, also more guns, 
munitions of war, and, it was whispered, a large 
sum of money. 

Dick had heard much of Captain, or rather 
Rear- Admiral, Raphael Semmes, and he was a little 
disappointed on seeing him. He was a tall, rather 
spare built man, with a light mustache and dark 
brown hair. He wore no beard, and his face 
would indicate that he was more for reflection 
than action. He seemed to lack the firmness 
necessary for such an undertaking as was before 
him; but Dick was in a measure mistaken. 
Semmes was a bolder and more daring man than 
he seemed. 

Shortly after the arrival of Semmes, the crew 
all got liberty to go on shore. Dick, unfamiliar 
with sailors' actions, was shocked at the conduct 
of his shipmates. In common parlance " they took 
the town." The few policemen of the place were 
powerless; they were seized and mounted on the 
men's backs. The authorities were defied, and 



154 UNION. 

althougli no serious outrage was committed, the 
Portuguese officials remonstrated with Semmes for 
letting loose such a party of ruffians on them. 
Dick Stevens was appalled at their acts; but his 
cousin Charley Cole only laughed, and remarked: 

" You'll think nothing of this, Dick, after a six 
months' cruise." But few of the men had yet 
signed articles, and the officers of the Alabama had 
no legal control over them. When the time for 
signing came, they were told they could go or 
stay, but if they went they must " quit backing 
and filling, and come aboard at once." 

They went on board to a man and signed the 
papers, and for two days worked hard cleaning the 
ship. The crew was divided into watclies, and 
the routine life of a man-o'-war commenced. Dick 
was delighted to have his cousin Charles assigned 
to the same watch with himself. 

One bright Sunday morning they left Angra in 
company with the Baluuna. The officers came 
out in full uniform ; the band played " Dixie;" all 
hands were mustered, and the flag under which 
they were to sail was unfurled for the first time, 
and they heard the first of Captain Semmes's ex- 
hortations, in which he expressed his hope that 
Providence would bless their efforts to free the 
South from a grasping and unreasonable Nortli. 

" Yass, Providence likely to bless this ere crew !" 



THE PIRATE. 155 

growled a boatswain's mate behind Dick, and Dick 
tliouglit he was right. 

Sailors' pranks began early. Daring the night, 
some one, appreciating the piratical nature of the 
craft, ornamented a bread-bag with a skull and 
cross-bones and fastened it to one of the mizzen 
braces. In the morning the master-at-arms was 
hunting for the delinquent; but the sailors laugh- 
ing declared that Chucks* the marine had been at 
his tricks. 

Dick was not long in coming to the conclusion 
that never in his life had he seen such a bad lot. 
All were sailors, — not a haymaker, or landlubber 
among them, — but they were mostly of that class, 
found in seaport towns, which on lakes and rivers 
would be " roust-abouts, " and on the whole were 
a rough and mutinous set. They cared little for 
the ship's officers, and, according to a sailor called 
" Shakings," on account of his bushy yellow hair, 
"they'd stand no man-o'-war dicky from 'em." 

Such yarns as they spun when off watch would 
put both Gulliver and Munchausen to shame. 
Dick, having never been to sea and not possessing 
extraordinary inventive powers, kept out of the 
lying contest. A Scotchman named Gill, in Dick's 
watch, was perhaps the greatest character on board 
the ship. He was in his prime, about forty years 
* A sort of a "Robin Goodfellow" on a man-of-war. 



156 UNION. 

of age, and could hold two ordinary men at arm's 
length, as if they were children. He could quote 
scripture and sermons, drink more whiskey and 
tell more lies than any man on board the Alabama- 
and that was saying a great deal. He was a daring, 
dangerous ruffian, who had been engaged in a score 
of mutinies, and was even accused of murdering 
the officers of one vessel and beaching her. 

The first officer, John Mcintosh Kell, was most 
respected of any ; but such a crew could not respect 
Semmes, whom some one accused of having once 
been a preacher. Shakings indignantly sized him 
up as follows: 

"He's a d — d psalm-singer, an' jury captain." 
The diversion on deck, when off duty, was chiefly 
fencing with broadswords, wrestling and fighting. 

September 3, 1862, the Alabama took the first 
prize, a whaling schooner. It was no difficult job 
to capture the poor vessel. A shot across her 
bow, — she came to, and then boats were sent out 
to bring in the prisoners and the booty, which was 
not much. Dick here witnessed the burning of 
the first ship, and as he watched the flames ascend- 
ing the tall, tapering masts, crackling and roaring, 
he asked himself : 

" Is this legitimate warfare, or is it piracy?" 

The prisoners were placed on deck under a spar- 
rigged sail, and fared br.dly in stormy weather. 



THE PIRATE. 157 

They soon began taking prizes quite rapidly, 
and were so crowded with prisoners, that the crew 
became discommoded. Their hammocks touched 
each other, and the roughs took advantage of this 
to annoy their more quiet shipmates. Dick's 
hammock was cut down by a fellow called 
" Spotty." He watched his chance and, pouncing 
on the offender, almost pounded the life out of 
him. He was made to do double duty for three 
days, but was dumped no more. 

"You must be careful, Dick!" said Charles to 
his cousin. " Spotty is a chum of old Gills." 

"I care as little for Gills as Spotty," Dick an- 
swered, and his boldness to a certain degree won 
the respect of the tough element of the crew. 

They were now within four hundred miles of 
New York in the "rolling forties," and directly 
in the track of American commerce. 

Save plundering the prisoners when captured, 
they were treated fairly well; but the boarding 
crews were veritable pirates and quite beyond the 
control of their officers. They looted a prize when 
captured, going through the chests of the sailors 
and taking from the persons of the prisoners, such 
things as they wished. 

Among the many prizes captured and destroyed, 
there were many varieties of character. Some 
were so odd as to cause Dick and Charley to smile. 



158 UNION. 

On one occasion they accompanied officer Kell to 
the deck of a prize. The captain of the captured 
vessel stood trembling aft the main gangway, as if 
he expected to lose his head. The executive 
officer of the Alabama said: 

" Captain, you many bring away such of your 
personal effects as you desire. " 

" Thank you, sir, I have one request to make 
of you," said the captain. 

" Name it," said officer Kell. 

" I beg you will permit me to bring away a copy 
of Spurgeon's sermons and a keg of very fine 
whiskey." 

With a smile, the officer answered : 

" You can take your sermons, — they will be safe 
from molestation ; but your keg of whiskey would 
be taken from you and make half the men furious. 
It must go overboard." 

It is not our intention to give a detailed account 
of the cruises of the Alabama. That has been 
done by many other historians, and only so far as 
it relates to the characters of our story can the 
reader be interested. Dick had little sympathy 
with the lawless crew, for they were too coarse for 
his refined taste. He could not spin yarns; but 
he had a splendid baritone voice, and often amused 
them with songs. Some one composed a song re- 
flecting on the supposed clerical character of their 




" HOLD ON ! STOr THAT ! 



'if you ever sing ag'in we'll fire you 



THHOIGH THE LEE PORT." 



THE PIRATE. 159 

captain. This was bawled out in tones loud 
enough to be heard in the mess room aft : 

"Oh, our captain said, when my fortune's made, 
I'll buy a church to preach in, 
And fill it full of toots and liorns. 
And have a jolly Methodee screechin'. 

"And I'll pray the Lord, from night to morn, 
To weather old Yankee Doodle — 
And I'll runahinfant Sunday-school 
With a part of the Yankee boodle. " * 

Top-Robbin, as one sailor was called, was a 
prolific story teller; but as yet had never taken 
any part in the singing. It was decreed one even- 
ing while the watch were amusing themselves, 
that Top-Robbin should take his part in singing. 

" Come now, Top-Robbin, pipe up an' spread 
all canvas," said Shakings. With a look of in- 
tense misery, Top-Robbin commenced in the most 
terrible squeaky treble and hoarse voice one ever 
heard : 

"How Jerry Lee was hung at sea. 
For stabbing of his messmate true. 
And his body did swing, a horrible thing 
At the sport of the wild sea mew — " 

" Hold on ! stop that!" screamed one of the sail- 
ors, and his request was backed by a general plead- 
ing yell from all. 

* Century Magazine. 



160 UNION. 

" If you ever sing agin in this 'ere watch while 
we're off soundings, we'll lire you through the lee 
port, " declared Shakings. " Such a voice as that 
would raise a hurrycane. " 

" I wan't a-doin' this for my own amusement," 
said Top-Eobbin meekly. 

" Well, you needn't do it for mine," responded 
Shakings. 

They arrived at Martinique, and Charley and 
Dick, who had about all the patriotism of the crew, 
were pleased to see the enthusiasm of the French 
over their success in driving Yankee commerce 
from the seas. Dick got leave and went ashore, 
as he had acquaintances on the island. There he 
heard the brightest side of the war. The Confed- 
erate victories were made large, and their reverses 
small. 

Next day, Charley came ashore and went to the 
house where his cousin was staying. 

" You missed the biggest row of the cruise last 
night, Dick!" 

"Why, Charley?" 

" Old Gill was on the warpath. The French 
corvette gave a dinner to our officers. Gill licked 
two of the Frenchman's petty officers almost to 
death, as his part of the entertainment, and our 
liberties were stopped as a result. Forest eluded 
the lookouts, swam ashore and from some place, I 



THE PIRATE. 161 

know not where, stole five gallons of the worst 
fighting whiskey I ever saw. It set the whole 
watch crazy. Forest kept pretty straight; but old 
Gill 'bowsed up his jib,' until he could scarce 
stand. Then such an uproar I never heard ; the 
lanterns were lit in defiance, and when the watch 
was called, the officer of the deck was saluted with 
all manner of 'skrim-shander. ' The boatswain 
fell by a blow from a belaying pin and everything 
loose was fired aft. The officers and marines, with 
the sober part of the crew, charged, and such a 
fight you never saw. Gill knocked the jaw of the 
gunner's mate out of place, but was finally laid 
out by a capstan-bar, and the drunken men secured. 
All are now under double irons." 

Dick bowed his head and said : 

" Charley, this society may be all right in time 
of war; but it is not elevating." 

Charley whistled and turned his eyes toward the 
ceiling. 

"I have sailed with many a crew, Dick; but 
this is undoubtedly the toughest I ever knew." 

They went aboard, and that evening a rumor 
reached them that a Yankee cruiser, the San 
Jacinto, was outside waiting for them. Nearly 
all the crew, worn out with the monotony of tak- 
ing merchantmen, wanted to fight; but Captain 
Semmes and his officers were against it, and by 
11 



162 UNION. 

the open and undisguised assistance of the French 
naval officers they got out. 

Sunday, January 11, 1863, they had their first 
conflict. Hitherto, nothing but prizes and easy 
captures had fallen to their lot; but on this day 
the men were ordered to their guns in a rather 
business-like manner. Dick felt his heart beating 
wildly as he stood by his gun. Old Gill, Top- 
Robbin and Shakings were swearing on his left, 
while Charley, as cool as a veteran, stood on his 
right. Through the dusk he saw the bows of a 
small steamer coming toward them. Her officers 
must have seen that the men were at their quar- 
ters, with guns manned. She came within one 
hundred yards before hailing. Captain Kell an- 
swered : 

" This is Her Britannic Majesty's steamer 
Petrel! " The answer came back: 

" This is the United States steamer Hatteras ! " 
At the same moment Captain Kell cried: 

" This is the Confederate steamer Alabama ! " 

"Fire — Fire!" rang throughout the ship, and 
the Alabama poured in a whole broadside from 
their starboard batteries. They were not more 
than fift}' yards away, and Dick could plainly hear 
the awful crash of their shot tearing the hull and 
rigging of the enemy. Soon bright flashes came 
from the enemy's decks, and they heard the whiz 



THE PIRATE. 163 

of sLots above their heads. For ten minutes the 
conflict was sharp and terrible. Dick was ram- 
ming home a charge, when he heard a voice for- 
ward cry out: 

" The enemy is sinking. " 

"Cease firing!" cried Captain Kell. Captain 
Semmes came along a moment later, and the officers 
ordered boats to be lowered. 

Dick was almost exhausted with the violent ex- 
ercise and nervous strain. He sat on the gun car- 
riage and laid his hand on the barrel of the cannon. 
It was so hot he took it away. Meanwhile, boats 
had been lowered and brought off the enemy, and 
then the Hatteras went down stern foremost. 

As Captain Blake of the Hatteras came over the 
side of the Alabama, he seized the hand of Captain 
Kell, saying: 

" Aye, Captain Kell, we have sailed together in 
other years. " 

" Yes, Captain Blake, and under other circum- 
stances. " 

" Fortune favors the brave!" 

" I trust, captain, you will have a pleasant voy- 
age on the Alabama.^'' 

Only five of the Hatteras' crew had been killed 
and wounded. The others were paroled at King- 
ston. While they were lying at Jamaica one day, 
Charles came aboard and said : 



164 UNIOX. 

" Dick, I believe that Gill and Forest have 
killed that Irishman King-post." 

"Why?" 

" They do not like him, because he has reported 
on them several times. P. D. Haywood, the Eng- 
lishman, told me that he saw them going with 
King-post out of the town. The Irishman was 
drunk, and, suspecting foul play, Haywood tried 
to follow them; but they eluded him. They 
came back without him, and when Haywood asked 
Gill where King-post was, the old Scotchman gave 
him a significant glance and answered : 

"'I dunna know, laddie; but he'll hand his 
tongue noo; and ye better say naithing, yir a wise 
fallou. ' King-post has not shown up yet, and I 
doubt if he ever will. " King-post was never seen 
afterward, and was no doubt murdered by those 
ruffians. 



CHAPTER YIII. 

THE RECRUIT. 

The border States, Virginia, Kentuck}-, and 
Missouri, felt in full the curse of civil war. Po- 
litical leaders of these States took positions which 
finally brought great distress upon the inhabitants. 
A number of these leaders professed to be condi- 
tional friends of the Union. They would be its 
friends so long as the national government did not 
interfere with slavery, nor " attempt to bring back 
the seceded States;" in other words, they were 
friends of the republic so long as it did not raise 
a finger for the salvation of its life. When the 
president's call for troops to suppress the rebellion 
appeared, the Louisville Journal, the organ of the 
professed unionists of Kentucky, hastened to say, 
" We are struck with mingled amazement and in- 
dignation. The policy announced in the procla- 
mation deserves the unqualified condemnation of 
every American citizen. It is unworthy, not 
merely of a statesman, but a man. It is a policy 
utterly hairbrained and ruinous. If Mr. Lincoln 
165 



166 UNION. 

contemplated this policy in his inaugural address, 
he is a guilty dissembler. If he conceived it 
under the excitement aroused by the seizure of 
Fort Sumter, he is a guilty hotspur. In either 
case, he is miserably unfit for the exalted position 
in which the enemies of the country have placed 
him. Let the people instantly take him and his 
administration into their own hands, if they would 
rescue the land from bloodshed and the Union 
from sudden and irretrievable destruction." 

At a large " union meeting" in Louisville, over 
which James Guthrie and other leading men in 
the State held control, it was resolved that " Ken- 
tucky reserves to herself the right to choose her 
own position ; and that, while her natural sympa- 
thies are with those who have a common interest 
in the protection of slavery, she still acknowledges 
her loyalty and fealty to the government of the 
United States, which vshe will carefully render 
witil tJ/at government becomes aggressive, tyrannical 
and regardless of our rights in slave property. ^^ 
They furthermore declared that the States were 
peers of the national government; and gave the 
world to understand that the latter should not be 
allowed to use sanguinary or coercive measures 
to " bring back the seceded States. " The " Ken- 
tucky State Guard," which the governor had or- 
ganized for the benefit of the secessionists, were 



THE RECRUIT. 167 

commended by this miion meeting as " the bul- 
wark and safety of the commonwealth," and its 
members were enjoined to remember that they 
were pledged equall}' to fidelity to the United 
States and Kentucky. 

" The Guard" was placed under the command of 
Captain Simon B. Buckner of the national army, 
who was then evidently in the secret service of 
the Confederac}', for he effectively used his posi- 
tion in seducing large numbers of the members of 
the Guard from their allegiance to the old flag, 
and sent them as recruits to the Confederate 
armies. It was not long before he led a large 
portion of them into the camp of the enemy, and 
he became a Confederate major-general. Then the 
Louisville Journal, that had so savagely condemned 
the president, more savagely assailed Buckner with 
curses, saying, " Away with your pledges and 
assurances — with your protestations, apologies and 
proclamations — at once and altogether! Away, 
parricide, away, and do penance forever! — be 
shriven or slain — away! You have less palliation 
than Atilla, — less boldness, magnanimity and no- 
bleness than Coriolanus. You are the Benedict 
Arnold of the day ! You are the Catiline of Ken- 
tucky ! Go, thou miscreant!" And when in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, Buckner and some of the State Guard 
were captured at Fort Donelson, and he was sent 



168 UNION. 

to Fort Warren, Boston, many of those who were 
deceived by the pretence that the Guard was the 
" bulwark of the commonwealth," demanded his 
delivery to the authorities of Kentucky, to be 
tried for treason against the State. As a little 
leaven leavens the whole loaf, so had a little 
Calhounism even imj^regnated the thoughts of 
those naturally inclined to be loyal to the govern- 
ment. 

The South treated with derision President Lin- 
coln's first call for seventy -five thousand volun- 
teers to put down the rebellion, and the Mobile 
Advertiser inserted an advertisement for seventy- 
five thousand cofiins for Lincoln's soldiers. 

While Virginia suffered for her hesitation, and 
Kentucky for her attempt at neutrality, Missouri 
also became a four years' battle-field by trying to 
follow their example. But for the prompt and 
wise action of Captain, afterward General, Na- 
thaniel Lyon, Missouri would have been forced 
into the Southern Confederacy. Lyon's prompt 
seizure of the Home Guards at Camp Jackson, his 
rapid descent on the disloyal governor, whom he 
sent flying from the capital, saved the State. Had 
Lyon lived, he undoubtedly would have been the 
hero of the war. No man displayed more courage 
or ability; but unfortunately he fell at the battle 
of Wilson Creek, August 10, 1861. 



THE RECRUIT. 169 

Soon after the bombardment and evacuation at 
Fort Sumter, Mark Stevens returned to bis borne 
in Boone County, Kentucky. Tbe dear old plan- 
tation with tbe blue bills in tbe distance, tbe 
wbite-baired fatber sitting beneatb bis favorite 
tree, tbe negro sbauties, tbe merry laugbter of 
slaves going to or returning from tbe fields, all 
made up a pleasant scene for tbe memory of tbe 
youtb wben away. 

Tbey knew be was coming, and Jobn, a mulatto 
man, wbo bad once tried to run away, but instead 
of gaining bis liberty bad been kidnapped and 
sent to tbe West Indies, was sent for bim. Since 
Jobn's terrible experience in trying to gain bis 
freedom, it was tbougbt be would never make tbe 
effort again, especially as be declared tbat be would 
not leave " moster Stevens." even if be gave bim 
his freedom; but John, like tbe majority of bis 
race, was fickle, and in 1862 accepted a fine oppor- 
tunity to escape and went over into Obio, afterward 
joined in a colored regiment, went to tbe war, and 
perisbed at Fort Pillow. 

Wben Mark returned, be found tbe old farm but 
little cbanged. His aged fatber, wbose venerable 
locks were wbite as snow, was sitting on tbe long 
piazza witb tbe wife and motber at bis side. 

Tbey rose and greeted tbe return of tbeir son 
witb smiles of joy. Otber members of tbe family 



170 UNION. 

had been summoned from the surrounding planta- 
tions to make the return pleasant. They talked 
of almost everything save the coming struggle. 

It was not until next day that Mark mentioned 
it to his father. 

"Well, my son," said the old major, shaking 
his gray head, " I have long seen it coming. 
When I first began reading the speeches of Cal- 
houn, I knew it was not far off. It was dangerous 
doctrine. In our institutions it was like a living 
coal of fire in a powder-mill. Washington and 
Hamilton saw this, and they tried to prevent it. 
Had their words of wisdom been heeded, it might 
have been averted. " 

" Father, I have made up my mind to enlist 
under the president's call." 

The gra}' -haired patriot was silent a few mo- 
ments; then he said: 

" It is no eas}^ thing for one to give up his child ; 
but I will do it. Yes, you may go. I hope you 
will be an honor to the name of Stevens. Re- 
member that you can look back through twelve 
generations to the ship in which Columbus sailed 
and see your ancestor Hernando Estevan among 
the first to touch the soil of the new world. Your 
grandfather fought under Washington for this 
country. Your father fought under General Scott 
and Andrew Jackson to sustain its honor, and 



THE RECRUIT. 171 

your brother fought to humble tlie pride of the 
Mexicans. Now, if Heaven lias decreed that you 
shall fight for the preservation of the Union, I 
shall not oppose it. Do as your convictions dic- 
tate; but don't forget you are a Stevens." 

Volunteer" companies in Kentucky at this time 
were scarce. There was not one at this time or- 
ganized in Boone County, and Mark was compelled 
to pass over the river and enlist in an Indiana 
company. 

Mark learned that Captain Hawk was recruiting 
a company in Indiana, just across the river near 
the village of Eising Sun. He determined to take 
the first opportunity that offered and enlist. As- 
certaining the day of muster, he went across the 
river. 

Rising Sun was not wholly loyal. In fact, 
there were some of the most desperate sympathizers, 
copperheads and rebels in the southern part of 
Indiana anywhere to be found. Entering Rising 
Sun, he inquired of a man who kept a grocery 
store for Captain Hawk. The Rising Sun mer- 
chant gave him one or two fiery glances, and 
answered : 

" I dun know where he is, an' I care less." 
" Don't they muster in Rising Sun?" 
" Not by a h — 1 of a sight ! If they want their 
necks stretched, let 'em try it." 



172 UNION. 

Mark turned away somewhat discouraged, when 
a stranger beckoned him aside. 

" D'you want to find Captain Hawk?" he asked. 

" Yes; I heard he had regular muster days, and 
that he organizes for the war. " 

" D'you want to enlist?" 

"Yes." 

" Well then, if you're all right, I will tell you 
something." Mark assured him he was all right, 
and the stranger said: " This part of the State is 
pretty nigh all secesh, and you've got to look out. 
Cap 'in Hawk musters to-night at moonlight at the 
Kholmier School House. " 

"Where is that?" 

He was informed it was in the forest about three 
miles away, but if he would meet him at the big 
bridge in the west part of town, he would show 
him to it. Mark made the appointment and went 
at nine o'clock. 

The moon was shining brightly from a clear 
sky, and he found the stranger standing by the 
bridge, while two or three more were a short dis- 
tance away. The men were armed with shot guns 
or rifles and looked more like a party of hunters 
than soldiers. 

"So ye've come," said Mark's first acquaint- 
ance. 

"Yes." 



THE RECRUIT. 173 

They started along a narrow, lonesome path, 
leading through the wood, and Mark at times en- 
tertained a fear that they might be enemies leading 
him into a snare. Such was not the case, how- 
ever, for in due time the sehoolhouse loomed up 
before them, and they saw fully a score of men 
sitting or standing about it. They were mostly 
farmers. Each man had brought a gun of some 
kind, the rifle prevailing. Two or three survivors 
of the Mexican war had brought their old-fashioned 
yagers, which were a curiosity to those unac- 
quainted with military arms. 

Bill Simms, who had never seen a day's service 
in his life, was holding the crowd spellbound with 
hair-raising stories of the trying times he had seen 
under old " Gineral Percy." 

" It's a fact," said Bill, " we marched for a hull 
week on only three meals a day, and had nothin' 
but bread, beef and potatoes, cabbage and beans 
at that. " 

"It's a wonder ye hadn't a starved to death. 
Bill," remarked Nick Marks. 

" I tell ye, boys, I never want ter see sich days 
as them agin." 

" What warye fightin'?" 

"Injuns." 

The appearance of the group to which Mark be- 
longed put an end to the discussion. A man who 



174 UMON. 

looked much more like a farmer than a soldiei- 
came forward, and was introduced as Captain 
Hawk. He asked Mark if he came to enlist, and 
Mark answered in the affirmative. 

" Well, we're trying to get up a company here, 
but hain't got it full yet. Hope we will soon. 
You make sixty-five. If they'll take us, we'll 
go right off. Some say Lincoln's got his seventy- 
five thousand men; but they won't be enough." 

Mark signed a paper, and Captain Hawk went 
through the formality of swearing him into service, 
though his authority was so questionable that 
afterward they were again "mustered in." The 
men were ordered into line, and stood very straight 
while Captain Hawk harangued them for a few 
moments on loyalty, and the necessity of securing 
thirty-five more volunteers in order to make up 
the company. Almost everybody knew of some 
one else who ought to join, and Captain Hawk 
disbanded them, sending each man as a " recruiting 
officer on his own hook. " 

There lived in Boone County. Kentucky, not 
far from Major Stevens, a man named Abe Bolton. 
Abe was not far from twenty-five, and a loud- 
blowing Unionist. Mark went to see him and at 
the next muster brought Abe along. 

To the surprise of all, the company was filled 
up, and everything ready to move. The first 



THE RECRUIT. 175 

move was on Rising Sun, where they rendezvoused 
at midnight, formed in something like order, and 
marched away to Dearborn, where they went into 
camp. 

By reading general history, one can have little 
knowledge of how soldiers are made. They 
seemed to spring up from the ground as it were, 
at the order or proclamation of the president, 
already armed, equipped, drilled, and ready to 
perform prodigies of valor. Such was not the 
case in 1861. The South had most of the experi- 
enced officers. The American regular army never 
amounts to much in either peace or war, and when 
the volunteers were mustered into service they had 
to be educated in the art of war. 

At Dearborn the company was organized and 
the men drilled in platoons and squads. The 
long months of drilling three and four hours per 
day, the inabilit}^ of some of the " tangle feet" to 
get the step, the mysteries of the manual of arms, 
all engaged the attention of the company. Some 
had drill books showing the various positions of 
the soldier, and these were read and discussed with 
avidity by the men. 

They were quartered in old houses, but at night 
built camp fires to look as much like soldiers as 
possible. Among the many curious specimens of 
the genus homo belonging to the company was a 



176 UNION. 

tall youth about seventeen or eighteen years of 
age, who answered, when the roll was called, to 
the name of George F. Ellis; but the sobriquet 
by which he was known in camp was " Sis. " This 
had probably been given hini on account of his 
beardless face, though his features were too coarse 
to be feminine. At first Sis was remarkably bash- 
ful. He was a tall, slender, awkward youth 
dressed in a striped linsey roundabout, a pair of 
blue jeans trousers and a low cap, the peak of 
which did not protect over half of his prominent 
nose. 

Sis soon became the butt of half the jokes in 
the company ; but he had the good sense to pre- 
serve his humor, and possessing some native wit, 
he retaliated on his persecutors, until they came 
to respect him. 

Bill Simms was the most persistent persecutor 
of Sis. Bill claimed to have all the knowledge of 
military matters there was to learn, and the stories 
he told were calculated to raise him in the estimation 
of the volunteers. At last after long waiting the 
uniforms and blankets came. Every volunteer in 
1861 knows what a scramble there was for uni- 
forms. They could hardly wait until the boxes 
were open. Blue coats, trousers and vests with 
brass buttons and caps, were jerked out at a lively 
rate. The misfits were laughable. Sis had a pair 



THE RECRUIT. 



177 



of pants wliicli came little below the knees, and 
Bill Simms bawled out: 

" Hello, Sis, yer must think yer a revolutionary 
soldier wearin' knee breeches. '' 

" These pants are a leetle short, " returned Sis 
good humoredly; *' but they're wide enough to let 
out the slack. " 

" Well, may be ye could piece 'em." 

Mark had a coat large enough for a two-hundred- 
pounder; but Abe Bolton had a coat and pair of 
pants too small, so that by trading around, Mark 
managed to get something like a fit. When he 
was presentable he went out on the street and 
roared with laughter to see at least fifty recruits in 
the most ill-fitting uniforms he ever beheld filing 
away to the picture gallery to have their pictures 
taken. Many of those tin -types are still in exist- 
ence. The reader may have met them. They 
represent the recruit, in a coat much too big, 
holding a cocked revolver in one hand and a mus- 
ket in the other, and trying to look very fierce. 
They were sent to wives and sweethearts to let 
them know how " he" looked in his new soldier 
clothes. 

" I wonder when we are goin' to git out o' here 
and be givin' the secesh a race," said Nick, one 
evening. 

"Wall now, Nick, ye may soon git more o' 
12 




178 UNION. 

figbtin' than ye want. I remember duriu' the five 
years I was with Percy o' sayin' once just what 
you did. Next day we jumped up fifty thousand 
Crows an' fit the whole week." 

" What war the Crows doin', Bill?" Sis asked. 

" Waitin' to grab us by the hair." 

" Oh, 1 thought they were a-pullin' up corn;" 

The roar of laughter which followed this sally 
of wit Bill Sirams did not relish. In a voice of 
thunder, he responded : 

"I mean Crow Injuns, you igiot! Did ye 
think I meant birds?" 

"Yes." 

"So did we, Bill." 

" You're all as big fools as John Barnhart. We 
called him Knuckle Bone Johnny, I met him 
durin' the ten years I war out in Pike's Peak, and 
he couldn't tell the difi'erence between a Injun and 
a stump. " 

"How long were you at Pike's Peak?" asked 
Sis. 

" Igiot! didn't ye just hear me say ten years?" 

" How long war ye with Gineral Percy?" 

" Five. " 

" How long on Red River?" 

'■ Eleven." 

■' You must be purty old. Bill," said Sis. 

'•Why?" 



THE RECRUIT. 179 

" Your ten years at Pike's Peak and five years 
with Gineral Percy makes fifteen. Eleven on 
Eed River twenty-six; and four on White River, 
thirty," Sis went on, marking on the ground 
with his finger. " Then the ten on Black River, 
twenty on the plains, thirty on the sea and all the 
other places ye've been, makes ye about two hun- 
dred and thirty years old. Bill." 

There was a roar of laughter at this, and Bill, 
puffing away at his pipe, coolly remarked : 

" I guess yeVe made some mistake there, Sis." 

The company were getting fairly well drilled. 
Sis was perhaps the most awkward. He could not 
keep step. His long legs rebelled against the 
regulation twenty-eight inches. He was fully as 
awkward in the manual of arms, in wheeling and 
facing for awhile, and the drill sergeant who took 
him in hand to give him some private lessons was 
almost in despair. 

" Now look here. Sis. This is yer right foot." 

" Is it?" Sis asked innocently. 

"Yes, and when I say 'right,' put the hollow 
o' yer left foot behind yer right heel. When I 
saw 'face,' raise yourself on both toes, turn half 
way round to the right, raise yer left foot, bring, 
it down by the right, and there you are!" 

The movement looked very simple; but for Sis 
to perform it exactly and neatly seemed impossible. 



180 UNION. 

" Heavens ! did ever anybody see such tangle 
legs as you have? Why, I'd as soon try to teach 
a daddy-long-legs to waltz as to give you the 
movements of a squad. " 

Mark learned very rapidly, for he had the ad- 
vantages of an excellent education and a retentive 
mind, which received and comprehended the orders. 
He had not been appointed to any of the non-com- 
missioned offices ; but he sought no such appoint- 
ment. He had gone into the service fully imbued 
with the idea of fighting for his country, and he 
believed that the best way to do it was with a 
musket. 

While lying in the camp, he heard of the bloody 
fight and defeat at Bull Bun. Then came still 
later the news of the disaster at Wilson Creek, 
with the loss of General Lj^on, a loss that was 
sadly felt, as he could not be replaced. 

The fiery, impetuous General John C. Fremont, 
a good explorer, but too impetuous and hot-headed 
for a general, was placed in command of the western 
army with his headquarters at St. Louis. For a 
while, it had been feared that this city would be 
seized by the enem}^ ; but Fremont soon had it 
too well fortified for them to attempt it. Mean- 
while, Captain Hawk's company had been placed 
in a regiment and ordered back to Eising Sun, 
The southern sympathizers in this part of the State 



THE RECRUIT. 181 

were very bold and outspoken, and it was said that 
rebels were coming over from Kentucky to attack 
the Yankees. 

Colonel Belcher, who had been a volunteer 
officer in the Mexican war, was a man of more 
military ability than many of his superiors. 
Though they were expected to stay but a short 
time at the place, their colonel ordered them to 
entrench and prepare against an attack. He laid 
out a line of earthworks, and pick and shovel were 
plied until the work was completed. 

" I tell ye, ye needn't fear the secesh," declared 
Abe Bolton. " The3^'d never git us out o' here." 

This recalled to Bill Simms' mind some remi- 
niscences of his experiences with General Percy, 
and he set about telling a new recruit in company 
A a story that almost raised his hair on end. 

It was reported after the work was completed 
that the enemy were contemplating crossing the 
river at Grummet's landing from Kentuck}^ and 
attacking them. Mark was sent with Sis and 
Nick to the river to reconnoitre, with orders to 
remain all night, unless the enemy appeared sooner. 
It was no pleasant situation with two raw recruits, 
one of whom (Nick) was especially nervous, wait- 
ing for an enem}^ reported to be ten thousand 
strong, to come over and cut their throats. 

Nick started at every sound, the falling of a 



183 UNION. 

leaf, or dropping of a clod of earth in the water, 
and exclaimed : 

"What is that?" 

On the other hand, Sis lay down at the root of 
a tree and snored. Between keeping one awake 
and the other from running away, Mark had his 
hands full, and lie welcomed the approach of dawn 
with delight. Shortly after daylight a boat was 
seen to put out from the opposite shore, and Nick 
wanted to open fire on it, then run to town and 
tell the Colonel they were coming. 

" Say, Nick, I believe you're a blamed coward, " 
said Sis, rubbing his eyes and j-awning. 

" No, I'm not; I'm as brave a body as any in 
the regiment." 

"Yes; but you've got a pair o' cowardly legs, 
that runs away at first sign of fight. " 

The skiff landed, and it proved to contain some 
loyal Kentuckians, whom Mark knew, and who 
came to inform them that there was not an armed 
rebel within a week's march. 



CHAPTER IX. 

LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 

It was certainly a cause for congratulation that 
from the first to the last the war had its humorous 
side, and that in the southern as well as those 
northern and border States, even in the midst of 
greatest trials, their spirits were never so crushed as 
to not appreciate the reflex view of their misfor- 
tunes. From their very necessities the most absurd 
dilemmas and exigencies arose which would have 
been annihilating mortifications had they not had 
the presence of mind to treat them as capital jokes. 
No doubt this, and this only, enabled them to 
endure to the end trials and disasters which other- 
wise would have been overwhelming. In looking 
back now to the vicissitudes of the struggle, they 
confess the fact that they never neglected a single 
opportunity for amusement which the situation 
admitted. Being a child during the struggle, the 
author visited the armies of the Confederates and 
Federals without fear or hindrance, and he never 
saw a jollier set. Such practical jokes, such 
183 



184 UXIOX. 

singing and dancing, such laughter — it seemed 
more ])lay than war. Tlie author once watched a 
Confederate army retreating from a lost battle- 
field, and most of the soldiers seemed merry, 
jesting over their own defeat. Even some of the 
slightly wounded were laughing at the drollery of 
others. 

Early in the war Colonel Cole's regiment was 
removed to Richmond, Virginia, where it was 
thought the seat of the Confederate government 
would be established. The colonel's wife and 
daughter accompanied him, and thither came Alec, 
who, after Mark's desertion of the fair prize, be- 
gan to woo Elsie in earnest. 

Elsie seemed glad to have the young Floridian 
with her. She treated him sometimes like a dear 
friend, but most of the time as a trusted servant, 
a real good fellow whom she could trust, and who 
was absolutelv indispensable to her happiness; but 
she never looked on him in the light of a lover. 
She told him her plans, sent him on errands, had 
him for a companion; but when he began to men- 
tion love, she laughed outright. 

" Elsie, you are the most singular person I ever 
saw. You must be a new and unclassified speci- 
men of the female order " 

"Oh, hush, Alec I I want you to come with 
me to the lecture room at St. Paul's this evening. 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 185 

There is to be a meeting of southern girls to do 
what they can for the army. '' 

He looked at her strangeh' and, giving utterance 
to a prolonged whistle, rose to his feet, saying: 

'' AVell, of all the girls I ever saw, you do beat 
them. I'll go and join the army and let the 
Yankees shoot me " 

" If it is such an irksome undertaking, I will 
excuse you. " 

'' Now, Elsie, why do you say that, when you 
know that I am never so happy as when I am 
your slave?" 

" But I don't blame you if you join the arm3^ 
Every lo3'al son of the South should fight for his 
country. " 

" I intend to serve my country. Just give me 
time, Elsie, and I will be a full-fledged soldier." 

" Well, run along now, Alec, like a good boy, 
and play soldier with a broomstick until I want 
you," and she gave him a push toward the door, 
laughing in a way that vexed poor Alec. 

" I never saw any one who could so completely 
get away with me as she can," he said as he 
strolled out into the street. " I declare I feel just 
like a fool. I wish I was a thousand miles from 
here. Sometimes I am tempted to go and join the 
Yankees just for spite. Why didn't I go to Eng- 
land with Dick? Now that Mark's gone, I don't 



186 UNION. 

seem to "be any nearer to the prize than I was be- 
fore. I've a notion to never see her again." 

All the same Alec M'as on time to escort Elsie to 
the lecture-room. It was a little odd for a young 
lady to ask a gentleman to be her escort, and it 
would have been highly improper in any other per- 
son than the pretty, saucy, jolly Elsie Cole. Alec 
was quite sure she would ask no one but himself. 

They went together to the lecture-room at St. 
PauTs Church, where, after a short patriotic ad- 
dress, the ladies were asked to aid in making 
trousers for the soldiers. When all who would 
sew were called upon to rise, Elsie Cole was among 
the first to spring to her feet. 

" Elsie, Elsie, haven't you made a mistake?" 
asked Alec. " Why, girl, you never threaded a 
needle in your life. " 

" I will take you along to thread my needles. " 

" No you won't, by ginger! You may lead me 
around by the ear like a poodle dog; I'll drive 
your coach, make your bouquets, sharpen your 
lead pencils, give you my coat to walk upon, run 
your errands, make your fires, carry you across 
muddy brooks, fight for you, lie for you, steal for 
you ; but may I be teetotally thunderstruck, dragged 
through a crab -apple thicket, and squeezed to death 
in a cider-press, if I am going to any female sew- 
ing society." 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 187 

She asserted that he would go just wherever she 
wanted him; but in tliis Alec was firm. He 
vowed his intention to enlist at once, and next day 
volunteered in a company of infantry ; while Elsie, 
who had scarcely ever had a needle in her hands, 
went to show her patriotism by making soldiers' 
trousers. War is a great leveller. There were 
scarcely any grades in society then. Eich and 
poor labored alike, and the wife of a poor black- 
smith, who had enlisted in iVlec's company, gave 
Elsie her first lesson in sewing. She bravely 
threaded her needle and set to work upon a pair 
of trousers. Never did woman have a more diffi- 
cult task. Nothing but the lovely rebel's patri- 
otism for a cause that she believed just, could 
have induced her to sew away for hours. She 
finally presented the trousers to the directress, as 
she thought nearly finished, for further instructions. 
The directress looked at them rather gravely for 
a second, turned them round with' a furtive smile, 
and then, to Elsie's horror and mortification, held 
them up to the general view. A shout of laughter 
went up from the busy women and girls. Elsie 
had carefully sewed the front of one leg to the back 
of the other, and so joined the parts in a most 
discordant unity. But for the directress, she would 
doubtless have faced them down, put on the buttons 
and sent them off to camp, when, alas! the poor 



188 UNION. 

fellow to whom they fell must evidently have 
marched two ways at once in order to wear them, for 
as they hung in mid-air, the legs seemed to step out 
in opposite directions, and if the wearer had gone 
persistently forward, one leg of those trousers 
would have stayed behind. Amid the peals of 
laughter which overwhelmed Elsie with confusion, 
a voice from the window cried : 

" I pity the fellow who wears those pants, Elsie; 
he'd have to advance and retreat at the same time, 
which would be a little inconvenient." Turning 
her eyes toward the window, Elsie saw Alec, lean- 
ing his elbows on the window-sill with a trium- 
phant smile on his face. She " flashed up" in a 
moment and declared : 

" Alec Stevens, I warrant that I know as much 
about sewing as you do about soldiering." 

"I don't know, little girl; I would not try to 
march two ways at once. " 

She ordered him away, and he, like a willing 
slave, obeyed. That evening he went to see Elsie 
and found her with her hand tied up. She had 
pricked her fingers until they were quite sore, and 
declared that she was among the first martyrs to 
the southern cause. Alec stuck his hands very 
deep into his pockets, and tried to look very brave 
and dignified in his new uniform; but he didn't. 

"I declare I feel just like a fool," he thought. 



.,i:\'^f;rr^-r-,<-V-«^--'' . 




'I PITY THE FELLOW WHO WEAHS THOrSE PANTji. ELSIE; HE'LL HAVE TO ADVANCE 
AND RETREAT AT THE ^^AME TIME." 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 189 

At last lie managed to recall a part of the pretty 
speech he had been all day making up, and began: 
" Elsie, I have something that I want to say to 
you." 

"I know what it is," she interrupted. "You 
want to pity me, Mr. Alec, for having pricked my 
fingers with the needle. You may suggest that if 
I had learned to sew before I came to Richmond, 
I would not be wounded and in pain now. Very 
well, Mr. Alec, it is none of j^our business." 

" Oh, Elsie, don't fly to flinders that way. 
Who in the name of Tom Walker's ghost is say- 
ing anything about sewing? I suspect that you 
do as well as a good many others, who never tried 
to work before; but what I wanted to say was — 
was " 

" Was what? Can't you speak?" 

" Not when you keep interrupting me. I want 
to say something of importance, of great impor- 
tance, and I don't want you to say 'no.'" 

"Then don't say it." 

"Oh, Elsie!" 

" It will be safest not to say anything." 

" Don't talk that way. Mark is gone now " 

" Well, what can that have to do with what you 
are going to say, Alec?" she asked, turning her 
pretty face on him. 

" Why, you see, Elsie, " said Alec with his gaze 



190 UNION. 

riveted on the floor, " I liked Mark ; he was 
more than a brother to me ; and when he came, 
and I saw that he loved you, I said nothing. I 
left the whole field to him. It almost killed me; 
but I did. He was a dear, noble, good fellow, 
and I knew he was more worthy of you than a 
wild, harum-scarum, good-for-nothing scamp like 
me. So 1 gave him a free field ; but he went 
away without telling you how he loved you. He 
has joined the Yankees, and we will never see him 
again, and now that the field is clear, I want to tell 
you how I love you, Elsie; but you must know 
it " 

"Hush!" she cried, so sharply that he started 
back in alarm. " Alec Stevens, you should be 
above such nonsense. This is no time to talk of 
love. If you are a soldier, you belong to your 
country, and to none other." 

She had risen to her feet, her face had suddenly 
become white as marble, while her breath came in 
fitful labored gasps. For a moment she gazed on 
him in silence, and then, turning coldly about, she 
glided silently from the room. Alec gazed after 
her retreating form and scratching his puzzled 
head, dashed on his cap and left the house, de- 
claring : 

" That woman beats thunder. She makes me 
feel just like a fool." 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 191 

When next they met, she was the same superior 
but kind being of yore. So long as he did not 
approach that most vital of all subjects to him, 
love, she seemed to like him as a lad}^ of fashion 
does her pet poodle, or a trusty faithful servant. 
All this was gall and bitterness to the proud Alec. 

The first movement of the military in Virginia, 
momentous as it then appeared, was the most ab- 
surd fiasco of the war. It was on a memorable 
Sabbath, April 21, 1861, that the alarm bell at 
the capitol sounded at mid-day its first call to 
arms. The churches were crowded, and the com- 
munion was about to be administered, when the 
dread sounds smote upon the air. In an instant 
all was confusion ; congregations rose en masse and 
ran into the streets ; delicate women shrieked and 
fainted ; children were knocked down and trampled 
on; while one and all in breathless excitement de- 
manded an explanation. It was quickly given. 
Dispatches had been received by the governor of 
Virginia (Mr. John Letcher) that the United States 
warship Pmvnee was moving up the river to shell 
the city. Hundreds of soldiers, who might be 
compared to Falstaff's band of warriors, were 
marched down to Rockets to meet this terrifying 
vanguard of the United States nav}'. Two old 
bronze cannon that had done service in no telling 
how manv Fourth-of-Julv celebrations were started 



133 UNION. 

down Main Street at a run. One broke down in 
front of the Post Office, and was abandoned, while 
they hurried on with the other; and every man 
and boy in Richmond, clergy and all, indiscrimi- 
nately armed with pistols, shotguns, rifles, swords, 
and even clubs, were hurrying to the seat of war. 
Alec, with a double-barrelled shotgun in one hand 
and a pitchfork in the other, joined the rabble. 

Left to themselves, the women and children 
next took up the line of march and flocked by 
thousands to the brow of Church Hill, immediately 
overlooking the river, in which position they must 
inevitably have received the full force of the bom- 
bardment, had there been one. The city was in a 
tumult, and the wildest confusion prevailed until 
twilight, when it was ascertained that the alarm 
was wholly unfounded. 

Alec Stevens was slowly making his way back 
to the city, his gun on his shoulder and his hay- 
fork in his hand, when a voice called out from 
the stream of women and children pouring into 
town : 

" Alec, Alec, what have you been doing with 
that hayfork?" 

The merry voice was familiar, and through the 
gathering shades of twilight he saw the lovely face 
of Elsie Cole, gleaming like a ray of sunlight in 
the sombre shadows. 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 193 

" I was going to tight the Yankees, '' he answered. 
A scream of laughter went up from a dozen girls, 
and Elsie, finally getting control of her merriment, 
said: 

" So, you propose to fight men-of-war with a 
hayfork!" 

" Oh, confound it, Elsie, why do you make 
sport of everything I do?" cried Alec, throwing 
his fork into the river, and walking home at her 
side, quarrelling all the way. 

The Pawnee did, at some time during her opera- 
tions in Virginia, ascend the James Eiver to a 
point some fifty or sixty miles below Richmond ; 
but at the moment- the citizens of the Confederate 
capital M'ere rushing en masse to fight her she 
was lying harmlessly at rest, and the telegram 
sent from Norfolk was said to refer to Elizabeth 
River. 

The retreat of the valiant army from the blood- 
less battle-iield was very droll, and those whose 
patriotic eyes had actually descried the dread 
man-of-war, and had been able through their 
glasses to detect her movements, were naturally a 
little " touchy" on the subject, which, however, 
did not exempt them from the merciless raillery of 
their companions. Neither Burnside, McClellan, 
nor Grant, with their "grand armies," ever occa- 
sioned so great a panic in the Confederate capital, 
13 



194 UNION. 

Later on, the inhabitants of Richmond grew more 
accustomed to war's alarms, and could lie down 
and sleep with the cannon of the enemy thunder- 
ing at their gates. 

Those were the gala days of the war. The 
ladies were full of ardor, and spent their time sew- 
ing on the clothes of the soldiers. Love affairs 
were plentiful ; but the girls postponed all engage- 
ments until their lovers had fought the Yankees. 
Their influence was very great. Dav after day 
they went in crowds to the fair grounds, where 
the First South Carolina volunteers were encamped, 
showering upon them smiles and such delicacies as 
the city could afford. There were young men 
worth from one hundred thousand to half a million 
dollars in that regiment, serving as privates. 

The camps of instruction were crowded with 
soldiers. The cadets from the Virginia military 
institute, rendered good service as drill-masters. 
The Maryland boys began to gather into compa- 
nies in Richmond and to form the Maryland line. 
South Carolina sent her braves, Louisiana her 
magnificent "Washington artiller}'," superbly 
equipped. From the Lone Star State came her 
rangers, and as the different banners floated in the 
air at the head of their columns, they cheered to 
the echo. In all the excitement attending the 
marshalling of the clans from the sunnv land, Mars 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 195 

and Cupid clasped hands, and many a bud of love 
was then first blown, which, ere it proved a 
beauteous flower, was twined in a funeral wreath. 

There was no more ardent lover among those 
southern soldiers than honest, good-hearted, but 
reckless Alec ; whose ill-starred fate is only another 
exemplification of the proverb that the course of 
true love does not always run smooth. Alec, 
temporarily offended at some slight on the part of 
Elsie, strolled off to camp, and sat down at the 
root of a tree, heartily wishing that the Yankees 
would come up and put him out of his misery. 
A group of Kentucky soldiers who had been quar- 
tered near attracted his attention by their peculiar 
quarrel. It was quite evident that prior to enlist- 
ment they had been farmers in the bottom regions 
of Kentucky, where ignorance and poverty pre- 
vailed. Of the four principals in the animated 
discussion he soon learned that one was named 
Long, one Brown, one Jones and another Smith. 
The conversation seemed to grow out of some re- 
marks about the drought which prevailed in the 
month of May in Virginia. 

" Don't rain putty soon, everything '11 be burnt 
bodaciously up, " remarked Brown, as he fingered 
a deck of greasy cards. " Hain't had 'nuff rain 
fur three weeks ter lay the dust. " 

" Hain't had nuff ter lay an egg," put in Long. 



196 UAION. 

At this there was a roar of laughter, and Jones 
remarked : 

" Ef I could say as many funny things as Long, 
ye wouldn't ketch me in the army; dinged ef I 
didn't go to town an' practise law. Bet I'd win 
every case. Why didn't you do it, Long?" 

" Feered I mought hatter whup somebody. 
Never did like ter fight. It's too much like hard 
work ter suit me. " 

" Sensible, thar, dinged ef you ain't. I had a 
fight once, an' afo' I got through, wush I may die 
ef I didn't think I wuz breakin' a yoke ov steers," 
remarked private Brown. 

" Ur that tother feller war a-whuppin' a calf," 
put in Long, which produced another roar. 

" Jes' so; but I give him a mighty good tussle. 
Who's got that canteen?" 

" Here she is," said Smith. 

" Wall, send her on th' warmin' rounds of 
charity agin," returned Brown. 

" Calls it charity, I reckin, 'cause it didn't cost 
him nuthin'," the witty Long remarked. 

" Eeckin it cost me about ez much ez it did 
you. Wall here's at you, dod rot you, had never 
seed you, would never a toch you," and after a 
drink Brown added, " Boys, that's poetry." 

" 'Tain't as strong as the licker, " asserted Smith. 

" Nur as good," said Long. 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 197 

" But jist as free, " declared Brown. 

" Things that are bad are ginerally free. Flat 
terbacker costs money, but jou can git the chills 
for nothin'." 

" An' ter git well is good. You've got ter pay 
for that. " 

" Er man pays mighty dear fur bein' sick. Last 
fall I tuk sick standin' at the 'lection poles, an' 
it cost me five dollars. " 

" Guess it was th' result of th' 'lection made 
ye sick." 

"Let's all lickerl" They did so, and the con- 
tents of the canteen began to show its effects on 
them. 

" Bet thar ain't a mess in th' regiment whar th' 
soldiers are so good humored," said Smith. 

"Bet so too," added Brown. "Hain't had a 
fight since I enlisted. " 

" That's cause everybody knows ye. Brown, I 
reckin you air about th' best man in th' com- 
pany," suggested Long, ironically. 

" Reckin not. Don't think I am ez good a man 
ez you are. " 

" Didn't you outlift me at Fergurson's log 
roUin'?" asked Long. 

"No, don't think I did." 

" I hearn you did. " 

" I don't know who told it. " 



198 UNION. 

" I hearn you did. " 

" You hearn sometliiu' that ain't so. I don't go 
round blowin' my own ho'n." 

" Wall, somebody's been blowin' it." 

" 'Twarn't me." 

" Guess you furnished a good deal uv th' wind." 

'* Come, boys, let's licker an' then sing a song," 
interposed Jones to prevent trouble. They all 
drank, and Smith, wlio was a tall man, said: 

" A leetle o' that goes a long way. " 

" Does when you swaller it, cause it hez a long 
ways to go," remarked Brown. 

" That remark was about ez sharp ez a cabbage, " 
Long declared. 

" All remarks in shape of cabbages should come 
from your head . " 

"I'druther be a fresh cabbage, than an old 
bellows. " 

"Who's a old bellows?" 

" A man what goes round tellin' how much he 
can lift. " 

"There ain't no ill wind in the truth," Brown 
declared. 

" But thar ain't no truth in th' wind you blow," 
Long, quite exasperated, replied. 

"Wall, now, ef you are still harpin' on that 
log-rollin', I want to say right here, afore all these 
gentlemen, that I did outlift you. When you an' 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 199 

me was under the same handspike, at the end of 
th' old sycamore log, you come mighty nigh 
cavin'." 

" Here, boys, this has gone fur enough. Let's 
licker," interposed Smith, and again the canteen 
was passed as a peace offering. But Brown was 
by no means satisfied, and after smacking his lips, 
he mopped his florid brow, and ironically remarked : 

" It ain't agin the arm}^ regulations to tell the 
truth." 

" Ef it was, you'd not be court martialled for 
violation of th' rules," growled Long. 

" An' ef every coward was drummed out o" th' 
service, you'd be hoin' co'n in Kentucky." 

"You're a liar." 

At this the angrj- Kentuckians flew at each 
other, and the blows were flying fast and reckless, 
when their two half-tipsy companions, aided by 
Sergeant Bragg of the same company, tore them 
asunder. 

" What air you'uns quarrellin' about?" the ser- 
geant asked. 

The malefactors stood panting and silent with 
downcast eyes, while Smith explained that the 
casus belli was over which had outlifted the other 
at the Fergurson log-rolling last fall. 

" Why, yon dinged fools, you warn't neither of 
you at the log-rollin'," declared the sergeant. 



200 UMON. 

Brown and Long exchanged glances, and the 
former remarked : 

" Come to think of it, I war at town that day, 
and got drunk afo' noon. Guess I didn't go." 

" An' now I come to think, I had the chills, an' 
never left the house," returned Long. The bel- 
ligerents shook hands, all took a drink, and next 
moment all were singing the " Old Folks at Home. " 

On the 20th of May, the Confederate govern- 
ment was removed to Richmond, and a few days 
after that, there was an immense popular furore 
over the arrival of the president. The presidential 
mansion, at the corner of Twelfth and Clay streets, 
now a public-school building, had not been pro- 
cured, and the president and his family were tem- 
porarily provided for at the Spotswood Hotel. An 
immense concourse of people assembled at the 
depot and thronged the streets leading to the hotel. 
On the way numbers of bouquets were thrown or 
handed into the carriage. One thrown by a pretty 
little child fell just a short distance from it, and 
Mr. Davis stopped the carriage, got out and }iicked 
it up amid tremendous applause. That night 
there was a serenade, and Mr. Davis spoke briefly 
from the window of the hotel. Alec, who had 
come from the camp to escort Elsie to the scene, 
managed to get himself and his fair companion 
near enough to see and hear the president. , 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 



201 



Mr. Davis was at that time a man of very strik- 
ing appearance, tall, lithe and graceful, straight 
as an Indian, dignified and reposed in manner, but 
without hauteur. His address was scarce more 
than an acknowledgment of the enthusiastic wel- 
come and a word of encour- 
agement. He was followed 
by Senator Wigfall of Texas, 
General Henry A. Wise and 
others. 

During the speaking, Mrs. 
Davis was discovered near the 
parlor window, and was vo- 
ciferously and persistently 
cheered, until she advanced 
to the window and acknowl- 
edged the compliment by bow- 
ing to the immense concourse assembled to wel- 
come her. She was of commanding height, with 
dark hair, eyes and complexion, with strongly 
marked and expressive mouth. It was a line face, 
indicative of intellect, energy, and strength of 
character, yet beautifully softened by the gentle 
expression of her dark, earnest eyes. Her man- 
ners were kind, graceful and affable, her conversa- 
tional powers brilliant, and her receptions, which 
Elsie attended, were characterized by a dignity 
very properly belonging to the drawing-room 




Jeff Davis. 



202 UNION. 

entertainments of the chief magistrate of a re- 
public. 

As Alec was conducting Elsie home that even- 
ing, he overheard a voice near him in the crowd 
saying : 

" Yaas, we war 'bout ter fight, Long an' me, 
'boat liftin' at th' log-rollin' at Fergurson's last 
fall, an' then come ter find 'at neither one o' us 
war there at all, huh, huh, huh, huh!" 

In the speaker, Alec recognized one of the Ken- 
tuckians whose humorous quarrel he had overheard 
a short time before. 

Military discipline soon put a stop to the fre- 
quent visits of Alec to the home of Elsie. Leave 
of absence was hard to obtain, and he began to see 
much less of the fair damsel than was agreeable to 
the lovesick swain. Alec soon realized his mis- 
take in not starting into the service as a commis- 
sioned officer. It is a long and hard road to climb 
from a knapsack to shoulder-straps. 

His regiment was ordered to the front. By 
June 1, 1861, there had been some skirmishing, 
and the two armies were preparing for the great 
struggle which was soon to commence. West 
Virginia had refused to secede, and there was 
already talk of forming a new State out of the ter- 
ritory west of the mountains. General Robert E. 
Lee was made commander of the Confederate army 



LOVE AXD EXCITEMENT. 203 

of Virginia, while General George B. McClellan 
was placed in command of the department of the 
Ohio. 

Alec's regiment left Eichmond, May 26th, and 
the young soldier, unaccustomed to such hardships, 
gloomily trudged along the dusty road with his 
gun on his shoulder. 

They camped on the banks of a stream. He 
never knew the name of it nor did he ever know 
why the regiment halted there for almost two 
weeks. Thousands of rumors were floating in the 
air and more than two-thirds of them were be- 
lieved. Steel -clothed Yankees, with bristling 
horns, were said to be just beyond the hills, ad- 
vancing to cut them to pieces. Mark took his 
first turn on picket duty. Perhaps there is noth- 
ing more trying on the nerves of a raw recruit, 
than midnight duty on a solitary picket post. 
But Alec had left Elsie in a huff, and declared he 
hoped the Yankees would kill him, so it did not 
make much difference whether he was killed on 
picket, or in line of battle; but when the captain 
called him to his tent and gave him his final in- 
structions before going to his post. Alec felt his 
blood congeal. The captain sought to impress on 
his mind that the post was important, the danger 
imminent, and the foe near. If attacked he was 
to fire and fall back on the reserves. He was to 



204 UMON. 

be on the alert for an ambuscade or some trick of 
the enemy. Above all things, he was to remem- 
ber that the safety of the regiment, the army, and 
the Southern Confederacy depended on his vigi- 
lance. 

Although Alec thought the officer overdoing the 
matter a little, the great responsibility made him 
exceedingly nervous. A more drear, wilder or 
lonelier place, could not have been found, and Alec 
declared : 

" Hang me if I could find my way back to 
camp, if I was attacked. " 

Alec never realized what it was to be alone on 
picket before, until he found himself alone on this 
dreary post, with the blackest of nights gathered 
all about him. A melancholy breeze was abroad, 
and the rustling leaves seemed moved by the wings 
of ghosts. Black clouds thickened in the sky, 
shutting out the faint light of the stars and leav- 
ing all plutonian darkness. Alec seemed all of a 
sudden to feel that he was alone, and helpless, 
with an enemy in front who was probably at tliat 
very moment creeping foi'ward to stab him dead 
at his post. Retreat was utterly impossible, and 
for the first time in his life, he began to feel all 
the pangs of fear. Naturally Alec was brave; 
but he was unacquainted with war and danger, 
and this new experience had been thrust on him 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 205 

so suddenly, and with such little preparation, that 
he was seized with the strange and unknown sen- 
sation of dread. 

Alone with the dark night, the forest all about 
him, not a companion to whom he might whisper 
a word of consolation, or hope, — no wonder he 
began to quake with fear. At times the silence 
was so deafening, and the darkness so appalling 
that he felt as if he must cry out in his agony. 
Not even a night bird fluttered by, not an owl 
uttered its thrilling hoot, nor the mournful cr}^ of 
the coon reached his ears. All was silence, deep, 
awful silence. It seemed as if an icy blast from 
off some frozen river had suddenly struck him, 
causing his form to tremble with an unknown sen- 
sation, while he grasped his musket with an 
energy of despair. 

He stood near a small oak, and at last leaning 
against it, tried to hum a tune in order to convince 
himself that he was not scared. His own voice 
seemed to sound hoarse and uimatural, and though 
he did not hum above his breath, it went out on 
the air, like the boom of a cannon, as if its rever- 
berations would never cease. 

At last he heard an awful tread. It was a 
stealthy, terrible, tramping sound, moving slowly 
and cautiously through the bushes, like some giant 
rifleman creeping forward to slay him. At first 



206 UNION. 

he thought his ears were deceiving him; but at 
last he became convinced that there could be no 
mistake. He could hear the bushes parting care- 
fully, as if a man were pushing them aside with 
his hands to thrust the barrel of his gun forward, 
in order to make a sure shot at the guard. 

In the first trans}iorts of his dread, Alec thought 
to fly, but having forgotten the direction to the 
camp, he knew that he was as liable to run right 
into the arms of the enemy. Then his heart be- 
gan to palpitate, his hair stood on end, and his 
knees tottered; his thoughts teemed with presages 
of death and destruction ; his conscience rose up 
in judgment against him, and he underwent a 
severe paroxj'sm of dismay and distraction. 

In that awful moment, poor Alec remembered 
his misspent life, his many sins, and fully realized 
how uniit such a wild, harum-scarum fellow as he 
was to appear at the bar of eternal justice, and yet 
here was a whole army of Yankees creeping for- 
ward to blow him into eternity. Appreciating 
the uncertainty of life, and the certainty of death, 
lie for the first time entertained serious thoughts 
of preparation for the latter. He sank on his 
knees and tried to pray, but " Now I lay me 
down to sleep" was all that he could think of at 
that moment, which in the least resembled a 
prayer. From one extreme of fear he rushed to 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 



307 



another. His last desperate idea was to fire and 
run. He knew not where he would run, nor what 
would be the result of 
the flight ; but he deter- 
mined to run. 

At this moment the 
clouds parted, and the 
pale lambent glow of a 
star, dimly lighting the 
scene, fell upon a spot 
in the bushes where they 
had been separated and 
he saw a pair of slender 
objects, which to his 
heightened imagi- 
nation, might be 
either swords or 
bayonets, pointed 
directly at his 
breast, ready to 
slay him. Nerved 
with an energy of 
despair, he took a 
hasty aim and 
pulled the trigger. There was a stunning report, 
and Alec was sent heels over head by the recoil of 
the musket, into a thorn bush. 

Scratched, torn and bleeding, he crawled out 




Now I LAY ME DOWN TO SLEEP," WAS 
COULD THINK OF. 



208 UNION. 

from bis uncomfortable position, and ran as fast 
as bis legs could carry bim, sbouting: 

" To arms ! to arms ! tbe foe ! tbe foe ! " 

More by good luck tban judgment, bis mad 
fligbt took bim in tbe direction of tbe camp, wbere 
be found tbe long roll beating, and men falling 
into ranks. Guards came burrying in from otber 
points, and tbe brass six-pound cannon was loaded. 

Alec was running up and down tbe line, wildly 
yelling " To arms!" wben bis captain seized bim, 
sbook bim, and demanded : 

" Wbat's tbe matter? Wbo bred tbat sbot?" 

"I did." 

" Wbat did you sboot at?" 

" Tbe Yankees. " 

" How many are tbey ? " 

" I saw fifty at least, and I am sure tbere are 
ten tbousand bebind tliem. " 

A reconnoitring part}*, one bundred strong, 
was finally sent forward to see wbat bad become 
of tbe enemy, wbo were making no noise. Alec 
was cbosen to guide tbem to tbe spot. 

"Wbere is your musket?" tbe officer in com- 
mand asked. 

"I don't know," be answered. In fact be had 
not thought of bis musket since he fired. 

Slowly, carefully, yet boldly, they advanced 
through tbe bushes to tbe outpost. Not a word 



LOVE AND EXCITEMENT. 209 

was spoken, save when the commanding officer 
issued some order. 

The place was at last reached, and the captain, 
with drawn sword, led the way to the thicket 
where Alec had seen the phalanx of bayonets. 
The spot was reached, and the commanding officer 
flashed a light over a dark object lying on the 
ground, and burst into a roar of laughter. 

"What is the matter?" asked Alec, fearing 
that he had made some miserable blunder. 

" Why, you idiot, you have killed a cow!" was 
the answer, and then the forest rang with a hun- 
dred peals of laughter. 
14 



CHAPTER X. 

FIRST FIRE. 

Mark Stevens had been two months at Rising 
Sun before his regiment moved. Then they went 
down the river to Cairo, where General Benjamin 
M. Prentiss, a brave Illinois brigadier of volun- 
teers, was in command. General Prentiss, not 
having been a regular-army officer, was not in 
favor with the war department. Shortly after 
Mark's arrival, he was superseded by General 
Grant. Soon after taking command, Grant sent 
a force to seize Paducah, Kentucky. Tiiis was 
done just in time to prevent the Confederates from 
making a like effort. This was of course in viola- 
tion of the disloyal Kentucky governor's ideas of 
armed neutrality. 

Murk took no part in the capture of Paducah, 
and in fact had not yet seen an armed Confederate, 
nor heard a gun fired in conflict. He had learned 
that General Fremont was in the field. On Au- 
gust 31st, Fremont had proclaimed the freedom 
of the slaves, and confiscated the property of the 
disunionists of Missouri. This was a dangerous 
210 



FIRST FIRE. 211 

proclamation, but in keeping with a man whose 
ideas are based on the force of the armj^, instead 
of statesmanship. No one jet thought of the free- 
dom of the slaves, and not one soldier in ten had 
enlisted with that object in view, and the procla- 
mation, had it been enforced, would have driven 
thousands of soldiers out of the army, Lincoln 
seeing the folly, checked the wild career of Fre- 
mont before he had gone far enough to do any 
great mischief. 

Fremont moved against Price. Fearing that 
the Confederate troops at Columbus might rein- 
force Price, General Grant, who with twenty thou- 
sand men was at Cairo, was ordered to make a 
demonstration on both sides of the Mississippi, in 
order to engage the attention of the forces at Co- 
lumbus. Colonel Richard Oglesby was dispatched 
with troops to meet about three thousand of the 
enemy on the St. Francois River, fifty miles south 
of Cairo. On the 5th, Grant dispatched Colonel 
W. H. L. Wallace from Bird's Point to overtake 
and reinforce Oglesby, with orders to march to 
New Madrid, a point some distance on the Mis- 
souri side. General Smith was ordered, at the 
same time, to make a direct demonstration against 
Columbus with what troops he could spare from 
Paducah. He was ordered to make only a demon- 
stration, and to halt a few miles from town. 



212 UNION. 

Some of these orders reached the ears of the pri- 
vates, and Mark felt that an attack was not very 
far off; but where or how the bolt would strike 
he could not tell. On the evening of November 
5, lSf»l, the soldiers were sitting about their camp 
iires smoking and telling stories. 

Bill Simms was lying on a bundle of straw, his 
hands clasped behind his head and a pipe in his 
mouth. It was already conceded that Bill was 
the chief liar in the regiment. 

" Boys, we're goin' to have some hot work be- 
fore three days," said Bill. 

"How d'ye know. Bill?" Abe Bolton asked, 
while Sis rubbed his smooth chin in silence. Bill, 
giving an extra puflE or two at his pipe, went on : 

" I see them ginerals puttin' their heads to- 
gether. Then they hutry Oglesby ofi one way, 
and send Wallace after him with a thousand men. 
I tell ye, boys, there's goin' to be trouble. I 
remember one time when I was with Gineral 
Percy!" 

"Say, Bill, let up on your Percy experience," 
interrupted one of the soldiers. 

"Well, lemme tell this story — — " 

"Don't do it. Bill; it'll only add one more lie 
to the long list you'll have to answer fur, when 
the rebels till you full o' lead." 

"Now, boys, there ain't no need to be makin' 



FIRST FIRE. 213 

light o' this, for we "re goin' to have trouble. 
What do you say about it, Sis?" 

Sis pressed his finger to his beardless chin, and 
asked : 

" What did we come for?" 

Mark joined the group, and a moment later a 
corporal came and detailed the guard. Bill Simms 
was put on that duty, and it freed his mess from 
any further Percy reminiscences. Next da}- the 
men were ordered to provide themselves with three 
days' rations and forty rounds of cartridges. That 
sounded verv much like business, and the soldiers 
began to ask each other where the}' were going. 
Large steamboats at the landing, sending forth 
volumes of black smoke, were strongly suggestive 
of an expedition on the water. 

Mark's regiment was ordered aboard one of the 
boats. The vessels were partially provided against 
bullets, their sides being guarded by thick boards 
which might turn an ordinary musket-ball. The 
firemen were shovelling in coal, the steam escaping 
in deafening hisses, so that the vessel seemed to actu- 
ally tremble beneath the struggles of the confined 
monster. The soldiers were silent, all realizing 
that they were about to embark on an expedition 
from which many would never return. 

Mark gazed at the shore and camp, which had 
for weeks been his home, and asked himself, 



214 UNION. 

would he ever see it again? He knew not whither 
he was going. All was surmise. Columbus was 
down the river, and yet Mark did not believe that 
General Grant would be foolish enough to attack 
it. Grant had " gathered up all the troops at Cairo 
and Fort Holt, excejDt suitable guards," and took 
them aboard the steamers convoyed by two gun- 
boats. The forces of General Grant were between 
four and five thousand men, embracing five regi- 
ments of infantry, two guns, and two companies 
of cavalry. 

General Grant had no idea of making an attack 
at the outstart, and the glory of the fight at Bel- 
mont belongs to the troops. The conflict was 
forced on the general by the volunteers. They 
had enlisted to fight, and were heartily tired of the 
inactivity of camp life. Nothing is so calculated 
to discourage and demoralize a soldier as inactivity. 
When General Grant saw how elated his officers 
and soldiers were at the prospect of the long-prom- 
ised engagement with the enemy, he realized 
that, in order to retain their respect, he must make 
some effort before returning to Cairo. Grant, in 
a great measure, owed his success to his having 
the good sense to take advice from others ; to his 
ability to appreciate the situation and to act ac- 
cordingly. He knew that it would be folly to 
attack Columbus; but about two o'clock, he 



FIRST FIRE. 215 

learned tliat the enemy was crossing troops from 
Columbus to the west bank, to be dispatched, pre- 
sumabh', after Oglesb}'. There was a small camp 
of Confederates at Belmont immediateh' opposite 
Columbus, and at this point he resolved to make 
the attack. 

The great steamers at last began to move. As 
thej cast off from the shore, and glided out into 
the stream, Bill Simms, who stood on the for- 
ward deck smoking his pipe, said: 

" Now, boj's, look at Cairo. Some o' you may 
never come back." 

Mark felt the full force of this idle speech. He 
was no coward; but any reflecting man who comes 
face to face with danger, experiences a sensation 
called fear. The man who says that he goes into 
battle without an}- of the pangs of dread either 
does not possess the good sense requisite to self- 
protection, or is an unmitigated liar. The man 
whose fears are subordinate to pride and patriot- 
ism makes the best soldier. The brave man 
dreads going into battle, but when he feels tlie 
touch of his comrade's elbow, it seems to inspire 
confidence, and he looks forward, not backward. 

As Mark stood in the stern of the boat, his mind 
went back over the past. The sun set, and dark- 
ness gathered over the scene as the steamers sped 
on their "vvay, trailing showers of sparks and vol- 



216 UNION. 

umes of black smoke in their wake. Mark glanced 
at the stars, asking himself if he woiikl ever see 
them again. He realized that a broadside of artil- 
lery, or the explosion of a torpedo might, at any 
moment, send them to the bottom. His aged 
parents, in their Kentucky home, might pass 
many anxious days ere they learned his fate. 
Then his mind wandered to another. That one 
was the peerless Elsie in her far off southern home. 
No wonder that Mark thought of her on this occa- 
sion, for she was scarce ever out of his mind. 
Months of excitement had failed to efface the 
image of the beautiful maid of the South from his 
memory, and he realized that time would never 
do so. 

" O life ! what a mystery, " soliloquized Mark. 
" Men are born, enter on the stage of action, per- 
form their little part and pass away. The past 
has been dark and stormy, while the future is 
darker than this starless night. We may talk of 
happiness, but where is it found?" Then his mind 
reverted to that dark shadow blighting his own 
life, and he said: "But for that, I might have 
been happy. A cruel fate is mine. Why was 
it decreed that I should meet her, when such a 
meeting was only productive of misery? Is it 
Providence, or is it fate, that makes puppets of 
men, plays with them for awhile and then casts 



FIRST FIRE. 217 

them aside? There seems no ease from this strain 
called life, save the grave; then how foolish to fear 
death." 

Mark Stevens felt bitter against the capricious 
fortune which had seemed to play with him as a 
cat does with the mouse. Misery had claimed 
him at his birth, for he had ever been unfortunate, 
and he might reasonably presume that he would 
fall in the coming struggle. What was death that 
he need fear it? When the sickly dream of life 
was over, then he would be at peace from the war- 
ring elements of outrageous fortune. 

Thinking was painful, and Mark rose and went 
toward the pilot house. A score of soldiers 
wrapped in blankets lay snoring on the deck. 

' Happy fellows!" sighed Mark. " Care sits so 
lightly on your brows that you sleep in peace, 
even while rushing to what may be your eternal 
doom. Perhaps it is wisest after all. Wh}^ take 
thought for the morrow, when the morrow is be- 
yond control, and we know not what it may 
bring forth — sunshine or shadow?" 

It was two o'clock on the morning of the 7th 
before Mark Stevens had even attempted to sleep. 
He was only dozing when the boats came to, and 
the ofl&cers on each met in general consultation. 
Then all pushed boldly down the river again. 
When day dawned they were tied up under the 



218 UNION. 

banks ; but the pickets above Columbus were drawn 
in, and about daylight the boats moved out from 
the shore. Mark, who had been in a fitful slum- 
ber, awoke as the boats started from the shore. 

" Where are we going?" he asked Bill Simms, 
who was filling his pipe. 

" We seem to be goin' over to the Missouri side. " 

" Have you heard nothing of our destination?" 

" No, old Grant and all the rest keep a close 
mouth." 

The soldiers were gathered about the deck in 
groups, either silent, or talking in whispers. 
Mark saw Sis, a little apart from the others, sitting 
on a coil of rope, yawning, and only half awake. 

" Sis, we'll be in Missouri soon," said Mark. 

" Tho't we were goin' to Columbus, " Sis growled. 

" We will probably have some fighting any 
way," Mark returned, gazing at the shore they 
were approaching. The land was low and in 
places cut up with sloughs. Sis, who had followed 
the direction of his glance, with another careless 
yawn remarked : 

" Good place fur ducks. " 

The soil on the west side was rich, and the tim- 
ber large and heavy. There were some small 
clearings between Belmont and the point for which 
they were heading, but most of the country was 
covered with native forests. 



FIRST FIRE. 219 

" We are goin' to land right in front of them 
corn fields," growled Bill Simms, puffing away at 
his pipe. " Now it's bad policy. Gineral Percy 
would know better than that. " 

" Perhaps there is no other place to land," Mark 
ventured to answer; " and then, this may be only 
a feint." 

" Wall, a feller'd faint afore he'd take Columbus 
from this side o' the river." 

"There's one boat rounding to," put in Abe 
Bolton, pointing to one of the boats. " Slie's 
goin' to land." 

" Yes, there goes the line. See the niggers 
jump ashore!" 

" And the gang plank is run out. " 

In an incredible short time orders could be heard 
from the landed boat. 

" Attention ! Eight face. By fours — forward — 
march!" and a long line of blue coats, with glit- 
tering muskets and bayonets were seen leaving the 
boat. 

"There goes the gineral's boss," said Sis. 
" Wonder if he run at the fair last fall?" 

General Grant went ashore, formed the first regi- 
ment that landed, and marched it down the river a 
short distance, to guard against surprise. In the 
woods, a short distance below the landing, was a 
depression, where the men were stationed with 



220 UNION. 

orders to remain until properly relieved. These 
troops with the gunboats were left to protect the 
transports. 

" Wonder if they've gone off to do all the lightin' 
themselves?" asked Sis with another yaAvn. 

" No, our boat is goin' ashore," some one said. 

" Fall in!" cried the lion-like voice of the colo- 
nel, then the captains took command of their 
companies, and in a moment every man was be- 
hind the stacked muskets. 

Here they waited until the boat ran in to shore, 
and lay alongside the muddy bank. Mark watched 
a negro leap ashore and seize the cable which he 
wound about an old stump. The boat was soon 
secured, and then came the command: 

"Take— arms!" 

In two seconds' time a thousand muskets were 
seized as one, and brought to an order. 

" Carry — arms!" 

They brought their muskets to their sides. 

"Right— face!" 

That pretty movement was executed, and they 
received the command to march. They stepped 
off as one man, and walked do.wn the stage plank 
to the shore. 

"I believe they kin see us from Columbus," 
said Nick timidly. 

" What if they do? We ain't hurtin' 'em over 



FIRST FIRE. 331 

there," growled Bill Simms, who still clung to his 
pipe. They marched a few hundred paces away, 
and the regiment came to a halt. 

All the transports had landed, and the men were 
rapidly coming ashore. A long line of blue coats 
was seen forming. Up to this time, Mark and his 
companions were in utter ignorance of the inten- 
tion of the officers; but when they had been 
formed and stood waiting the order to advance, a 
whisper ran down the line: 

" There's Johnny rebs over there?" 

"Where?" asked Nick. 

" Just over the hill." 

Then came the order to march by the left flank, 
and they advanced a mile and a half, and halted 
in a low, flat, marshy place covered with a heavy 
growth of timber in front. Then came a requisi- 
tion on each captain to detail ten men from his 
company for skirniishers. 

Mark, Sis, Bill Simms and Abe Bolton were 
detailed as four of the ten from their company. 
They deployed at the distance of about four rods 
apart at first, and began to advance carefully into 
the heavy timber. . Mark could see no one, yet 
his heart was beating wildly, his face was very 
pale, though he was not trembling. 

Sis was on his left, and Bill Simms on his 
right. They had not gone far when a hare 



222 UNION. 

started up before the former, and went bounding 
away. 

"There goes a rabbit!" cried Sis, cocking his 
gun. 

"You dern fool, don't you shoot!" cautioned 
Bill Simms. " Don't you see there is bigger game 
ahead?" 

It was hard for Sis to resist his natural desire 
for sport, but he did so, and let the hammer of his 
musket down. The officers in charge of the skir- 
mishers were passing quickly up and down the 
line, giving commands and words of encourage- 
ment. 

As yet, not a shot had been fired, and Mark 
had not seen a sign of an enemy ; but it became 
quite evident from the caution exercised, that they 
were nearing danger. Mark saw some of his fel- 
low soldiers crawling among the trees and bushes. 

"Bang!" 

The shot was fired two or three hundred yards 
on his left. Whether it was a Union or Confed- 
erate shot, he never learned. A moment later he 
heard two or three more in quick succession, and 
then he thought he saw something moving in the 
bushes directly before him. It might have been 
a man, or some dome^^tic animal. Once or twice 
he raised his gun, intending to shoot it, but not 
being quite certain lowered his piece. 



FIRST FIRE. 223 

Suddenly there came a burst of flame and smoke 
from the bushes on the hill above, and the woods 
were filled with echoing shots. Bill Simms blazed 
away into the woods, and Mark did likewise, 
though he could see nothing to shoot at. All 
along the entire skirmish line, everybody was 
firing, save Sis, who stood in plain view erect and 
undaunted. 

" Sis, why donH you shoot?" cried Bill Simms. 

"Shoot, thunder! I don't see nuthin' t' shoot 
at." Sis answered. 

Mark Stevens had fired twice before he was 
quite sure he saw a man. Then he distinctly saw 
one, not two hundred paces away, running obliquely 
to his right carrying a gun in his hand. The man 
had no coat, and wore a red shirt and white hat. 
Before Mark could put a cap on his musket, the 
fellow was out of sight. But a moment later he 
saw another two hundred paces directly in front of 
him. This one had fired at some of the Federal 
skirmishers, and pausing in a cleared spot was de- 
liberately reloading his gun. Mark blazed away 
at him, and was amazed to discover that he had 
missed. The ball evidently went close, for the 
fellow sought shelter behind a tree. The enemy 
now ap23eared in front in large numbers, but were 
falling back. 

The skirmishers cheered and pressed on, gradu- 



224 UNION. 

ally closing up as they did so. A man, named 
Jack Flint, in Company H, was a little to the right, 
and in the advance of Mark, loading his gun. He 
had rammed home the charge, returned the ramrod 
to its thimbles, when he dropped his piece, yelling: 

" Oh, mercy!" Clapping his left arm with his 
right hand, he danced about very much like a. boy 
who has been stung by a hornet. 

" What is the matter?" Mark asked. 

He made no answer, but dashed back toward 
the rear slinging his arm, from which the blood 
was trickling, back and forth, and screaming: 
"Oh, mercy!" 

The first person Mark saw slain was a red- 
headed boy belonging to Company E. He had 
pressed forward ahead of the others, and was 
almost fifty paces in front, and a little to the right, 
when he fell among some under bushes. Mark 
did not see him fall, nor was he aware of his fate 
until, pressing on through the thicket, he suddenly 
came upon an object that caused him to start. 
Lying among the grass and bushes was the red- 
headed boy, shot through the heart. His cap and 
his gun lay at his side, his eyes wide open, staring, 
and glassy, and his face had about it something 
truly appalling. He had large front teeth which 
protruded, and the lips being slightly drawn re- 
vealed them in a terrifying grin. Mark had seen 



FIRST FIRE. 225 

the boy in camp, but did not know his name. 
There was something so terrible in the spectacle, 
that he shuddered, and for a moment was seized 
with something bordering on a panic. He was re- 
called to the present situation by the shouting and 
firing ahead, and with a vow of vengeance, he 
leaped over the body, and hurried forward to join 
his companions. 

The firing was continuous, and the whiz of ene- 
my's balls constant. They cut the bark from the 
trees at Mark's side, clipped the leaves from off 
the branches overhead, and dug up the earth at 
his feet. It was a veritable baptism of fire. 
Again and again had they been reinforced by skir- 
mishers, until Mark thought their whole force 
must be in the field. Suddenly the colonel cried: 

" Eally on the centre!" 

Then they came elbow to elbow, met by a solid 
phalanx of the enemy. The sharp crack of mus- 
ketry had been growing more incessant, until it be- 
came a steady roar. 

" Thunder and lightnin'! that ain't no skirmish 
line," cried Bill Simms. "We're fightin' a line 
o' battle." 

Mark discovered a Confederate officer riding a 

short distance in front of him, and determined to 

give him a shot as soon as he had got his gun 

loaded; but while he was ramming home the car- 

15 



326 UNION. 

tridge, Sis raised his musket and fired, and when 
next Mark looked, a riderless horse was gallo})ing 
through the woods. Eeinforcements came to the 
Federals, and they drove the rebels back pell mell 
through their own camp, following them and yell- 
ing like demons. 

The mania for plunder seized both men and 
officers, and General Grant was unable to control 
them. Regimental organizations were lost, and 
the army became a mob. 

The rebels had retreated over the hill, and but 
few had shown any inclination to follow them. 
General Grant's original design was only to break 
up their camp, and he made no particular effort at 
pursuit. 

There was one, however, who had little thought 
of })1 under. It was Sis. As Mark entered the 
camp of Confederates, and heard the cry to halt, he 
saw the beardless youth giving chase to the flying 
enemy. 

" Run down the hellions! Shoot 'em! Bannet 
'em; Don't let a single gray back git away!" 
roared the angr}" Bill Simms, who instead of set- 
ting the example himself, fell to plundering the 
camp. 

Sis, hearing his command, su})posed that it came 
from headquarters. There is an excitement about 
a man chase, which exceeds any other specimen of 



FIRST FIRE. 227 

hunting, and Sis was fairlj intoxicated with it. 
He soon overtook two or three of the slower-paced 
Confederates, who surrendered quietly, and were 
turned over to the other boys, as they came up, 
and were conducted to the rear. 

But Sis was not satisfied with the glory he had 
already won. A hundred yards ahead of him was 
a tall, gaunt Kentuckian, clad in butternut-colored 
jeans of a queer cut and pattern, and a great bell- 
crowned hat of rough, gray beaver. Though his 
gait was shambling, and his huge, splay feet rose 
and fell in a most awkward way, he went over the 
ground with a speed that seemed to defy even 
Sis's long legs to overhaul him. But ere long, 
the boy pursuer was encouraged by signs of dis- 
tress; first the bell-crowned hat was thrown aside, 
then he flung off his haversack, and this was fol- 
lowed by a canteen of Kentucky whiskey. Next 
followed the fugitive's belt, loaded down with an 
antique cartridge box, a savage looking knife made 
from a rasp, and handled with buckhorn, and a fierce 
looking horse-pistol, ornamented with a flint-lock. 

"Jerusalem, guess I'm bustin' up a moosyum 
o' revolutionary relics," cried Sis. "That feller 
drops his forefathers' keepsakes like a bird a 
moultin' on a windy day in May. 'Spect he'll 
shed Continental money and three-cornered hats 
next. " 



328 UNION. 

Sis did not, look to see if the whole Federal 
force was at his back or not. The fugitive turned 
off to the right and he followed. The youth's 
gun was empty, but he had his bayonet fixed, and 
expected every moment to be within lunging dis- 
tance. He had foreshortened his gun for the 
plunge, when three or four Confederates suddenly 
started up from behind a stone and some trees, 
crying: 

" Stop, you Yankee cuss, or we'll let some 
streaks o' daylight through .you." 

Sis halted with his breast almost against four 
dark muzzles. Panting he said : 

" Look here, boys, this is all infernal nonsense. 
Our fellers are comin' ; they've got ye sure." 

" Yaas, you think they hev," growled one. 
" Don't ye see our fellers comin' over from Colum- 
bus by the million ? Look at them boats ! " 

Sis glanced in the direction indicated by the 
Confederate's hand, and saw two steamers coming 
over the river black with Confederate soldiers. 

" Now, honey, you'uns'll git aw^a}^ from that 
camp faster than ye come. " 

All the while there could be heard from the 
camp, the loud cheering of the foolish Federals, who 
were congratulating themselves over their victory. 
Sis saw he was trapped; but he did not lose his 
wits. Coolly seating himself on a stump, he said : 



FIRST FIRE. 



229 



"Boys, let's talk it over." 

" Give us that gun iirst. " 

" No, it's my gun; you wouldn't rob me, would 
ye? Besides, I saw a rabbit down under the hill, 
and I want to go back and shoot it. " 

"Look here, Yank, we don't intend to stand 




"BoTS, let's talk it over." 

any o' your tom-foolery, — give up that gun or I'll 
blow yer head off. " 

In a moment Sis was an unarmed prisoner. 

" Have ye any flat terbacker about ye'/" one of 
his captors asked. He had, and they took it. 



230 UNION. 

He was then marched down under the hill, and 
shortly afterward volumes of smoke and flames 
told that the Confederate camp was burning. Im- 
mediately after that came the boom of cannon from 
Columbus. The prisoner was marched a mile 
down toward the transports, for the Confederate 
troops were moving in that direction. 

Mark Stevens had noted the continued absence 
of Sis and had reported the matter to his captain, 
who sent a lieutenant with twenty men, among 
whom was Mark, in search of him. By accident 
they came on the guard just as the advancing Con- 
federates began exchanging shots with the Union 
troops. The tables were turned and Sis was liber- 
ated, his captors made prisoners, and all set out 
toward the transports. 

"Now see here, sir, " said Sis to the man who 
had taken his tobacco, " I want my flat terbacker 
agin. It was blamed mean o' you t' take it from 
a feller that way. Ef ye'd a wanted a chaw, I'd a 
gin it to you, 'cause I ain't one bit stingy." 

"Boys, we've got to make a run for it," said 
Lieutenant Tull, when they came to the cornfield 
on the river banks above the transports. " Our 
fellows are all aboard, and they are about to shove 
off." 

Already the enemy had appeared, and opened a 
brisk fire on the boats. 



FIRST FIRE. 231 

"Git!" cried Sis to the prisoners. "Run, con- 
sarn yer picturs, ur I'll jab ye with my bannit. " 

They all ran, and when within a few hundred 
paces of the transports, the}^ discovered that they 
were pushing off from shore. A horseman was 
seen riding toward the boat frantically waving 
his hat, and ordering them to return for him. 
The captain of the boat ordered it back, and the 
horseman dismounted and went down the bank 
and entered the boat by the gang plank. The 
horse taking in the situation, determined to follow 
his master. There was no path down the bank, 
and every one acquainted with the Mississippi 
River knows its banks, in a natural state, are not 
far from perpendicular. The horse put his fore- 
feet over the edge of the bank and with his hind 
feet well under him, slid down the bank, and 
trotted on board the boat, twelve or fifteen feet 
away, over a single gang plank. They afterward 
learned that the horseman who j^receded them on 
the boat, was General Grant. Mark and the 
party that had rescued Sis came up at this moment. 

" Hold just a minute, captain," cried Lieutenant 
Tull. 

" I can't, run and jump aboard." 

It was a risky business to force the prisoners to 
jump on the boat, as it was pushing off, and the 
gang plank was dragging along the muddy bank, 



282 UNION. 

but they got three of them on the boat, while the 
fourth ran away. Mark slipped on the stage plank 
as it was being drawn in, and fell in the water; 
A rope was tossed to him, and by the aid of Sis 
and Abe Bolton he was pulled on board, where he 
sank, almost exhausted, on the boiler deck. 



CHAPTER XL 

SHILOH.* 

A FEW days after the fight at Belmont, Mark 
Stevens was seized with a lingering fever and, for 
months, lay in the hospital at Cairo. Then he 
went to his home in Boone County, Kentucky, on 
a sick furlough, where he remained through the 
months of January and February, and until the 
middle of March, 1S62. He kept posted on army 
movements, and read in the newspapers how 
Commodore Foote, on February 6, IS 52. captured 
Fort Henry on the Tennessee. On the Sth, Burn- 
side captured some forts and valuable supplies on 
Roanoke Island. On the 12th, General Grant and 
some gunboats invested Fort Donelson. On 13th, 
General Curtis advanced to Springfield, Missouri. 
The Confederates lost Nashville, Tennessee, on the 
23d of February, and, on the 27th, abandoned 
Columbus. March also proved a memorable 



*For the personal adventures of Mark Stevens in this 
chapter tlie author is indebted to O. C. Snider, late of 
Company H, 6th Iowa Infantry Volunteers. 
233 



234 UNION. 

month. On the 2d, the Union gunboats captured 
a battery at a place called Pittsburg Landing on 
the Tennessee On the 6th and 8th, Curtis fought 
the combined forces of Price and McCullough at 
Pea Ridge, defeating them. McCullough was 
among 'the Confederate slain. On the 9th, the 
Monitor defeated the terrible rebel ram, the Merri- 
mac, and forever silenced the dread of the Atlantic 
coast. On the 13th, the Confederates evacuated 
New Madrid, Mo. ; on the l-ith, General Burnside 
captured New Berne, North Carolina. On the 
23d a battle was fought at Winchester, Virginia, 
in which the southern forces were defeated. On 
the 28th. three thousand Union troops had an un- 
successful engagement with about eleven hundred 
Texans at Union Branch, New Mexico. 

These were the chief stirring events that had 
transpired while Mark was away from camp. 
When he started, March loth, to his regiment, he 
could not at first locate them. On the restora- 
tion of General Grant to the immediate command 
of the troops, and his arrival at Savannah, March 
17. 1862. he converted an expeditionary encamp- 
ment, at Pittsburg Landing, into rendezvous of 
the armies of the Cumberland and Ohio, by plac- 
ing his whole force on the west side of the river, 
where Sherman with his division alread}^ was. No 
rule of military art or common expediency could 




DUEL BETWEEN THE •MuMTcii; ' AND "MERRIMAC." 



SHILOH. 235 

justify such an arrangement. In fact it was Gen- 
eral Grant's greatest blunder, and proves that, 
great military hero as he was, his education was 
not complete. A militia captain of this day who 
should be guilty of such a blunder ought to be 
court-martialled for incompetency. An invading 
army may, as a preliminary step, throw an inferior 
force in advance upon the enemy's coast, or across 
an intervening river, to secure a harbor or other 
necessary foothold; but, in such a case, a good 
general would see that his advanced force was 
securely entrenched. Pittsburg Landing was in 
no sense a point of such necessity or desirability 
as to require any risk, or any great expenditure of 
means for its occupation. General Grant, for some 
unknown reason, had his headquarters at Savan- 
nah, leaving Sherman with some sort of control at 
Pittsburg Landing. 

The official reports of the battle of Shiloh are 
so conflicting that, from the commander-in-chief 
down to the lowest officer who has made a report, 
one can hardly find two that agree. General 
Grant's own report shows that he was at Savannah, 
about ten or twelve miles away, when the battle 
began. The conflict must have raged three or four 
hours before he was within hearing of it. General 
Grant censures General Lew Wallace for not obey- 
ing his orders to join him. and belittles the services 



236 UNION. 

of Buell. General Biiell, on the other hand, in an 
article in the March, 1886, number of the Century 
31agazine, shows how the aro-ival of General Nelson 
with the head of his division, saved the army from 
being crushed. General Grant, in his memoirs, 
volume I., page 347, infers that it was night that 
saved his army from suffering defeat, and that 
Buell and Wallace had little to do with it. Some 
one made a blunder at Shiloh; and, but for the 
gunboats, Buell,Wallace and night, General Grant's 
brave army would have been utterl3^ destroyed. 
In fact, the first day's fight must be regarded as a 
Union defeat. When victories are won, it is com- 
mon to give all credit to the commander of the 
army, although he might not have been near 
enough to see an enemy, or hear the whistle of a 
bullet; and where mistakes are made, the com- 
manding officer should be made to bear the blame. 
The disposition of troops would be a discredit to a 
three months' volunteer colonel. General Benja- 
min M. Prentiss, with a brigade of raw troops, 
but few of whom had ever been under fire, was 
placed on the frontier. There they lay almost two 
weeks, while Johnson and Beauregard were care- 
fully advancing on them. Not a ditch was dug, 
not a tree felled for protection. If they were sur- 
prised at Shiloh, neither General Grant nor his 
friends can offer any excuse for such surprise. 



SHILOH. 237 

They should have sent scouting and reconnoitring 
parties out ; and known that an army was advanc- 
ing. If they were not surprised, if General Grant 
knew of the near proximity of a large Confederate 
army, why was he ten or twelve miles away when 
his forces were attacked? Why did he not have 
his troops entrenched, and so distributed that they 
should not be compelled to fall back every time 
their cartridge boxes were empty? The general" s 
only possible excuse was that he was not certain 
whether the attack would be made at Pittsburg, or 
Crump's Landing. In such a dilemma he would, 
in later years, have entrenched at both places. 

Instead of admitting his mistake, as Washington 
would have done, General Grant falls to scolding 
Wallace and Buell, the men who ultimately saved 
his army from ruin. 

The real hero of Shiloh was the man who carried 
the knapsack and not the one who wore the shoul- 
der straps. The privates deserved the glory, the 
officers none, or little. The officer most worthy 
of praise has always received least. That man 
was Brigadier-General Benjamin M. Prentiss of 
volunteers. General Prentiss being a volunteer, 
as is usual, the regular army officers sought to 
make him the scapegoat for all the blunders. He 
was on the left of Sherman, and on the morning 
of the 6th, in the advance. General Prentiss be- 



238 UNION. 

lieved that there was a large force in their advance, 
and recommended the necessity of entrenching; 
but as Braddock replied to Washington, that a 
Provincial Colonel could not teach one of His Maj- 
esty's officers the art of war, so the West Pointers 
thought the opinions of " Ben Prentiss" not worth 
considering. After the battle was fought and he 
and his brigade, with a part of W. H. L. Wal- 
lace's, became sacrifices for the army, they sought 
to malign him, by circulating the report that he 
was captured early in the morning. He was the 
only general officer that was not surprised. Who- 
ever may have been expecting a fight, General 
Grant was not; for on the 5th, he was at Nelson's 
camp, and said he would send the boats for his 
division, " Monday or Tuesday, or some time early 
in the week. " He added : " There will be no fight 
at Pittsburg Landing; we will have to go to 
Corinth where the rebels are fortified." 

General Prentiss, volunteer as he was, believed 
there was danger, and his vigilance gave first 
warning of it. The two or three days' skirmishing 
told him something, even if it did not a West 
Pointers. On Sunday morning, April 6, 18G2, at 
about three o'clock, he sent Colonel David H. 
Moore, of the 21st Missouri Infantry volunteers, 
with five companies to strengthen the picket guard. 
On the way. Colonel Moore met the picket guard 



SHILOH 239 

as it was being driven in by the enemy; and, 
forming his regiment, he advanced and began to 
open fire on the enem3^ The steadily increasing 
roar of musketry and artillery swelled in volume: 
but the little band of brave Missourians held their 
ground, until Colonel Moore's leg was shattered 
by a grapeshot, his horse killed under him, and his 
brave little baud flanked on both sides. Then 
they began to fall back, fighting as they ran. 

General Prentiss' brigade was under arms and 
waiting when the remnant of Colonel Moore's 
brave band came in. According to the accounts 
of both Grant and Buell, General Prentiss' raw 
troops fought like veterans. They would not run 
to the river as many of the veterans did. General 
Buell says : " General Prentiss })romptly formed his 
division (doubtless meaning brigade) at the first 
news from the front, and moved a quarter of a 
mile in advance of his camp, where he was attacked 
before Sherman was under arms. " 

But enough of wrangling and dispute among 
men thirsting for glory. We find it difficult to 
believe all that either side has said, and think it 
best to listen for once to men who fought the bat- 
tle, the " rank and file. " " Old Eank-and-File" is 
seldom allowed to speak. It is supposed that he 
knows little about battles, and has less to do with 
fighting them ; and it is only when the " big bugs" 



240 UNION. 

fall out, and cannot agree in the division of glory 
and spoils, that " Eank-and-File" gets a hearing. 
As he fought the battle of Shiloh, we will listen 
to his account of it. Some critics suggested a few 
years ago, when the Century Magazine was publish- 
ing its excellent series of war-sketches, that the 
private soldiers should not be permitted to give 
their views, that battles were fought at headquar- 
ters, and not in the ranks. Headquarters were at 
Savannah on this day, and there was no battle 
fought there ; so we can be excused for giving the 
battle as a private saw- it. 

Mark Stevens reached Shiloh on March 29th, 
and went at once to his regiment, which was in 
Sherman's division in the front, two or three miles 
out from the river. On the way from the river to 
the camp, he noticed that the land was nearly level, 
or slightly undulating, covered with forests, with 
an occasional cleared field. He passed the log 
house known as Shiloh Church, from which the 
conflict took its name. 

Reaching his company, Mark was warmly wel- 
comed by his companions. Bill Simms, lighting 
his pipe, declared that he was as proud to see him 
as a comrade who once served with him under 
" Gineral Percy." Sis rubbed his smooth chin 
and grinned, while Abe Bolton began to narrate 
their service at Donelson, frequently interrupted 



SHILOH. 241 

by Bill, who had had a similar experience while 
under " Gineral Percy." 

Mark was not yet strong, and was exempted 
from picket duty. All day long occasional shots 
had been fired, and sometimes a volley was heard 
in the distance. 

" I wonder why them infernal pickets air fight- 
in'?" Nick nervously asked. 

" Jist for the fun of it," Bill answered, lighting 
his pipe. 

Sis came in from the picket line, and showed a 
musket ball half buried in the stock of his gun. 

" Who did that?" asked Nick. 

" A Johnny reb," answered Sis. " Two o' th' 
boys were playin' keards and blamed if they didn't 
shoot one's fingers off." 

"And spiled his hand," put in Bill. 

Shortly after this, Mark and Sis went down to 
the sutler's tent to make some purchases. The 
sutler's name was L. M. Blakeley. He had grown 
a trifle nervous, and when he and his assistant, a 
negro called Dock, were alone, he cursed the offi- 
cers from Grant to corporal for incompetency. 

" I'll bet. Dock, we git licked like thunder right 
here," Blakeley declared. When Sis and Mark 
approached the sutler's tent, he asked: 

" Wall, boys, what news in front? Have ye been 
on picket, Sis?" 
16 



•243 UNION. 

" Yes. " 

" Will there be a fight?" 

" Yes; ye kin look for it right soon." 

" Why, I heard Gineral Grant say they wouldn't 
dare figlit us. " 

" He'll find he is mistaken before this time to- 
morrow," Sis answered. 

As they returned to their quarters, Mark asked: 

" Sis, do you really think there is going to be a 
fight?" 

" I do ; I tell you we'll have it before two days. " 

Mark spent the day in lying about camp, reading 
a novel. At taps he turned in and went to sleej). 
He remembered that just before closing his ej^es, 
he heard distant firing a mile or two away, and he 
entertained a vague suspicion that the pickets were 
shooting at somebody, or being shot, he was not 
certain which. Then he closed his eyes and went 
to sleep. 

Mark never had sweeter sleep. His dreams 
were clear, distinct and pleasant. He was once 
more with Elsie Cole, roaming through the flowery 
plains of Florida. They walked hand in hand 
with the confidence of children and the affection of 
lovers. That great load which had been bowing 
him down, had roHed away, — that skeleton in the 
closet was forever gone, and he was free to love, 
woo and win. 



* SHILOH. 243 

At two, he was parti all}' roused by one of the 
pickets coming in off duty. As he unbuckled his 
belt and laid his accoutrements awaj", he casually 
remarked m answer to some question which Mark 
did not hear: 

" We'll have h — 1 afore mornin' !" 

The tired soldiers paid such little heed to the 
remark, that nearly all sunk into profound slum- 
ber a moment later. Mark had been asleep about 
two hours longer, when he was awakened by 
some one shaking his shoulder, and heard the voice 
of the orderly sergeant saying: 

" Hurr}^ up, boys, dress and fall in!" 

Some one had lighted a candle in the tent, and 
Mark, glancing at his watch, saw that it was four 
o'clock. With the aid of Sis, he found his gun 
and accoutrements. 

" Is your box full of cartridges?" Sis asked. 

" Yes, I have forty rounds. " 

"That'll be more'n we need," some one boast- 
ingly put in. " They will run after the third 
round. " 

The men were hurriedly buckling on belts and 
adjustmg straps over their shoulders. When 
Mark left the tent, he found Captain Hawk and 
his lieutenants forming their line directl}' in front 
of their tents, about a hundred paces from them. 
Mark took his place in the line, and then they 



244 UNION. * 

stood at a parade rest, listening for some sound of 
the enemy. Only the wailing of the night wind, 
like some lost spirit as it sighed through the tree 
tops, could be heard. Mark found his imagina- 
tion grown active, and the effect it had on his 
nerves no one can understand, save those who have 
gone through similar experiences. He imagined 
every snapping of a twig an enemy. He could 
not determine whether there were skirmishers or a 
picket line in front, and sometimes was quite sure 
he heard a line of battle advancing. At times he 
shivered with mingled dread and cold. The 
hours wore on, daylight came, and thej' were or- 
dered to stack arms and get breakfast. 

"Keep 3-our accoutrements on," said Captain 
Hawk. " You may have to jump to your line at 
any moment. " Mark went to the rear of the tent 
where there was a barrel of water, filled his can- 
teen and, dipping out a basin full, washed his 
hands and face. By the time he had completed 
his toilet, breakfast was ready, and he sat down 
with his mess to eat it. 

During the meal, they heard a steady noise, left 
in front, which gradually drew nearer and swelled 
into a continuous roar. This was the attack on 
General Prentiss' advance. Mark had just finished 
his breakfast and was wiping his mouth with his 
handkerchief, wlien the drums sounded the lone; roll. 



SHILOH. 245 

"Fall in! Fall in!" 

The terrible command rang out along the entire 
line. He who has never heard the long roll on 
the battle field, can form but slight conception of 
the sensations it produces. It is the dread alarm 
which summons men forth to die. 

In three or four seconds, the entire division was 
in line and, taking arms, stood ready and waiting. 
By this time the roar of l)attle was growing heavier 
and heavier, and the thunder of cannon was shak- 
ing the earth. Mark heard one of the file closers 
say: 

" Old Ben Prentiss is havin' it hot and heavy 
over there. " 

The officers were hurrying up and down the 
ranks, trying to conceal their own anxieties by 
saying : 

" Keep cool, boys, — keep cool, — take it easy, 
and wait until they are near enough to see them, 
and make your shots sure. " 

How long the line stood thus with the wild 
storm of battle raging over where Prentiss' brigade 
was fighting forty thousand Confederates, Mark 
never knew ; but it seemed hours. 

So ill formed were the troops, that there were 
wide gaps between the divisions. As they stood 
in front of their tents listening t(^ the trembling 
thunder, the rolling storm sweeping down on Pren- 



246 UNION. 

tiss, a liorseman suddenl}' appeared from their left, 
spurring at full speed toward a group of officers 
already in consultation. It proved to be .an orderly 
with dispatches from some one. 

A few moments later, the command rang alons; 
the line. 

"Carry arms!— left face!" 

In a moment the entire line had faced to the 
left. "Trail arms! Forward, double quick — 
march!" 

Away they went at full speed, running in a south- 
east direction, toward the storm. All the while 
the battle was approaching, and from the woods 
on their right, the rebel skirmishers were firin"; 
through their ranks. Lieutenant Guinn suddenly 
uttered a groan and grasped his leg m his hraids. 
It had been shattered by a bullet. He was the 
first man Mark Stevens saw struck that day. 
Three of his comrades took him up and hurried 
him from the Held. 

By this time, all was wild confusion. The up- 
roar was tremendous. On every side came the 
peals of cannon, the crack of musketry, while the 
earth trembled beneath the explosion of shells. 

The sutler, L. M. Blakeley, took fright at first 
shock of battle and ran, leaving all his stores. 
Ilis negro assistant " Dock" harnessed the mules 
amid the flying bullets, loaded the w^agon to its 



SHILOH. 24T 

fullest capacity, and drove off at a gallop toward 
the river amid the screaming shells and whizzing 
bullets. 

As the regiment was running left oblicjue, double 
quick, Mark heard a crashing, tearing and snort- 
ing of horses, and oaths of drivers, and turning his 
eyes in that direction, saw^ a battery hopelessly 
tangled up in the l)ushes and trees. 

During the time they were changing position, 
thev paid no attention to the shots of the enemy, 
which whistled like hail through their ranks. 

"Halt!" 

They had run about a mile when this command 
came. They obeyed, and changed front, march- 
ing by the right flank forward, and formed a line 
of battle. Through the opening in the wood, 
Mark now saw the enemy not over two or three 
hundred yards distant. The crashing of cannon 
and falling of branches, cut oft' by the iron balls, 
mi no-led with the roar of small arms, and continuous 
yelling, made it seem as if pandemonium reigned. 

Some one gave the command to charge; and 
companies B and H, of the Sixth Iowa infantry, 
with fixed bayonets charged the enemy. Ere they 
had run a hundred paces, half of their number had 
been shot down. In Company B, John Uphard 
fell with a leg shattered by a musket ball. His 
brother "Billy," who was a favorite in the regi- 



248 UNION. 

ment, ran to his assistance, and was standing over 
him to lift him up, when two bullets passed 
through his body, and he fell dead on his wounded 
brother. Companies H and B fell back to their 
regimental line, and then there rang out along the 
line, the command : 

" Lie down, — down all !" 

In a moment the men fell upon the ground, 
firing and turning over on their backs to load. 
The oft repeated command given by the petty offi- 
cers, " Give 'em h — 1 1" rang along the line. 

When they commenced shooting, the enemy's 
fire slackened. On Mark's right. Captain White, 
of an Iowa regiment, was killed by a shell. 

As Mark could not shoot very well from the 
ground, he crept to a tree near, and kneeling by 
it, loaded and fired as rapidly as he could. In 
the hurried formation or rapid march, Mark's com- 
pany had become partially mixed with some Iowa 
troop?. One of these, named Bill Spain, belong- 
ing to Compan}' II, 0th Iowa Infantry volunteers, 
was shot through the body and fell within a few 
feet of Mark. He begged some one to cut off his 
cartridge box, as it was hurting him. 

" I will do it, as soon as I am out of cartridges, " 
said another of the same company, named Orcinas 
Snider, who standing behind a tree not ten feet 
away, was loading and firing with marvellous 



SHILOH. 249 

rapidity. Mark, moved by tlie cries of the fallen 
Spain, went and got bis cartridge box, and again 
liugged tbe tree. 

Soon tbe bullets began flying all about bini, 
and be discovered tbat tbey were knocking tbe 
bark up in bis face. Glancing off to tbe left, 
be saw tbat tbe enemy bad flanked bim and tbat 
but few of bis comrades could be seen. Orders 
bad been given to fall back, wbicli be bad not 
beard. 

At tbe rear was an open field of a few acres. 
Most of tbe army bad retired beyond tbat. Grape- 
shot, canister and musket balls were raking the 
open field, and be dreaded to attempt to cross it. 

Biting cartridges soon filled bis mouth with 
powder, and provoked a thirst tbat was madden- 
ing. There was a pile of logs at his right, where 
tbey had been carried off tbe field to make a re- 
view ground. He saw Dick Mattern, a musician, 
Sis, and two or three others, behind the logs, and 
halted with them to load and shoot a few more 
rounds. He was reloading bis gun when Sis look- 
ing up cried: 

" Great Scott, look at tbe rebels!" Tbey were 
flanking them on both sides, and tbe only show 
now was to cross the open field, which was con- 
tinually swept with grape, canister and musket 
balls. Mark was already reeking with perspira- 



250 UNION. 

tion, and the constant wiping his face witli his 
powder covered hands had smeared it until he was 
black as a negro. 

Half a dozen or more started to run across the 
field, and Mark saw two go down. A grapeshot 
cut off the stock of his gun, and he threw the use- 
less barrel away. A soldier was lying dead aljout 
forty yards before him, his gun at his side. Mark 
discovered that their guns were of the same cali- 
bre, and he picked up the dead man's musket as 
he ran. 

He saw a tall man just in front of him, seem- 
ingly outstripping the wind. Mark envied him 
his long legs, yet they were not sufficient to save 
him. The tall man suddenly tumbled head fore- 
most on the ground, face downward. 

"He stumbled, and is stunned by the fall," 
Mark thought. 

His course took him past the fallen man, and 
he was about to call to him to get up, when he 
discovered that the top of his head had been shot 
away. 

Mark felt a slight sting at his side, and some- 
thing trickling down. At first he thought himseL" 
wounded, but it proved to be that a bullet had 
gone through his canteen. The same shot had 
cut the string of his haversack, and he lost his 
rations. 



SHILOH. 251 

Dick Mattern ^ got across safe, tliongli a bullet 
cut off the mouth -piece of. his cornet, and Sis 
reached the woods beyond, unhurt. B}' this time 
Mark was suffering so from thirst that he resolved 
to drink at the first pool of water lie came to. re- 
gardless of danger. He soon discovered a pool 
twenty feet long by five wide, and ch-opping on 
his hands and knees, thrust his face into the water, 
until it almost came in at his ears and drank. 
Having slaked Ihs thirst, he raised his head and 
saw a dead man lying near the edge of the pool. 
He had been sliot in the head, and the blood was 
trickling down to the water's edge. 

About one hundred yards from the pool, he 
found the regiment. They had fallen back for 
two reasons; first, they were out-flanked, and, 
second, they were out of ammunition. So poorly 
was the army managed, that they were out of am- 
munition half the time. The want of cohesion and 
concert of action in the Union ranks that day is 
conspicuously indicated in the official reports. A 
regiment was rarely ever overcome in front, but 
fell back because the regiment or division on the 
right or left had done so, and thus left its flank 
exposed. It then continued its backward move- 
ment until it was well under shelter, thus exposing 

* Two or three years ago Dick Mattern was still living. 
He was then a musical director in Chicago. 



252 UNION. 

the flanks of its neighbor, who in turn also fell 
back. Once in operation, tlie process repeats itself 
indefinitel}^, sometimes step by step and again by 
flight and rout. The out-flanking, so common at 
Shi loll, could not be excused on the plea that 
they had inferior commanders; but it was the 
practical consequence of the absence of a common 
head, and the want of judicious use of reserves to 
counteract partial reverses, and preserve the front 
of the battle. 

In a short time after the regiment had made a 
stand, it was again out of ammunition. Again 
they were out-flanked and fell back. ■ They hugged 
the swamp on their right, and had only their left 
to fear. Another stand was made, and they fought 
until after the sun had passed the meridian. By 
this time their prospects of success seemed poor. 
Again they were compelled to fall back. A 
branch, cut from a tree hy a cannon ball, fell upon 
Mark, knocked him senseless and broke his gun. 
He recovered in time to join the regiment. He 
had no trouble now to find another gun, for the 
field was strewn with arms of all kinds. 

It was late in the day when the regiment made 
its last stand. By this time regimental organiza- 
tions were almost wholly lost, and Mark found 
himself mixed up with Iowa, Illinois, and Ohio 
soldiers. The enemy could be seen on the hill 



SHILOH. 253 

above them, bringing up batteries and siege guns. 
Cannon roared, and storms of grapesliot and canis- 
ter swept through their ranks ; but the soldiers 
held their ground. Few commands were given, 
and for a long time there seemed to be no one to 
command. The men acted on impulse in concert. 
Three times thej repelled the fierce charges of the 
enemy ; but the day was well nigh spent, and so 
was the fury of the attack. Far on their left could 
be heard the roar of Webster's artillery, and the 
cannon from the gunboats, Tyler and Lexington. 
Bugles sounded, wild cheers rose on the air. Buell 
had come, and they, were saved. Nelson, leading 
Buell 's advance, had crossed the Tennessee, and 
regiment after regiment quickly formed and hur- 
ried to the front. The roar of battle was momen- 
tarily renewed and the Confederates fell back, re- 
lieving the exhausted soldiers who had fought 
since early morning. The storm of battle retired, 
leaving the officers and men huddled together in an 
indiscriminate mass. It was some hours before 
they began to re-form and re -organize. 

Darkness came quickly over the scene, and the 
woods having been fired by the explosion of shells, 
a terrible conflagration threatened to add to the 
other horrors. About ten o'clock that night, a 
merciful Providence drenched the field with pour- 
ing rain, which lightened the suffering of many a 



254 UNION. 

wounded hero, and extinguished the fire which 
threatened him with a terrible death. Mark 
thought it the darkest night he had ever seen. The 
air was filled with groans and cries of the wounded. 
Part of the time he stood up, and a part of the 
time lay down in the mud and rain ; but he could 
not sleep. 

About two o'clock in the morning. General 
Grant came to within a few rods of him and lay 
down on a board to sleep or rest. By this time 
the rain had ceased, falling in torrents, though 
all night long it came in a fine mist. 

Mark spent the night wandering up and down 
the line for food. He was hungry after the long 
hard fight, and had lost his rations. It was broad 
day before he found Sis, who had some " soft 
bread" and raw bacon, which he divided with him, 
and which they ate without cooking. It was still 
drizzling when morning came. 

The bugle sounded, they fell in, and the roll 
was called. Many a gallant fellow failed to answer 
to his name. Abe Bolton was dead, Nick Marks 
and Chris Creps both mortally wounded. But 
Bill Simms answered while he filled his pipe, and 
muttered, " I swear this beats anything I ever 
saw with Gineral Percy." 

Shortly after roll call, they began to advance. 
But Buell's army was now doing the work. The 



SHILOH. 255 

roar of guns told that the battle was still stub- 
born. The Confederates, overwhelmed by num- 
bers, retreated from the field, leaving Buell in 
possession. Blakeley came back and set up his 
sutler's shop, and Mark and Sis bought some food ; 
then helped gather up the dead and wounded, after 
which came a short season of rest. 



CHAPTER XII. 

ALEC AND MARK. 

For some time after the battle of Shiloh, Gen- 
eral Grant was under a cloud. Various unjust 
charges were laid at his door. Under all the abuse 
heaped upon him, General Grant had a firm friend 
in President Lincoln, and though for awhile he re- 
mained under the cloud, in time he came out into 
the sunshine of almost unparalleled popularity. 
General Halleck superseded Grant, and, on May 
10th,. captured Island Number Ten, a Confederate 
stronghold, which greatly encouraged the loyal 
people in the North and South. 

The summer passed with alternating success and 
disaster to the Union cause. At times freedom's 
lamp seemed burning low, and loyal hearts were 
almost ready to despair. 

One afternoon, just before the battle of luka, 
Mississippi, Mark Stevens was on one of the extreme 
outposts. It began to rain. There was a lull m 
hostilities just then, and there was a sort of tacit 
understanding between opposing pickets that there 
should be no firing. Mark's post was under a 
256 



ALEC AND MABK. 257 

dead, leafless tree, with a screen of bushes in front. 
Having no poncho to keep him dry, and knowing 
it would be over an hour before he would be re- 
lieved, he advanced at " left oblique" about forty 
paces to a large tree which promised shelter. He 
had stood with his back to the trunk for ten or fif- 
teen minutes listening to the rain pattering on the 
leafy roof above him, when he thought he heard a 
noise on the other side. Pigs were often met with 
in the woods on their front, and as Mark turned 
and carefully poked his head out from behind the 
trunk he fully expected to see one. What he did 
see was a man, who poked his head out to look 
around on Mark's side. It w^as a sun-browned 
face covered with a scraggy beard, surmounted by 
an old, drab-colored hat, with a narrow rim and 
peaked crown. Below the face was the collar of 
the gray coat of a Confederate. The tree was only 
about three feet through, and their faces were 
within a foot of each other. Mark knew at a 
glance that he was a Confederate, and the other 
seemed to realize that he was a United States sol- 
dier. They gazed at each other for half a minute, 
and then the man in gray clothes, in a hoarse, un- 
natural voice, asked : 

"That you, Yank?" 

"Yes; that you, Johnny?" asked Mark in a 
voice made husk}' by surprise. 
17 



258 UNION. 

" Thought you was hogs. " 

"So did I." 

" What you going to do about it?" 

" Nothing." 

" That suits me. Come round here on m}- drj^ 
spot." 

Without any hesitation, Mark Stevens complied. 
There was something frank and lionest in that 
sunbrowned bearded face and the voice, which, liice 
his own, was hoarse from sleeping on the ground, 
exposed to all sorts of weather. There was some- 
thing strangely familiar in l)otli voice and face. 

He came round to where the rebel was, and for 
a moment they stood gazing at each other in amaze- 
ment. Then, droppiiig muskets to the earth, they 
cried : 

'•Mark!" 

"Alec!" 

Next moment they were clasped in each other's 
arms, tears streaming down their cheeks. It 
might seem foolish and unmanly for those great, 
bearded men to cry like children; but the lieart of 
the bravest soldier is tender, if his trade is cruel. 
After the first tempest of emotion had passed away, 
they sat down side by side alternately laughing 
and crying. Alec was first to speak. He said: 

" Mark, are 3'ou a soldier or an officer?" 

" Only a private, Alec." 




"That you, Yank?" 



260 UNION. 

"So am I." 

" I enlisted as a private. " 

" So did I, and I have not gone back any, nor 
have I gone forward. I have been at a standstill. 
Promotions from the ranks come precious slow. 
They have flown all around me, and sometimes I 
can't see why they missed me. I tell you, Mark, 
it is in the army just like in everything else; if a 
fellow gets caught in the current, he goes flying 
on to success. If he don't, he has a hard time of 
it. Why, there are some fellows who went right 
up from captain to general, who don't know any 
more than I do; but they were in the swim, and 
I was left out. I think that fate has put her 
thumb on me to hold me down. Then I don't 
care. I am not fighting for glory or fame, and the 
fact is I am sometimes so infernally befuddled that 
I don't know what I am fighting for. Mark, you 
may not believe it, but the other night as I lay on 
picket line, and heard your bands playing the old 
'Star Spangled Banner,' some kind of a weakness 
came over me, and I cried like a baby; I couldn't 
help it. Once, wdien I saw the head of your col- 
umn marching, and caught sight of those glorious 
old Stars and Stripes, under which I was born and 
used to make so many Fourth of July speeches, I 
took off my hat and began to cheer. My lieuten- 
ant grabbed me by the shoulders and asked : 



ALEC AND 3IARK. 261 

" "What the d — 1 are you cheering for?' 

"It's the old flag. See, it's the old flag!" I 
cried, pointing to your banner. The officer did 
not like it one bit, and he shoved me down the 
road saying: 

" 'You fool, if you don't want to be killed or 
captured, you had better turn your back on the 
old flag, and skeedaddle!' 

" Then I remembered, Mark, that that old ban- 
ner, that pretty banner under which my great- 
grandfather fought with Washington, and my 
grandfather fought under at Lundj-'s Lane, was 
my flag no longer, and I shed tears. Oh. Mark! 
this cussed war is just killing all of us. It makes 
brothers hate brothers. " 

" It is an unfortunate war, Alec. " 

" I believe the South were fools to secede. The 
North couldn't have got their niggers. Now 
they'll have 'em as sure as guns made of iron. 
The impudent black cusses are alread}- getting un- 
bearable. I wish they were all in Africa." 

Alec ran on in his usual strain for some time, 
and Mark was unable to get in a word, while there 
was so much he wished to talk about. He wanted 
to know when Alec was transferred from the eastern 
to the western army. 

"Oh, yes; well, you see it was when General 
Beauregard was sent over to this country that I 



263 UNION. 

came. They sent several of his old regiments with 
him, and mine among the others. Say, Mark, do 
you have any coffee in your camp?" 

"Yes." 

" Great guns ! I wish 3'ou had brought some. " 

" Alec, if I had known that I was going to meet 
you, I would have filled my pockets. You poor 
boys must fare badly." 

" Fare badly is no name for it, Mark. Why, I 
tell you, we live on corn pone and sorghum half 
the time. We marched to Shiloh and fought two 
days on less than half rations. Great goodness, it 
is no wonder that we were whipped. A spoonful 
of rice often makes a meal, and I have lived two 
days on an ear of raw corn. We have no money, 
except Confederate shinplasters, so depreciated in 
value that it takes twent3^-five dollars to buy the 
commonest kind of a pair of shoes. " 

" Don't your government furnish you with 
clothes?" 

" Sometimes, and sometimes we are compelled 
to go barefooted. " 

" Do you have no hard money ? " 

"No." 

Mark drew from his pocket ten dollars in gold, 
and some silver coin. Gold and silver were scarce 
in both armies; but Mark had managed to get 
some, and he gave all he had freely to Alec. 



ALEC AXD MARK. 263 

"What! what! Mark, do you intend giving me 
this money?" he asked, quite overcome. 

" Yes. " 
• " Gold and silver! where did you get it?" 

" From liome; father sent it to me." 

" Why, Mark, a handful of that would buy our 
entire camp. No one there has seen as much gold 
as this in a year. " 

" Alec, I want to ask you about home." 

"Well, Mark, last I heard from home, mother 
and father were well and still living on the old 
farm. My brother Geoi'ge was killed at Pensa- 
cola." 

" And your relatives in Charleston?" 

" Dick Stevens went to England, and I heard 
was on board the Confederate cruiser Alabama, 
with Charles Cole, a cousin of his, and a brother 
of Elsie Cole." 

Mark was silent for a few moments. The vital 
question had not been asked. How dared he ap- 
proach a subject so much and yet so little to him? 

" Alec, are you married?" 

"Married? No. Why, do you think I look 
like a married man? These times are Loo hard to 
marry or think of giving in mai-riage. A countr}' 
that's a military camp from one end to the other; 
— a land that has for its chief diet rice and cotton- 
seed ; where the masters are begging their niggers 



264 UNION. 

to let them share their quarters with them, is too 
poor to think of marrying. " 
"Where is Elsie Cole?" 

" I don't know, Mark. I last saw her in Rich' 
mond." 

" Is she the same determined little rebel?" 
" Yes, yes, Elsie is Secesh through and through. 
I never saw such a girl, Mark. She was raised in 
ease and luxury like most of the girls of the South. 
Life with them was a pleasant summer picnic, and 
they never had a care; but the southern girls have 
spirit, Mark, and when the war broke out all went 
to work doing something for the southern cause. " 
"Elsie, too?" 

" Yes ; those pretty white fingers learned to 
handle the needle. They were awkward at first, 
but they soon came to manage it. " 

" Alec, why did you not marry Elsie?" 
" A good reason. I could never get her in the 
notion. Whenever I began to mention the sub- 
ject, or even approach it, she would just laugh at 
me, and then I felt just like a fool. Why didn't 
you marry her, Mark?" 

Mark, shuddering, answered: 
" Alec, I am a consummate villain." 
" No, you are not. Why do you say you are? 
You loved Elsie, and she loved you, and yet you 
never proposed?" 



ALEC AND MARK. 265 

" No, no, thank Heaven I never did. I tried 
never to talk of love to her ; but in some of my 
insane moments, I might have said something ap- 
proximating the subject. " 

Alec was silent a moment, as he punched the 
point of his bayonet into a bit of rotten wood. 

" And it was all on my account, Mark," he said. 
" You did it all on my account; but you needn't. 
Elsie don't care for me only as a sort of a conve- 
nience to run errands and such like. " 

" Alec, it was not on your account. No, you 
make me too good, too noble to accredit such 
action to your account, or an}^ regard I may have 
for any one. I am miserabl}" selfish. I am 
wretched." 

" Well, Mark, on whose account was it? Why 
didn't you propose?" 

"I cannot tell." 

"You loved Elsie?" 

" Loved her. Heaven ! yes, I did ; I love her yet. 
I would give every moment of life, every drop of 
blood to make her happy; yet I was too foolish, — 
too selfish to permit you to woo and win her. " 

Shaking his head gravely. Alec answered: 

" 'Twouldn't a done any good, Mark, not a bit. 
She didn't care one bit for me, and she was never 
happy unless she was making me feel just like a 
fool. " 



266 UNION. 

" Yet, but for me, she might have learned to 
love you, Alec." 

Alec sighed, and after giving two or three more 
punches at the rotten wood with his bayonet, 
answered : 

" No, it wouldn't have done any good, Mark, 
not a bit. Some other fellow would have taken 
her from me. But, Mark, when I saw that she 
loved you, and only liked me as an easy, good- 
natured kind of a cuss, who would run errands for 
her and be her nigger, I said, 'Let Mark go in 
and win her, I won't interpose.' It was only 
right. " 

Alec Stevens, careless and jolly as he was, had 
some excellent qualities. He was one of the few 
who are willing to make martyrs of themselves for 
their friends. The class to which he belonged is 
very nearly extinct at this day. He was kindness, 
gentleness and simplicity itself. Poor Alec was 
never designed for a soldier; for there was nothing 
cruel in his nature. He could not liurt a worm, 
and though a harum-scarum fellow, with but little 
apparent refinement, he was almost effeminate on 
some subjects and had a great respect for the rights 
of others. No child loved birds and llowers more 
than he. To him they were emblems of innocence, 
happiness and beauty, and he was in love with 
nature. 



ALEC AND MARK. 267 

"Yon don't know where Elsie is now?" Mark 
asked. 

" I heard about six months ago that she had 
gone back to Charleston, though I have not seen 
her for over a year. " 

" Alec, did you ever hear her speak reproach- 
fully of me?" 

" No. " 

" She knew I had gone to the Federal army?" 

"Yes." 

" And never even reproached me for it?" 

"No." 

Mark sighed and murmured: 

" Oh ! would to God it had been different, or 
that I had never seen her. " 

'■ Well, Mark, you are the greatest mystery I 
ever met. Why, you are worse than a quadratic 
equation to solve. You love Elsie Cole, and I am 
dead certain that she loves you. Now, why in the 
name of Tom Walker's ghost don't you say so, 
and marry her?" 

" Alec, you don't know all." 

"No; I've all along been impressed with the 
notion that there are several things I am incapable 
of comprehending, and you and Elsie are among 
them. " 

" You don't know after all. Alec, that my love 
is returned. You have never heard her say so." 



268 UNION. 

" No, and I wouldn't know it was so, even if I 
had heard her say so; but, Mark, there are some 
things that speak louder than words. " 

"Actions?" 

" Yes, and eyes, cheeks, faces, which turn red 
and pale by turns. These tell a great deal more 
than words do. " 

Mark was silent, while Alec continued to thrust 
his bayonet into the rotten wood. After a few 
moments, he asked: 

" Mark, how is all this going to end?" 

" I don't know." 

" Blamed if I know either. " 

" I wish it was over. " 

" Well, Mark, there are thousands of people in 
the same fix on our side. You don't know much 
of the South now; it is changed; — oh, there is an 
awful change. The great snow-banks of cotton 
have disappeared, giving place to blackened ruins. 
The good, old-fashioned country mansions are no 
more. They have been burned down, or converted 
into hospitals or stables. Why, few of the towns 
throughout the South can boast of a church suit- 
able to worship in. Even these sacred places have 
been made into barracks, hospitals and stables. 
I entered a church in Richmond a few months ago, 
and what a change war had made of it! Nearly 
all the pews had been split up for wood. The 




EVEN THESE SACRED PLACES HAVE BEEN MADE INTO BAll 



ALEC AND MARK. 269 

doors of the vestibule were wide open. A com- 
pany of cavalry was quartered there, and in one 
corner was a pile of saddles, bridles and halters. 
In another were carbines and swords; while sol- 
diers were sitting or standing about in groups, 
profaning the house of God with vulgar stories 
and oaths. On the right, to the rear, was a man 
kneading dough to bake bread for his mess in a 
large cook stove, which had been set up in the 
church, while in the gallery w^as a great black - 
haired fellow, combing his head. 

" All ornamentation had disappeared, and that 
church, once the beauty and pride of the people 
who worshipped there, was little more than a 
dilapidated ruin. " 

" Alec, terrible as this war is, I fear that it is 
not half over. " 

" Not half over ! Oh, heaven, Mark, I hope it is ! 
We cannot stand this much longer, — I won't!" 

" What are you going to do. Alec?" 

"I don't know." 

Mark rose to his feet and said : 

" Alec, it is about time for my relief to come. " 

" Must you go, Mark?" 

" Yes. When are you relieved?" 

"It'll be an hour." 

" I must not be found here when the corporal of 
the guard comes with the relief." 



270 UNION. 

" Mark, it's blamed hard to have von go away. 
Say, Mark, if we meet in a fight, I believe I will 
know you now; but I would not before." 

" Nor would I have known you. " 

" I'll shoot high, if you are in front." 

" Alec, I would rather shoot myself than you." 

" Same with me. If you never fall until by my 
bullet, you'll die with old age or sickness." 

Mark had risen to his feet, and grasped Alec's 
hand. It had almost ceased drizzling, and the 
sun which had been hidden by the clouds promised 
to soon burst forth in all its glory and splendor. 
As Alec saw it, he squeezed his cousin's hand and, 
with strong emotion, said : 

" Mark, maybe it will be so with our troubles. 
The sun may break through, and our sorrows pass 
away like a storm cloud, and leave the sun of hap- 
piness shining upon us. " 

" Let us hope so. Alec. I am going now. In 
less than ten minutes I will be relieved. Stay by 
this tree and don't let the picket who takes my place 
see you. I know not who he may be, and some 
of them are unscrupulous enough to shoot you." 

"I'll lie low, Mark." 

" If it should be a friend of mine on picket, I 
shall tell him of you, and then you will be safe. 
In that case I will tie a white handkerchief on the 
point of my bayonet." 



ALEC AND MARK. 271 

"All right, and I will let him alone." 

The man sent to relieve Mark was Sis. Mark 
knew he could trust him, and before he returned 
to camp he said : 

" Sis, do you see that large oak tree?" 

"Yes." 

" On the other side of that tree I have a friend 
with whom I have been talking for an hour. He 
is a noble fellow, whom I love as a brother. You 
must not know that he is there. " 

" Is he a Johnny reb?" 

"Yes; but my relative, my friend, my more 
than brother. He will not harm you, and, what- 
ever happens, do him no harm." 

"I won't." 

Mark tied a white handkerchief to the end of 
his bayonet and went back to camp. Alec saw 
him from behind the tree and knew that he was 
safe from molestation. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE PRETTY SPY. 

It is not the intention to make this volume a 
history of marches and battles. Such a narrative 
would consume too much s^jace and destroy the 
unity of the story. The author aims to narrate 
only such phases of the war as directly relate to 
the characters in the story, and are essential to 
the development of the plot. We must step aside 
to note some very patent facts of the period, which 
have a greater bearing on the story than may at 
})resent seem. 

It is a singular fact that, though England had 
been sneering at the United States for half a cen- 
tury because of the toleration of slavery, yet when 
the South w^ent to war, she secretly, and, one 
might almost say, openly espoused her cause. 
It was not so much England's wish to perpetu- 
ate slavery, as it was her great desire to wit- 
ness the disruption of a country whose example 
is a standing menace to monarchy. The Con- 
federate government early in the struggle sent 
372 



THE PRETTY SPY. 273 

diplomatic agents to Europe; but these proving 
incompetent, they dispatched John M. Mason, 
author of the Fugitive Slave act, and John Slidell. 
They were captured on board a British vessel, the 
Trent^ by an American war ship, the San Jacinto, 
commanded by Captain Wilkes, and taken to Bos- 
ton ; but, after some diplomatic correspondence of 
a threatening nature, the United States govern- 
ment was forced to give them up. 

Early in 1862, the Confederate government was 
changed from a " provisional" to a permanent one. 
The war had been going on almost two years, be- 
fore the thinking men of the Republican partv be- 
gan to seriously consider the idea of the abolition 
of slavery. Perhaps it would not have been car- 
ried out then, had not Mr. Lincoln and his advisers 
discovered that slavery gave the Confederate cause 
its sinews of strength. It nurtured a producing 
class that fed, b}^ its labor, the armies arraved 
against the Republic; and onlj- a very small pro- 
portion of that class were drawn from the pursuits 
of agriculture to the camps. 

It was not until this had become verified, that 
the president of the United States and the loyal 
people resolved to destroy the system. Mr. Lin- 
coln proposed to give pecuniary aid to any State 
government which might provide for the abolition 
of slavery; but the interested friends of the insti- 
18 



274 UNION. 

tution refused to listen to any sort of compromise. 
Congress proceeded to abolish slavery in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, over which that body had di- 
rect control; and gave the president discretionary 
powers to declare the emancipation of the slaves in 
States wherein insurrection existed. Finally, late 
in September, 1862, President Lincoln issued a 
proclamation in which he gave public notice that 
it was his purpose to declare such emancipation on 
the first day of January, 1863, to take effect im- 
mediately wherever a state of insurrection might 
then exist, sinless tJie offenders should lay doion their 
arms. 

This friendly warning, this forbearance to strike 
the blow that was to free millions of bondsmen, 
was treated by the slave holders with scorn ; sneered 
at by them as an act of sheer impuissance. It 
was compared to the " Pope's bull against the 
comet; " and because of this menace, resistance 
to the government was more rampant than e^'er. 
It was evident that this warning would not be 
effectual, and the President prepared a proclama- 
tion of emancipation. It was submitted to his 
cabinet and approved; and on the first of January, 
1863, it was promulgated with the whole force of 
the Republic — its army, its navy, and its judiciary, 
its executive and legislative powers — back of it, to 
enforce its provisions. The moral force of that 



THE PRETTY SPY. 275 

proclamation was tremendous. Bj its act, nearly 
four million slav^es of African descent were set free. 
From the hour of the promulgation of the procla- 
mation of emancipation, the power of the enemies 
of the government began to wane. The South has 
hardly recovered her former prosperity since, and 
will never again outstrip the North in wealth and 
power. Slave labor made cotton king, and the 
loss of slave labor dethroned the monarch. 

But enough of philosophizing; let us return to 
our stor}-. In the fierce battle of luka, won by 
General Rosecrans, Mark Stevens, by personal 
bravery, saved the regimental colors and the life 
of his colonel, who mentioned him in his official 
report. The second lieutenant, who had been ac- 
cused of cowardice and dishonesty, resigned, to 
save a trial by court-martial, and Mark, upon a 
petition by the entire compan3\ was promoted over 
all of the non-commissioned officers to fill the va- 
canc}'. 

Never did man feel ]irouder of his shoulder 
straps. He determined, now that he had entered 
that mysterious and aristocratic circle, " commis- 
sioned officers," to retain his position if honesty, 
industry and courage would do it. 

The battle of luka was fought September 20, 
1862, and General Rosecrans, who comm.anded the 
army, fell back shortly after, to Corinth, to give 



276 UNION. 

his army a little rest and be prepared to meet the 
greater storm that was to come early in October. 

Shortly after Rosecrans' army entered Corinth, 
there appeared a young woman, scarce more than 
a girl, very beautiful, refined and accomplished. 
She played the piano, sang well, and soon became 
a general favorite. She expressed much interest 
in military movements and asked a great many 
questions of the officers. She gave her name as 
Miss Estella Mott from Tennessee, declared that 
she was thoroughly loyal, and dared any one to 
prove she was not. 

This lovely creature, who was a mystery to all, 
seemed to have no particular acquaintances in the 
town. She excused her presence by saying she 
had come to look for a brother, who belonged to a 
loyal Tennessee regiment, and had been captured 
by the rebels. She thought that he might have 
been exchanged and sent to Corinth. 

This very interesting 3'oung creature boarded at 
the Corinth Hotel, the proprietor of which held 
flexible views on politics. She became a great 
favorite with many Union officers, and proved to 
be an untiring coquette. 

Major Micks, a gay bachelor of thirty-five or 
forty, was thonglit to be the favorite of the blonde. 
The Major discovered that she was M'ell educated 
and did not talk, look, or act like a Tennessee 



THE PRETTY SPY. 



277 



girl. She was bright and cheerful, all smiles and 
animation, winning her way to every heart by her 
subtle charms. When she asked Major Micks to 
show her about the 
works, he of course 
assented. 

"When can we 
go?" slie asked. 

" This very after- 
noon I shall be off 
dut}'," the major de- 
clared. 

" Oh, major, 1 shall 
be so happy. I am 
so interested in mili- 
tar}^ matters," 

Major Micks never 
felt so happy as when, 
with the beautiful 
Estella Mott on his 
arm, he started to go the rounds. Having the 
password, he was admitted to everj' part of the 
works, and took particular pains to explain every- 
thing to her, and her interest in the matters seemed 
only equalled by her admiration of the major. 

" And those outworks, major, are your troops 
going to occupy them?" she asked, glancing at 
the outside rows of trenches, inside of which 




"To FOOL THE Johnny Rebs?" 



278 UNION. 

smaller works were being constructed by the en- 
gineers. 

" Oh, no, those are only a sham," the major an- 
swered. 

"To fool the Johnny Rebs?" she asked, with 
an arch smile. 

"Yes." 

She laughed a merry peal at the proposed trick, 
and the major joined her. 

" When do you expect an attack, major?" 

" Almost any time. We are prepared for Price 
and Van Dorn whenever they come. " 

"Oh, are you?" 

"Yes." 

" I suppose, if they knew it, they would not 
come. " 

" No doubt they already know it, but tliere are 
some things they don't know." 

"What are they?" 

" They don't know our weak points." 

Then, with a girl's iuquisitiveness, she asked: 

" What are your weakest points?" 

"Forts Robinette and Williams," answered the 
major. " But we have no fears of their attacking 
at these points. " 

" Haven't you, really?" 

"Oh, no." 

So simple, so guileless, and so girlishly inquisi- 



THE PRETTY SPY. '279 

tive was the fair Estella, that the major never 
once dreamed she was aught than she seemed, a 
beautiful Tennessee girl, loj^al to the core. Next 
day. Colonel Grafton, of an Illinois regiment, 
seemed the favorite of the fickle coquette. She 
was in the colonel's society most of the time, ask- 
ing him as many questions as she had asked the 
major, and gaining very much valuable informa- 
tion from personal observation. They were re- 
turning to the hotel, when she esjjied a man across 
the street in the uniform of a lieutenant. The 
girl shrank back, clinging nervously to the colonel's 
arm, while she gasped: 

"Who is he, colonel?" 

" The lieutenant?" 

" Yes. " 

" That is Lieutenant Stevens of an Indiana regi- 
ment, recently promoted from the ranks. " 

She made no response. The colonel thought 
her conduct rather peculiar, but gave it no thought 
at the time, and a moment later, when they passed 
out of sight of the lieutenant, she became the same 
gay, prattling, charming, vivacious little creature 
she had been before. 

That night Mark Stevens was in his tent writing 
some letters, when an officer entered and asked : 

" Lieutenant Stevens, have you heard the latest?" 

" No; are Price and Van Dorn coming?" 



280 UNION. 

" Worse than that." 

"What?" 

" A spy has been captured to-night. " 

" A spy? Where?" 

" At the Corinth Hotel. It seems she has heen 
there for several days, flirting with the officers: 
and one of Baker's secret service men, having his 
suspicions roused, got on the trail and followed 
her for two or three days, and to-night, caught 
her. " 

" Is she really a spy?" 

" Yes, — no doubt of it. She was turned over 
to our colonel." 

Mark taking an indifferent interest in the matter 
a.sked : 

" Is the proof clear?" 

" Not a doubt of it. She had made out a com- 
plete map of the fort; had even written down some 
of the information she had gained from some of 
the officers; and, besides, Joe Putnam, of Com- 
pany B, saw her in Van Dorn's camp when he was 
there a prisoner. lie says she is related to Van 
Dorn, a niece, cousin or something of the sort. 
He recognized her the moment he set eyes on her, 
and set Trotter at once on her trail. He caught 
her just as she was about to skip with all her in- 
formation." 

" Surely, she has played her part well !" 



THE PRETTY SPY. 281 

" You are riglit she lias. She is as pretty as a 
picture, and I don't blame those officers one bit 
for falling in love with her. She is in a bad fix 
now though; for, pretty as she is, she will hang 
for this. " 

With a momentary shudder, Mark dismissed the 
pretty spy from his mind, and turning into his 
bunk, was soon sleeping soundly. Next morning, 
shortly after roll call, an orderly summoned Lieu- 
tenant Stevens before the colonel. He found the 
colonel, a stout, bald gentleman with a very large 
face, and his hands in his pockets, looking very 
much perplexed. 

"Lieutenant," he said, "I have detailed you to 
take four men and guard the new captive, the spy. 
Confound this business! We can't confine her 
with the men, for, spy though she is, she is, be- 
yond question, a lady." 

Guarding a woman was not a duty congenial to 
an ambitious young officer, like Mark Stevens; 
but he made no complaint. He was longing for 
an opportunity to win honors, and what honors 
could be won guarding a female? 

" I want to impress on you, lieutenant, the neces- 
sity of guarding the prisoner with the utmost care, " 
said the colonel. " I hope that you fully appre- 
ciate the importance of this prisoner, at the same 
time remembering that she is a lady, who is so 



283 UMON. 

full of secession, that she has forfeited her life for 
what she calls patriotism." 

Mark went from the headquarters of the colonel, 
to the hotel where the sp}^ was to remain. Mr. 
Trotter, the secret service agent, was at the door 
of the prisoner. Mark handed him his order to 
relieve the detective. 

" Thank you, lieutenant, I am pleased to know 
you. " Through the door, which was partially 
ajar, Mark saw a slender, graceful girl reclining 
cm a sofa, gazing from an open window. Her face 
was from him, and he could only see that she had 
golden hair, and a faultless form. But when he 
spoke to Mr. Trotter, she suddenly turned so he 
had a full view of her face. 

It was Avell for Mark that he had his hand on 
the door; had he not, he would have staggered 
and betraj'ed his emotion. Stunned, confused and 
bewildered as he was, he realized that he must 
conceal everything from the keen eyes of the de- 
tective. He averted his face for a moment to gain 
strength. Mark still retained his presence of 
mind, though in a bewildered sort of a way. In 
five or six seconds, each of which was an age to 
him, he had regained his composure, and turning 
his back upon the prisoner said : 

" Mr. Trotter, will you be kind enough to keep 
watch until I select my guard? It is not every 



THE PRETTY SPY. 283 

one that can be entrusted with such a delicate 
matter, you know. " 

" Certainly, lieutenant; go and select your men, 
and select those on whom you can rely." 

Mark hurried away. He felt that to remain 
longer he would betray himself. No clearly de- 
fined plan had yet been formed in his mind. It 
required time and careful deliberation to form a 
plan. On reaching the street he hoped that fresh 
air would revive him, but he staggered, and the 
sun seemed to glimmer as if there were an eclipse. 
He was forced to recall himself constantly to the 
terrible present, to convince himself that it was 
not all a horrible dream. 

Nevertlieless, his mind was active and intuitively 
planning. He knew that he must have four men 
whom he could trust, and going to his company, 
he selected Bill Simms, Sis, and two others, named 
Collins and Bradford. 

" Report at the Corinth Hotel in an hour," said 
Mark. 

"Are we to be quartered at th' hotel?" asked 
Collins. 
■ "Yes." 

" Wall, that's jolly good luck for us." 

" You bet it is. I remember once when with 

Gineral Percy " Mark did not wait to hear Bill 

Simms" reminiscences, but hurried back to relieve 



284 UNION. 

the secret service agent. Mr. Trotter was sitting 
near tlie door of the room in which he ke|)t his 
fair prisoner, reading a newspaper, and at the same 
time keeping a lookout for her. By a great 
effort, Mark had wholly regained his self-pos- 
session, and there was not the quiver of a mus- 
cle when he reported ready to relieve the detective. 

" I am very glad you came, lieutenant, for I 
have some very important matters on hand, " said 
the detective, as he hurried away. 

Mark remained at the door listening to his re- 
treating footsteps until he was well below: then, 
closing the door, he turned to the prisoner and said : 

"Elsie!" 

Coldly, proudly, and with supreme hauteur, she 
raised her queenly head and gave him a stare. 

"Elsie, what does this mean? Why are you 
here a prisoner on such a charge?" 
■ Though much of the sunlight in her face had 
been obscured by the clouds of sorrow which had 
hovered over her, she was still beautiful. 

"I suppose you are my jailer?" she remarked, 
coldly. 

" Not of my own choice. God knows, when de- 
tailed for this service, I never dreamed who my 
prisoner was to be." 

" It is all the same. You consented to guard a 
woman, and it may as well be me as any other." 



THE PRETTY SPY. 385 

" Elsie, — you surely do not know the duties of 
a soldier. " 

"I do, Lieutenant Stevens. Do your dvity!" 
She turned coldly away to the window. Had she 
rebuked him sharply, had she melted into tears and 
sobs, she would not have wounded his feelings 
half so much as by her indifference. 

He closed the door and, sinking in a chair, 
buried his head in his hands, and trembled as if in 
an ague lit. Elsie Cole could be haughty, cold 
and indifferent, so long as her captors were stern; 
but when she witnessed the mental agony of Mark 
Stevens, she was amazed, disnia3'ed, humiliated 
and crushed. Kising, she hastened to his side, 
and gently laying her hand on his shoulder said : 

"Mark, — Mark — why this emotion? Surely it 
is not on my account — I am not worth it!" 

" Elsie!" he gasped in a hoarse whisper, " don't 
you realize your situation?" 

"1 do. I understand it fully!" she answered 
in a voice that was strangely calm. " I have been 
captured as a spy in the enemy's camp. The rule 
of war is that a spy suffers death. I knew it 
when I undertook the dangerous task. I was only 
as patriotic to the poor, losing South as you have 
been to the arrogant, haughty North. You staked 
your life for your principles, and I staked my life 
for mine. I lost. Am I any better than the 



286 UNION. 

countless thousands of other brave men and women, 
who are dying all over the South, for their native 
land?" 

Her voice was firm and calm, but had nothing 
arrogant about it. She offered no censure, and 
asked no favor. She had never seemed more 
beautiful and angelic than now. 

Mark went to the door, glanced out into the 
hall to assure himself no one was listening, then 
returned to the room, gently closing the door and 
bolted it to secure them against intrusion. She 
stood with her back to the window. Her face was 
calm, unmoved, with all the sweet confidence of 
innocence, which a consciousness of right gives. 
With Mark it was different. When he returned, 
she noticed his cheeks were wet with tears. A 
look of pain swept over her fair face. 

" Mark, don't give way like that. Remember 
you are a man, and should be strong. If I can 
bear it, you should." 

"Elsie, Elsie!" he groaned, "may God have 
mercy on the man who prompted you to this step. " 

" Blame no one; I came of my own free will," 
she answered. 

" Did you not come at the request of General 
Van Horn?" 

"No," she quickly answered. "General Van 
Dorn seriously objected to my coming at first, but, 



THE PRETTY SPY. 287 

when lie found me determined to serve my country 
in the only manner I could, he assented." 

" Why did you leave the East?" 

" My father's regiment was sent to Atlanta, and 
I came with him. When I reached this country, 
I could not remain inactive when the South needed 
my services. I could not fight in the ranks like a 
man ; but I could do good service as a spy, and, 
dangerous as the undertaking was, I resolved to 
make the risk. I failed, and — " her voice fal- 
tered a little — " I am willing to suffer." 

" Do you know the fate of a spy, Elsie?" 

" It is death. Not even the death of a soldier, 
but a criminal ; but so many have suffered this 
ignominious death, they have made it honorable." 

" Elsie, you shall not!" Mark said with spirit. 

" What do you mean?" 

" You sliall not die. " 

" Mark, remember that you are a soldier fighting 
for your country." 

" I will remember nothing of the sort. Wliat 
is country, what is principle, what is honor, or 
even the soul's salvation, compared to your life? 
Elsie, you know I would give them all for you. " 

" Mark, do you mean ?" she began. 

" Hush — your fate is in my hands, and I can 
and will save you." 

" You forget, I am a spy. " 



288 UNION. 

" I remember only that your life is in danger, 
and tliat you shall be saved. " 

" Would you betray your country?" 

" To save you I would. If they wish to hang 
me for a traitor they can do so. I have never 
shirked duty. I have slept on the frozen ground, 
faced storms of iron and leaden hail for my coun- 
try ; I would do more for her, — I would give my 
limbs one by one, my life inch by inch ; but I can- 
not, I will not give you. You shall be saved." 

It was her turn to become weak now, and she 
trembled, while great tears stole down her cheeks. 

" Mark, Mark ! I am not worth this !" she said. 
"Don't place yourself in danger for me." 

" I will! Listen, Elsie," he went on hurriedly. 
" I enlisted because I loved the Union. I did not 
enter the army as an officer, though I might have 
organized a company, but enlisted as a private 
soldier. There I soon learned the weight of the 
iron heel of military despotism, which makes the 
rank and tile underlings and machines. I longed 
to get above a private, and by risking my life a 
dozen times to almost certain death, I did so. No 
man was ever prouder of his honors than I ; but 
I will lose them all — will suffer court-martial and 
an ignominious death — rather than you shall suffer 
the fate of a spy." 

" No, no, " she sobbed ; " please don't, Mark. I 



THE PRETTY SPY. 289 

might accept such a sacrifice from any other, but 
from you, I cannot!" 

" You must, Elsie. Hush, don"t interpose any 
objection to my plan, or I shall go mad. Listen! 
My men are coming. I can trust them. There 
is not one of the four who would not lay down his 
life for me. They will aid me, and you shall 
escape. " 

Quite overcome, she fell down upon the sofa 
and wept. Elsie would not have shed a tear to 
have saved herself from death at the stake, but the 
thought of bringing all this woe on one so devoted 
to her, was overwhelming. 

The four guards came, and though they kept a 
strict surveillance over her, she could not have 
been treated with greater respect had they been 
her own brothers. Only one was on guard, just 
outside the door, at a time. The others had a 
room set apart for them in the hotel. 

"I am going away. Sis," said Mark to the 
smooth-faced boy-soldier. " I leave you in charge 
of the prisoner, see that she is not disturbed." 

"I'll do et, leftenaut, " Sis answered, "cos I 
know she's a leddy. I told Bill Simms thet she 
wuz a leddy from 'way back." 

Had Mark been severe, had he even confessed 
his love for her, she would have remained defiant 
and would have died scorning his proffered aid. 
19 



290 UNION. 

But when his actions revealed his solicitude, when 
she witnessed his agony of spirit, when she real- 
ized his determination to give position, honor, 
country, and life itself, her proud spirit broke 
down. Hatred, patriotism, mistaken principle, 
all gave way before a storm of overpowering emo- 
tion, which she was unable to explain, and with 
her face buried in her hands, she wept bitterly. 

Meanwhile, Mark Stevens was hurrying to the 
headquarters of his colonel. Having saved his 
life on two occasions, Mark had special claims on 
his friendship. The young officer did a very 
manly, yet a very dangerous thing. He told the 
colonel all, and that officer listened in open-mouthed 
amazement. Two hours were spent pleading, with 
tears on bearded cheeks, for a life, — the life of the 
being he loved. The colonel's duty made him 
stubborn. His honor, his official pride, his patri- 
otism, his ^ country's interest, were all arrayed 
against this girl. She was a spy, a most dan- 
gerous spy, and must be treated as such. AVhat 
mattered it if she did come of the best family in 
the South, and if Mark was in love with her? She 
was still a spy. 

At last, Mark, growing desperate in his appeal, 
sublime in his oratory, and supreme in his agon3^ 
declared : 

" Colonel, forgive me, — I admire your ideas of 



THE PRETTY SPY. 



291 



duty, but I love that woman, and I will live or 
die with her!" The colonel was stunned by the 
declaration, and Mark continued: "My life has 
been offered on more than one battle-field. I 




"My commission, my honor, my life you can take, but 
you shall not have her !" 

never shrank from duty before, but so help me 
high heaven, I will save that girl or die with her. 
My commission, my honor, my life you can take, 
but you shall not have her ! " 



392 UNION. 

The colonel bowed his head in his hands for 
moment, and when he looked up his cheeks were 
wet. After several efforts he finally said: 

" Lieutenant, hang me if I wouldn't do the same 
thing, and so would any other man, who had a spark 
of manhood in his soul. Go now — I cant help you 
— God may, and I believe he will, but I cannot." 

Mark left the headquarters of the colonel, feel- 
ing that he had, at least, one sympathetic friend. 
That evening, while Sis was on duty in the hall, 
two horses, ready saddled and bridled, might have 
been seen tied in an alley, at the rear of the hotel. 
Over each saddle a blanket was thrown, so that 
the passer-by might not notice that one was a 
lad3^'s saddle. Sis had had his suspicions roused, 
and when Mark came to send him on an errand, 
he hesitated. 

" Leftenant, I am afraid you are going to do 
wrong," he said. 

" It is for me to command, and you to obey. " 

Sis did not think he was in duty bound to obey 
a superior whom he doubted as true to the cause 
for whicli he was fighting, and he asked : 

" What air them bosses doin' in the alley?" 

" Ask no questions." 

'■ Leftenant, I promised I would treat the pris- 
oner ez a leddy, an' I'll do it; but I swear she 
shan't escape." 



THE PRETTY SPY. 293 

" Sis. I am yoin- superior officer, and you must 
obey ; and if any wrong is done you will not be 
responsible for it. " 

Sis liesitated. He realized that the army would 
be ruined by the escape of the sp}', and his quick 
perceptions had penetrated Mark's secret. For a 
moment Mark Stevens was perplexed. Then he 
wrote a message to the colonel which he folded 
and gave to Sis, ordering him to deliver it at once. 

Sis was too good a soldier to disobey. Placing 
his gun against the wall, he hurried off, and when 
he was gone, Mark took from under his coat a 
long, dark cloak and veil, and entering the room 
of the prisoner gave them to her, with instructions 
to don them at once. When she had done so, 
he told her to walk boldly down the stairs and oat 
into the street. At a certain corner, she was to 
wait until he came with the horses, for Sis' stub- 
bornness and suspicions had, to a certain ex- 
tent, disarranged his plans. She returned not a 
word, but obeyed his instructions. When she 
was gone, Mark locked her door, and called to Bill 
Simms, who was in the room where the guard was 
quartered, at the upper end of the hall, and bade 
him guard the prisoner's door for two hours, and 
to allow no one enter her room under any circum- 
stances. Then Mark went leisurely downstairs, 
to the alley where the horses were. He mounted 



294 UNIOX. 

one and, leading the other, rode quickly to the dark 
corner where she was to meet him. He suffered 
much apprehension until he came in sight of the 
spot, and found her waiting. 

" We have not a moment to lose, " he whispered, 
as he sprang from the saddle, and lifted her to her 
seat. 

Not a word was spoken as they galloped out of 
town. Mark had the password, and they passed 
the guards without any trouble. He suffered the 
greatest anxiety and dread until the last picket 
post was passed. They might not even yet be 
safe, for, at any time, a pursuing party might be 
sent to bring them back. Often they paused, list- 
ening for some sounds of pursuit, and then pressed 
on. 

" Elsie, have you any friend near?" 

" Mr. Myers lives only twelve miles away. His 
wife is my father's cousin; but Mr. Mj'ers is in 
the Confederate army." 

" Can you trust his wife?" 

"Yes." 

" We must go there. " They rode on for a few 
moments, and Mark added : " I have a request to 
make of you. It may do neither of us any good, 
yet it would relieve my conscience if you granted 
it." 

"What is it?" 



THE PRETTY SPY. 295 

" Promise me not to use any information, you 
may have gained this time, against the Union 
army. " 

■' If I should promise, 3'our officers would not 
believe me. " 

" Promise me, and I will believe 3"ou." 

" Then, to you, I promise." 

" I ask no better assurance, for I know you nvIII 
keep your word." 

They reached the home of Mrs. Myers, and, 
leaving Elsie safe with friends, Mark bade her 
adieu and, wheeling his horse about, started back 
to meet his fate. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE ALABAMA AND KEARSARGE. 

In Chapter VII. of this story, we told how 
Dick Stevens with Charley Cole, Elsie's brother, 
shipped on board the Confederate cruiser, the 
Alabama; and it will be necessary at this point to 
return to them, as their exploits form a part of the 
warp and woof of the romance. Dick Stevens was 
heartily disgusted with the crew of l\\e Alabama \ 
but he was in for it, and must either serve his 
time oat, or desert. The crew broke all bounds, 
and nearly all the petty officers were disrated, 
much to their satisfaction, as- they had no respect 
from the crew and were responsible for them to 
their superior officers. Dick was offered the posi- 
tion of quartermaster, but declined. 

Off the coast of San Domingo, the crew of the 
Alabama had a little fright over lire ; but the flames 
were easily extinguished, and no damage done. 
They had been taking prizes very rapidly and 
burning them; but on July 2d, they fell in with a 
sailing vessel which fairly outstripped them. It 
296 



THE ALABAMA AND REARS ARGE. 297 

was near sunset when the look-out at the mast- 
head descried her, and the Alabama as usual hoisted 
the English ensign; but the Yankee captain was 
wide awake, and piling on all canvas, he kept the 
weather-gage. It was quite apparent that he was 
using every device known to a good sailor to beat 
them. Dick asked their boatswain, an old clipper 
sailor, if they were gaining. 

" Not an inch, and we are doin' our best," the 
old man answered. The wind freshened, and they 
tried a long shot with their rifle gun, but it was 
no use. The escaping ship was a cloud of canvas, 
and beautifull}^ handled, and in his heart Dick could 
not but wish her success. 

It soon grew dark, and they espied a light on the 
water which made the pirates cheer, as they were 
quite sure they were overhauling the prize. They 
headed the vessel for the light, and when within 
two or three hundred yards of it, the look-out cried : 

" That's a floating light." 

The Yankee had deceived them by an old ruse. 
The light proved to be only a lantern tied to a 
spar fastened in the centre of a raft. 

The Yankee escaped, and when Dick and Char- 
ley were alone, the former said : 

" I am almost glad of it. Charley." 

"So am I." 

" I feel that this life is decidedly demoralizing. " 



398 UiXION. 

" It is. It is piracy, not honest warfare." 

" If Captain Semmes would give his crew an 
occasional opportunit}' to fight, it might reconcile 
them to this sort of thing, and the}* would not 
be compelled to resort to outlawry for amusement. " 

Dick and Charley, who were often together on 
the watch, made each other confidants in many 
personal and family secrets. On one dark night, 
as they were howling along through the troubled 
waters, Charley Cole narrated a part of his family 
history, that was sad, mysterious and romantic. 
It was, as yet, an unfinished story, and little did 
they dream that they were to be living witnesses to 
the sequel. The strange, dark, sad story made an 
impression on Dick Stevens that he never forgot. 

They sailed for tlie eastern seas and made many 
captures on the way. They had a long chase after 
a fine clipper ship called the Contest. She was a 
swift sailor, and but for tlie Blakely rifle might 
have escaped. Her mate was an Englishman and 
resisted to the last. He knocked one of the officers 
down, and offered to fight any pirate aboard the 
ship. Dick took part in the stand-up fight with a 
gang of large babogns on a small island near the 
Straits of Sunda. He had his jacket ripped off at 
one clutch, and came very nearly being torn to 
pieces. The baboons threw stones and clubs like 
men. 



THE ALABAMA AM) KEARSARGE. 2\)0 

Shortly after leaving Singapore, Dick was ap- 
prised of an effort on the part of some of the rough 
members of the crew to take the ship. " Shak- 
ings," a cron}^ of Gill, told Dick that if he would 
stand in with them, thej would make a rush aft 
on the next night, and could easily capture the 
ship ; that the American consul would guarantee 
them one hundred thousand dollars, and see that 
no harm would come to them. 

" Who are with you?" Dick asked. 

" Four of the petty oflficers and about twenty 
men," Shakings answered. Dick did not like this 
man, for he had a bad countenance. He did not 
dare openly refuse, for he remembered the fate of 
Kingpost, so he said: 

" I will think about it. " 

Next clay Dick was accosted by Gill, who was 
strongly in favor of the mutiny. He assured him 
they would not be opposed by the petty officers, 
and one determined rush would do it I Dick list- 
ened attentively to his plan, and then interposed a 
carefully worded objection. 

" I am afraid the officers are on the alert, " he 
said. " And besides as we are going to England 
soon, it would scarce pay. And again, Gill, I 
have not much faith in the American consuls; 
they would repudiate the whole affair, and l)ring 
us within the grip of the English law, where we 



300 UNION. 

would be hung as pirate?. If we could run her 
into a Yankee port it would be different. " 

Gill gazed hard at the young sailor, and Dick, 
understanding the man's dangerous character, as- 
sured him that he was one to keep his counsel 
under all circumstances. 

The sailors were given to understand that their 
course was now for England, wliich news had a 
very wholesome effect on tlie men. The Stars and 
Stripes were seldom seen floating from the mast- 
heads of any of the merchantmen, for the Alabama 
had almost swept the commerce of the United 
States from the seas, and after leaving the African 
coast they had dull times aboard the cruiser. They 
were off Lizard Point, June 8th, with England 
dimly visible from the port bow. Taking a pilot 
aboard they sailed for Cherbourg on June, the 
13th. It was quite evident that the Alabama 
needed repairs. She forged through the waters in 
a way that told that her copper was stripping, and 
in sailors' parlance she had become a veritable 
" tub." Her engines being out of order produced 
a constant thumping and fizzing in the engine 
room. Charley Cole, who was a pretty fair sea- 
man, told his cousin that her cruising would soon 
come to an end. It was thought that, if she went 
into an English port, that government would not 
permit her to come out again. 



THE ALABAMA AND KEARSARGE. 301 

Dick was never so glad to get asliore in his life, 
as when tliey reached Cherbourg. He had not 
been long on land, when he met Charley Cole, 
who said: 

" Dick, I heard the Kearsarge is coming into 
port. " 

" Who is the Kearsarge ? " Dick carelessly asked. 

" A Yankee man-of-war, by Jove! and you may 
get acquainted with her before we get out of port. " 

"Is that so?" 

" Yes, and old Captain Winslow is said to be a 
fighter. " 

" Very well, we will have a chance at last to try 
our guns. " 

" I should not be surprised, for I heard that 
Captain Semmes has expressed his intention to 
fight the Kearsarge. " 

The rumor was correct; for that same day. Cap- 
tain R. Semmes had sent to Mr. Bonfils, the Con- 
federate commercial agent, a message to be for- 
warded to the United States Consul, Mr. Liais, at 
Cherbourg. It read as follows : 

"C. S. S. 'Alabama,^ Cherbourg, June 14, 1864.* 
" To A. Bonfils, Esq. , Cherbourg. 

"Sir: — I hear that you were informed by the United 
States Consul that the Kearsarge was come to this port 
solely for the prisoners landed by me, and that she was to 
depart in twenty-four hours. I desire to say to the United 

* Century Magazine. 



303 UNION. 

States Consul that it is my intention to fight the Kcar- 
sarge, as soon as I can make the necessary arrangements. 
I hope these will not detain me longer than until to-mor- 
row evening, or the morning after at the furthest. I beg 
that she will not depart before I am ready to go out. 

"I have the honor to be very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, R. Semmes, Captain."' 

On sending this communication, Captain Semmes 
requested that a copy would be furnished Captain 
Winslow for his guidance. Thus the giants of 
the ocean began to prepare for battle. 

When Dick and Charley v/ent on board at an 
early hour, June 15th, it was told through the 
ship that the Kearsargewas coming through the east 
end of the harbor. From the berthdeck ports they 
had a good look at her. 

"What do you think of her, Charley?" Dick 
asked. 

"She seems to rest rather low in the water; 
but there is no doubt that she is in fighting trim." 

At the rate of nine knots she steamed past them, 
and out at the west opening. Through the ward- 
room servants, the report of Captain Semmes' chal- 
lenge reached the ears of the crew, and most of 
them were eager for the conflict. 

" I believe we shall have a fight, Charley, " said 
Dick. 

"Yes." 

" What do you think of the chances?" 




IGQ LoDgitude 150 West IQO 200 400 



Matamoraa 



Lougritude 



THE ALABAMA AND KEARSARGE. 303 

" The crew who work the guns have no confi- 
dence in any but the Blakely rifle." 

Everything was in order by Sunday, June 19tli, 
and early on that bright morning, the Alabama 
steamed out oi Cherbourg for her hist cruise, whicli 
was destined to be a short one, A beautiful Eng- 
lish yacht called the Deerhound was discovered fol- 
lowing in their waive. Dick did not dream who 
was aboard that yacht, until he heard the name 
Lancaster mentioned. Then he turned to Charles 
Cole and asked : 

"Lancaster? Charley, did you hear the name? 
Was it Lancaster?" 

" Yes. " 

" Perhaps Lorena Lancaster is aboard. " 

" Pshaw ! wh}' do you think so?" 

" She lived with her uncle, John Lancaster, who 
was very fond of yachting. " 

" Well, if she did, does that signify that she is 
aboard that yacht?" 

•' It would be a little romantic, Charley, if she 
should be aboard that yacht. She sent me to the 
war. For her, I signed as one of the crew of the 
Alabama^ and now she has come to see me win my 
victory. " 

Dick was in the highest spirits this morning. 
Charley had never seen him so confident, and 
having more knowledge of naval warfare than he, 



304 UNION. 

could scarce repress a sigh, for be knew that 
chances were against them. Walking slowh^ for- 
ward to the Blakely rifle, Charley said: 

" You must do the work to-day, if it is done." 

A full head of steam was on, and the Alabama 
was soon gliding boldly out of the harbor escorted 
by a French armored vessel. The crew were all 
at quarters, and every man ready and eager for 
the fight. Dick turned his eyes toward the harbor 
as they glided out, and clutching Charley's arm, 
said : 

" She is following. She is going to witness the 
fight. " 

Charley turned his eyes in the direction indicated 
by Dick's finger, and saw the Deerhound following 
in their wake. When they got outside the har- 
bor, Dick heard some one say : 

" There she is ! " and going forward saw the low 
dark hull and rigging of the Kearsarge, with the 
black smoke issuing from her great dark chimney. 

Yes, there lay the enemy not over four or five 
miles away, waiting for them, and a sight of her 
sent a thrill to Dick's heart. He was not afraid 
to fight, in fact was rather eager for the conflict, 
yet he would have been more highly pleased had 
she run away or surrendered without exchanging 
a shot. 

The report of their going out to fight the Kear- 



THE ALABAMA AND REARS ARGE. 305 

sarge had been widely circulated, and many persons 
from Paris and the surrounding country had come 
down to witness the engagement. They, with a 
large number of inhabitants of Cherbourg, assem- 
bled on every point of the shore that would afford 
a view seaward. On discovering the Kearsarge, 
the Alabama immediately headed for her with all 
hands at the quarters, and the starboard battery 
cast loose. The men were neatly dressed and the 
officers in full uniform. Upon reporting to Cap- 
tain Semmes that the ship was ready for action, he 
directed Captain Kell to send all hands aft, and 
mounting a gun-carriage, he made the following 
address : 
" Officers and Seamen of the Alabama : 

" You have at length another opportunity of 
meeting the enemy — the first that has been pre- 
sented to you since you sunk the Hatteras ! In 
the mean time you have been all over the world, 
and it is not too much to say that you have de- 
stroyed, and driven for protection under neutral 
flags, one-half of the enemy's commerce, which at 
the beginning of the war covered every sea. This 
is an achievement of which you may well feel 
proud, and a grateful country will not be unmind- 
ful of it. The name of your ship has become 
a household word, wherever civilization extends! 
Shall that name be tarnished by defeat? The 
20 



306 UMON. 

thing is impossible! Remember that you are in 
the English Channel, that theatre of so much of. 
the naval glory of our race, and that the eyes of 
all Europe are at this moment upon you. The 
flag that floats over you is that of a young lie- 
public, which bids defiance to her enemies, when- 
ever and wherever found ! Show the world that 
you know how to uphold it ! Go to your quarters ! " 

The crew with a cheer hastened to their quarters, 
and the friendly French vessel, having done all she 
dared, left the Alabama, which steered straight for 
the Kearsarge, tliat, like a marine monster, awaited 
the assault. As the Alabama was steaming toward 
her enemy. Captain Semmes passed the quarters 
where Dick and Charley stood. Chai-ley whis- 
pered to his cousin : 

" Something is the matter with Captain Semmes; 
he seems flurried." 

" What are they going to do, Charley?" 

" Going to fire the Blakely." 

" It is folly at this distance." 

" The captain is unstrung. " 

" See, there comes the Kearsarge. By Jove ! she 
has got her bristles up, and coming right at us. " 

"Boom!" The sea seemed to tremble beneath 
the heavy report of the Blakely 100-pounder. 

"The shot did not strike her, Charley," said 
Dick. 



THE ALABAMA AND KEARSARGE. 307 

" Why did they waste the shot at that distance?" 

"What is she doing?" 

" Going to circle around us, so she can get us at 
a point that she may rake us fore and aft." 

All the while, the gunners at the Blakely were 
bus}' ramming home another charge, 

" They are sighting her again, Dick. " 

"It's all nonsense, and I wonder Captains Sem- 
mes and Kell don't see it." 

" She is still circling about us and getting 
nearer. " 

" We'll feel her iron soon." 

The two ships were caught in the current which 
set westward at the rate of about three knots per 
hour. Like two pugilists, they did an immense 
amount of sparring and circling about each other, 
all the while, in order to get in a position for a 
telling blow. 

Dick saw old Gill, like a grim monster, at the 
eight-inch gun waiting for the time to come when 
he should make the attack. Shakings was near 
the port bulwarks, handling shot, swearing all the 
while and wishing that they could carry the enemy 
by the board. 

As yet the enemy had not fired a shot. Sud- 
denly Charley, who had been watching her, cried: 

" She is in position; now look out!" 

The Kearsarge was within seven or eight hundred 



308 UNIOX. 

yards, wLen, suddenly gracefully rounding about, 
her entire broadside became a sheet of flame, and 
the Alabama seemed to reel and shake all over 
from the force of the shot. 

Dick and Charley were serving on one of the 
thirty-twos, and they fired with the others, but 
could observe no visible effect from the discharge 
of their guns. Their sponger, an old man-of-war's 
man, remarked: 

" We might as well fire batter puddens as these 
pop-guns ; a few more biffs like that last, and we 
may turn turtle. " 

His speech was cut short by a tremendous crash. 
A shell had burst under the pivot gun, tilting it 
out of range and killing five of the crew. 

"What is wrong with the rifle gun?" Charley 
asked. " We don't seem to be doing the enemy 
any harm." 

Boom!- — ^boom, boom! with slow precision came 
the crash of heavy shells from the Yankee. One 
missile, which to Dick seemed as large as a hay- 
stack, whizzed over their heads, tearing away a 
section of the port bulwarks, and missing Shakings, 
who was handling shot, b}^ not more than two feet. 
That individual, glancing at the wreck made by 
the shot, coolly remarked : 

" I believe the cussed Yankees are firin' steam- 
bilers at us." 



THE ALABAMA AND KEARSARGE. 309 

Shot and shell were striking them thick and fast, 
and, to their amazement, even their Blakely rifle, on 
which they had put so much reliance, seemed to 
make little or no impression on the enemy. On 
finding that their shells failed to penetrate the 
enemy's sides, their captain ordered them to lire 
solid shot. These seemed to have us little effect as 
the shells, and from that to the end of the conflict, 
the Blakely alternated between solid shot and shell. 
Captain Kell claimed that the Kearsarge was pro- 
tected by chain armor, and that the powder of the 
Alabama was so defective that they failed to hurl 
projectiles with the force of the enemy's shot. 
Charley in an undertone to Dick said: 
" We are going to get it this time. " 
" No, let us hope not. We may whip her yet." 
" We are not doing it, fate is against us ; our 
shot has no visible effect, while they are raking 
us fore and aft. " 

At this moment, a shell struck them amidships, 
exploding, and causing the ship to list to port, so 
that the gun of our friends raced in, pinning one 
poor fellow against the port-sill. They made 
frantic efforts to get him clear; but he was dead 
when rescued. The shell which caused the disas- 
ter was evidently the terrible eleven-inch shell 
that sank the Alabama, for a few seconds after it 
exploded, Dick heard the cry : 



310 UNION. 

" She's going down !" 

All was confusion and some of the men deserted 
the guns, though the officers ordered them back. 

A moment later another shell struck about the 
water-line, and the vessel reeled like a drunken 
man. The dead and wounded now strewed the 
bloody deck. 

" We are whipped, Dick. The ship is going 
down." 

Grinding his teeth in rage, Dick answered: 

" Let us send them down with us. " 

The officers did their duty and made every effort 
to get up the wounded men. The cutter and 
launch were in the water, and Dick heard Captain 
Semmes tell Officer Kell to go below and see how 
badly the vessel was injured. 

All the while, the Alabama's crew was firing as 
rapidly as they could, receiving crash after crash 
from the enemy in return. In a few seconds Officer 
Kell came back, saluted Captain Semmes, and 
said: 

"Captain, she cannot keep' afloat ten minutes.'' 

Captain Semmes replied : 

" Then, sir, cease firing, shorten sail, and haul 
down the colors; it will never do in this nineteenth 
century for us to go down, and our decks covered 
with our gallant wounded. " 

" I felt it from the first!" sighed Charley as the 



THE ALABAMA AND KEARSARGE. 311 

colors were hauled down, and orders given to cease 
tiring. " I suppose now we will have to go to some 
infernal Yankee prison and rot. I would rather 
go to the bottom." 

Though thej had ceased firing and hauled down 
their colors, the enemy's guns still roared, and their 
shot still came tearing through the sinking ship.* 

" Why, in thunder, are they firing at us 3'et?" 
cried Charley Cole. " Do they intend never to 
sto]) until they have murdered us outright?" 

" Stand hy your quarters and don't flinch from 
their shot," cried Captain Kell. "Quartermaster, 
show the white flag over the stern." 

A few moments later the lire of the enemy 
ceased. A boat was dispatched to the ^m/-.9a/-^e to 
notify Captain Winslow of the surrender of the 
Alabama^ to report the ship sinking, and to ask 
aid in rescuing the wounded. They began at once 
to get up the wounded. Every effort was made to 
keep the men back from the cutter and launch 
until the wounded were put in ; but Dick was quite 
sure that many of the disabled were left behind, 
for he saw several on the berthdeck after they 
had pushed off. 

* Captain Winslow of the Kearsarge gives his reason for 
firing on the Alabama after she had struck, that he sup- 
posed her colors shot away, or that it was a trick of Captain 
Semmes to get back into neutral waters, and thus escape. 



312 bWION. 

When it was ascertained to a certainty that the 
ship was going down, all order was at an end, and 
men ran here and there in every direction. 

Dick's few effects, with two or three valnable 
keepsakes, were in the locker between the decks, 
and he ran below to secure them. He had scarce 
done so when lie heard the cry from the deck : 

" All hands on deck — ship is going down !" He 
had just reached the upper step of the forward 
companion-way, when the water entering the berth- 
deck ports forced the air up, and almost carried 
him off his feet. He called for Charley and cast 
his eyes around on the horrible scene, the result of 
the conflict. Shakings lay near the main gang- 
way, his body torn open by the explosion of a shell. 
Old Gill, with his head crashed under the carriage 
of an eight-inch gun, was lying there, his brawny 
hands clutching the breast of his jumper. 

"Charley!" Dick called. 

For a moment he was appalled lest his compan- 
ion, friend, and kinsman had met with an accident; 
but a moment later he received an answer, and 
saw Charley lashing two spars together to form a 
sort of a raft. Just as the water came over the 
stern, the two sailors launched their frail craft, 
and went over the port bulwarks. Both men were 
good swimmers, and were pushing their raft along, 
when the yacht, which they had seen watching the 



THE ALABAMA AND KEARSARGE. 313 

fight from a distance, bore clown upon them, and 
picked them up. 

This was Mr. Lancaster's yacht, the Deerhound. 
A few moments later Captain Semmes and his 
officers were also taken aboard the yacht. Wheff 
Mr. Lancaster had rescued Captain Semmes, he 
said: 

" I think every man has been picked up. Where 
shall I land you?" 

" I am now under English colors, and the sooner 
you put me with my officers on English soil, the 
better," replied Captain Semmes. 

"I will do it in a few hours," Mr. Lancaster 
answered, and at once steamed away to Southamp- 
ton. 

Everything had happened so rapidh^ that Dick's 
brain was in a whirl. But a short time before he 
was on the unconquerable ^/aiama; then the fight 
and sinking of the ship, all seemed like a vivid 
dream. When he closed his eyes, he could still 
see her going down stern foremost, and her head 
high in the air. 

The sailors were given an opportunity to wash 
the powder and stains of battle off their faces. 
Dick was standing aft gazing on the fast disap- 
pearing coast and sighing at the terrible fate of his 
ship, when he heard a light step near him, and 
turning beheld Lorena Lancaster. He started and 



314 UNION. 

for a few moments was overwhelmed and unable 
to speak. At last he went boldly to her side and 
said : 

"You saw it all?" 

She nodded. 

" Lorena, I enlisted for you. I failed. We 
are defeated. Will 3'OU forsake me in my dis- 
tress?" 

They were alone. Everybody was forward, 
and the cabins and rigging hid them from view. 
For a moment the beauty of England hung her 
head, then, blushing, answered: 

" No. " 

It was all arranged in a few moments, and he 
was the accepted lover of the proud English beauty, 
who averred that she would marry him out of pity 
for his misfortunes; but it was determined to 
postpone the wedding until the war was over. 
After a few weeks' sojourn in England, Dick and 
Charley took passage for their own country to con- 
tinue the battle on land which had proven a failure 
on sea. We shall meet them again in the course 
of this story. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE DESERTER. 

The very least Mark Stevens could expect for 
aiding the spy to escape was a trial and conviction 
by court-martial. His past good conduct might 
tend to mitigate the sentence ; but disgrace and dis- 
charge must inevitably follow. 

" I have saved Elsie, that is one consolation." 
There was a sweet, holy satisfaction in the thought. 
His love for the proud little rebel was of a purely 
unselfish sort, and surmounted every obstacle. 
For no other person would he have given so much. 
Glancing at the shoulder straps which he had won 
after so much hard work, he sighed : " It is all 
over now. I shall soon lose them ; but I lose them 
for her. '' 

It was noon on the 3d of October when he came 
in sight of Corinth. The air was suddenly filled 
with the sharp crack of musketry, and roll of 
artillery. 

" They have come. Price and Van Dorn have 
come," cried Lieutenant Stevens, and forgetting 
315 



816 UNION. 

all else, save the coming battle, he plunged his 
spurs into his horse's flanks and galloped down 
the road. Before he was aware of it, he actual! v 
rode over the enemy's skirmish line and. with 
bullets whistling like hail about him, dashed into 
his own lines, waving his sword and cheering the 
soldiers. 

Rosecrans had not long been in Corinth after 
the battle of luka before he ascertained that the 
enemy was concentrating on that place, or some 
other point, which would cut off his communica- 
tions and compel him to evacuate it. Price, Van 
Dorn and Lovell had united their entire forces for 
the purpose of crushing his comparatively small 
army, before he could receive reinforcements. 
Rosecrans, calling all his troops from adjacent posts, 
watched with deepest solicitude the development 
of the hostile plan. At length, discovering that 
the rebels had marched around him to the east- 
ward, and were moving down on Corinth from the 
north and northeast, he formed his plan, and 
disposing his troops to the best possible advantage, 
calmly awaited the attack. He knew he was out- 
numbered two to one ; but he relied on the strength 
of his position, and the indomitable character of 
his troops. McKean commanded the left. Davies 
the centre, and the gallant Hamilton the right, 
where Rosecrans supposed the weight of the strug- 



THE DESERTER. 317 

gle would fall. The old fortifications thrown up 
bj Beauregard were too extensive for his little 
army to hold, and so he erected works within 
them. 

The plan of Kosecrans was to advance on the 
enemy as he approached, make an attack, thus 
forcing him to develop his lines, and then retire 
behind his own works, so that the batteries could 
sweep the rebels as they emerged into the open 
ground in front. 

This was the programme that the Union army 
was carrying out when Lieutenant Mark Stevens 
came on the scene, rode through the extending skir- 
mish lines, and without fully realizing it, joined his 
own company. The skirmishing was hot and 
lasted all day, and night found the Union forces 
in a town which the enem}- had closely invested. 
Much uneasiness was felt on the part of the soldiers 
because they had been so easily driven back into 
the place, where the enemy's shells could reach 
them; but they did not understand the motive of 
their able commander. All night long the tramp 
of marshalling hosts could be heard, and the plant- 
ing of batteries within close range. 

Not a word had been .spoken to Mark since his 
arrival. In fact they had been too busily engaged 
with the enemy to give thought to aught else. 
When they were all finally drawn within their 



318 UNION. 

newly constructed works, and night was falling on 
the scene, the captain came to him and said : 

" Well, lieutenant, you got off from that de- 
tailed service to help us in this fight, did you?" 

" Yes, " he mechanically answered, wondering if 
the captain was in earnest, or speaking ironically. 

" I am glad you are here, for Lieutenant Grafton 
will never fight again." 

Mark had missed the first lieutenant for some 
hours, but had not, up to this time, learned his 
fate. 

" Is Lieutenant Grafton dead?" 

" No, he is still living, I believe, but he has a 
bullet through his chest and will die before morn- 
ing." 

" It is sad. " 

" Yes, but it is your promotion. You may be 
captain before the setting of to-morrow's sun." 

" I hope not, Captain Hawk. I don't want 
promotion that way. " 

They listened for awhile to the low rumbling of 
artillery wheels, and Lieutenant Stevens said : 

" Captain , we are going to have a hard struggle 
in the morning. " 

" It will be two to one. " 

" But we can beat them off. " 

Shortly after this he felt some one touch his 
arm, and looking about saw Bill Simms. 



THE DESERTER. 319 

" Leftenant, I wanter speak t' ye," said Simms. 
Mark sufJered himself to be led aside, and Simms 
whispered: "D'ye know that blamed gal got 
away." 

" How?" he asked evasively. 

" Hang me ef I know. When I was relieved 
by Collins, he asked if she wanted anything, and 
she made no answer. He supposed she was asleep 
and did not disturb her. At breakfast time I 
rapped at her door, and when she made no answer, 
opened it and went in. She wasn't there. Col- 
lins and I kept the secret to ourselves, and went 
out to look for her, but she couldn't be found, 
though how in thunder she got away, I don't 
know." 

" Have you reported the matter?" 

"Yes." 

"To whom?" 

"The colonel." 

"What did he say?" 

" He said keep it still ; not to say a word that 
would get out among the men, but he thought I 
might tell you." 

Mark thanked the colonel from the bottom of 
his heart; yet he felt some misgivings about 
meeting him. He did not meet the colonel until 
after midnight; then, as he chanced to pass his 
quarters, he was summoned to his side. 



320 UNION. 

"You were in tbe front to-day, lieutenant?" 
said the colonel. 
* " Yes, colonel," he answered with a salute. 

" I wish 3'OU would take this dispatch to General 
Rosecrans. " 

He hurriedly wrote the dispatch and handed it 
to Mark. It contained some information concern- 
ing the front. General Rosecrans was busy that 
night. It was almost three o'clock before he 
wrapped his blanket about him, and lay down to 
catch a few moments' sleep before the coming dawn 
which was to usher in a scene of fire and death. 

At last the long wished for, but much dreaded, 
dawn streaked the eastern sky, and the rolling of 
drum, and pealing of bugle awoke the morning 
echoes, and were answered by those of the enemy 
in the dark forests beyond. 

The rebel force was massed in the angle formed 
by the Memphis and Columbus railroads. The 
left of the Union army rested on the batteries ex- 
tending west from Fort Robinette, the centre on 
the slight ridge north of the houses, and the riglit 
on the high ground which covered the Pittsburg 
and Purdy roads, that led away to the old Shiloh 
battle-ground. The rebel plan was to mass their 
force against the Union batteries and overwhelm 
them by their impetuous charge. This could be 
done only by a terrible sacrifice ; for four redoubts 



THE DESERTER. 331 

covered all the approaches, while batteries were in 
every place where guns could be advantageously 
posted, so that the whole open space in front of 
the Union lines could be swept by a storm of fire 
and iron hail. 

With daylight skirmishing began, and the heavy 
boom of cannon here and there shook the field 
long before the enemy's lines became visible. 
They were forming in the roads running through 
the forest, half a mile or more in front, and every 
eye was strained to catch the heads of the columns 
as they moved out for the final advance. The 
very mystery that shrouded the attacking host, 
hidden in those stirless woods, added to the im- 
pressiveness of the scene. At length, a little after 
nine o'clock, the fearful suspense was ended by 
the heads of the columns issuing from the leafy 
covering. In columns and divisions the whole 
host moved in splendid order up the Bolivar road, 
straight toward the mysterious batteries. Long 
lines of glittering steel crested the gray formation 
below, as, with steady step and closed ranks, they 
swept forward. Like a great wedge at first, but 
slowly unfolding two expanding wings, the enemy 
swept down on Corinth. It was a beautiful move- 
ment and well executed. 

Price on the left and Van Dorn on the right 
moved on together; but the latter, meeting with 
. 21 



322 UNION. 

unexpected obstacles, lost a little time, and the 
division of General Price cangbt tlie first fury of 
the storm. Eight up the turfy slope, the steady 
columns pressed, swept by the whole line of bat- 
teries, sending shot and shell tearing through their 
ranks, and like clouds shattered by lightning, tbey 
wavered. The ground was covered by a dense 
white smoke, the line of breastworks being marked 
only by a fierce angry light playing through the sul- 
phurous vapor. It was the constant flashing from 
thousands of muskets, and so continuous was the 
fusillade that the flame never entirel}^ died away. 
The entire field was a scene of terrible confusion. 
Ammunition wagons were being hurriedly un- 
loaded in the centre, the boxes of cartridges were 
moving on men's shoulders in the direction of the 
engaged lines, while hundreds of wounded men 
were streaming to the rear, a long string of 
stretchers accompanying them. The dead and 
dying darkened the ground ; but the firing never 
faltered. . With bent heads and leaning forms like 
those who breast a driving sleet, they pressed 
sternly forward, making straight for Eosecrans' 
centre. Onward and upward, through fire and 
death and tempests of bullets, grapeshot and crash- 
ing bombs, they pressed like the march of fate. 
At last they reached the crest of the hill, and 
Davies' division gave way in disorder. 



THE DESERTER. 323 

The eye of Rosecrans never for a moment left 
the rolling mass, and when he saw this disaster, 
he dashed amid the broken ranks, heedless of the 
raining shot and shell and rallied them in person ; 
but the enemy seeing their advantage, sprang for- 
ward with a shout, and the headquarters of Rose- 
crans was overrun with Confederate troops, and 
the next moment their fire was pouring into the 
public square of the town itself. Hamilton's divi- 
sion of veterans was compelled to fall back, and 
with a shout of victory the Southern troops rushed 
on to Fort Richardson, the key to the position. 

A single sheet of flame burst from its sides, and 
when the smoke rose, the space where they stood 
was clear of living men ; only the dead and bleed- 
ing were left. But those brave men had not trod 
death's highway so far to yield at the first wither- 
ing blast of destruction, especially when they 
found victory almost in their grasp; and once 
more rallying, they reformed their shattered ranks, 
and precipitated themselves forward with the fury 
and clamor of demons. Richardson sank dying 
among his guns, and next moment the Confeder- 
ates with wild cheers were running over them. 
But the gallant Fifty-sixth Illinois were hidden in a 
ravine near, and springing to their feet they poured 
in a close and deliberate volley, dashed across the 
plateau, and into the fort, almost lifting the Con- 



324 UNION. 

federates bodily out of it, so sudden, desperate, 
and wild was tbeir charge. 

"Forward!" cried Hamilton, and the command 
ran along the glorious line. Sweeping forward 
with a front of bristling steel, he completed the 
overthrow. Price's host was at last shattered. 
Human endurance had reached its limit; despair 
took the place of courage, and, flinging away their 
useless arms they broke wildly for the woods. 
And then such a shout of victory went up as those 
who heard it will never forget to their latest day. 
It rolled down the line and Van Dorn, on the left, 
heard it with a sinking heart. Struggling through 
a ravine, thickets and abatis, he was a moment 
too late to have his blow fall simultaneously with 
that of Price, else the issue might have been dif- 
ferent. He was now in front of Fort Eobinette, 
within a hundred and fifty yards of which stood 
Fort Williams. These guns had poured a deadly 
enfilading fire through his ranks as he advanced, 
and now the former with the ten -pound Parrott 
gun stood right in his path. Over these he must 
go, or turn back over the field, gained at such 
horrible sacrifice. The shouts of victory borne to 
him from the left sounded like the knell of doom. 
Price had failed at Fort Eichardson, and now 
alone and unaided, he must carry the works before 
him, or all was lost. It was a terrible task and 



THE DESERTER. 325 

one could' iiot have blamed liim, had he paused 
before undertaking" it. Did he falter? No! Did 
he shrink? No — but gathering up all his energies 
for one desperate effort, he rushed to the awful 
undertaking. Two brigades, led by Colonel Rog- 
ers of Texas, swiftly advanced on the fort. In- 
stantly its guns and those of Fort Williams opened 
their fire, and shot and shell went tearing through 
the dense columns; but they braced themselves 
for the fearful work they knew was before them, 
and breasted the iron storm with sublime devotion. 

Coming nearer they were mowed down by the 
infantry. Their solid formation caved before it, 
as the sand-bank before the torrent; but, closing 
up compact as iron, the diminished numbers, with 
their e3'es bent sternly on the prize before them, 
kept on their terrible way. 

" Forward! — Forward!" shouted Rogers, strid- 
ing along at their head, and seeming to possess a 
charmed life. His voice was heard even above 
the din and roar of battle. Struggling through 
the fallen timber, they fell and were caught among 
the branches, presenting a ghastly spectacle. Still 
the living never faltered — -with eyes fixed on their 
heroic leader, they let the volleys crash, and the 
devastating fires burn along their lines, with stoical 
indifference. At last they neared the ditch, and 
for one awful moment paused. Rogers, still tower- 



326 UNION. 

ing in front nnhurt, waved the rebel flag in his 
left hand, holding a revolver in his right, — still 
shouting : 

''Forward/'' 

With one bound he cleared the ditch. Leaping 
up the slope, he planted his standard on the ram- 
parts. The next moment he fell a corpse, and 
rolled banner and all into the ditch. Five brave 
Texans, who had never for a single moment left 
their brave leader's side, pitched heavily forward 
into the fort, sharing his fate. 

The Ohio brigade commanded by Colonel Fuller 
had lain flat on their faces just over the ridge, and 
now in close range, rose and delivered six swift 
volleys, and cleared the front of the enemy. The 
supporting Confederate brigade now advanced into 
the same volcano, bent on the same hopeless 
errand. Taking the close and swift volleys into 
their bosoms without shrinking, they kept on until 
maddened into desperation, they made one wild 
rash on the Sixty-third Ohio that crossed their 
path ; but the brave fellows stood like a rock in 
their places, and, in a moment, friend and foe 
were locked in a hand-to-hand death-struggle. 
Bayonets, clubbed muskets and, when these failed, 
clenched fists were used. The fight was brief but 
terrible, and the shouts, yells and curses that 
arose on the air seemed wrenched from the throats 



THE DESERTER. 337 

of demons. At last the Confederate hosts gave 
way, when the Eleventh Missouri and Twenty- 
seventh Ohio sprang forward and chased them to 
cover. 

The battle was over. No second charge could 
be made, for the victory was won, though at a 
fearful cost. 

As Kosecrans rode along the whole line of battle, 
he was greeted with thundering cheers. Even the 
wounded, the faint and the dying lifted their 
feeble voices to cheer their favorite commander. 
He told his brave troops, that although they had 
been two days marching and preparing for battle, 
and had passed two sleepless nights, and endured 
two days' fighting, he wanted them to fill their 
cartridge boxes, haversacks and stomachs, take an 
early sleep, and at daylight press after the flying 
foe. 

McPherson, having in the mean time arrived at 
Corinth with a fresh brigade, was immediately 
started in pursuit, and the roar of cannon died 
away in the distance, as he closely pressed the re- 
tiring columns of the enemy. The roads and 
fields were strewn with the wrecks of the fight, 
and the Confederates narrowly escaped destruction 
in the Forks of the Hatchie. The battle-fields 
about Corinth presented a frightful spectacle, and 
for vreeks the stench was terrible. The great vie- 



338 UNION. 

tory made Eosecrans almost invincible. Victory 
followed his standard wherever he w^ent, and with 
that fondness for nicknaming beloved commanders 
so common to American soldiers, his troops chris- 
tened him, " Old Rosy." 

" Eosecrans believed that if Grant had supported 
him, as he requested him to do, he could easily 
have entered Vicksburg and saved the sacrifice of 
men and money. " * 

Lieutenant Mark Stevens' regiment had borne 
the brunt of the assault at Fort Robinette. Con- 
spicuous at every point where danger was greatest 
was the brave lieutenant. When the Texans 
rushed pell-mell into the fort, he, with drawn 
sword, faced bayonets and clubbed guns. He 
rallied the few men who were about to fly ; others 
came to their aid; and as they held in check the 
on-surging foe, who were appalled at their stub- 
bornness, hundreds and thousands of bluecoats 
came to their aid, and they drove the enemy back. 

Mark had faced death for an hour, and the fight 
was over, and he unhurt; though Captain Hawk 
lay dead in the trenches witli a bullet in the centre 
of his forehead. Mark was now the only com- 
missioned oflficer in the company. Next day after 
the battle, he reported to the colonel. 

Collins and Bradford were killed in the fight, 
*Headley's "Great Rebellion," vol. ii., page 103. 



THE DESERTER. 329 

Sis was badly wounded, and in the hospital, and 
Bill Simras was too stupid to suspect that his cap- 
tain had had any hand in the escape of the spy. 
So Mark went with tolerable good grace to the 
presence of his colonel; thougli he felt some mis- 
givings, for he believed that the colonel suspected 
that he had been guilty of aiding the spy to escape. 

Of course in the heat of battle, there was no 
time to consider his case. A captaincy was in 
sight, and yet when he remembered what he had 
done, he thought the sergeant might have as good 
a showing as himself. 

He consoled himself all along with the reflec- 
tion, that whatever he might have lost, he had 
saved Elsie. The colonel greeted him with a 
fatherly smile, and grasping his hand said : 

" M}' boy, I had my eye on you yesterday, and 
your gallantry shall not escape mention in my 
report. " 

" But, colonel " began Mark, determined to 

confess everything. 

" Oh, I know what you would say. It's your 
commission. Go on and take charge of the com- 
pany, and it shall be sent you in due time." 

Mark breathed easier. He thanked the colonel, 
and wrung his hand while his eyes grew dim. He 
felt in his heart that the colonel must know all, 
and must suspect him. He received some orders 



330 UNION. 

and was about to leave the headquarters, when his 
blood was suddenly frozen by the appearance of 
the secret service agent, Mr. Trotter. 

" Well, Colonel Belcher, you had some rough 
work yesterday, " said Mr. Trotter. " I was an 
eye-witness to part of it, — oh, I see here is Lieu- 
tenant Stevens, whom I have been looking for " 

" Captain Stevens now, Mr. Trotter, " corrected 
the colonel. 

" So, he is promoted. Well, Captain Stevens, 
how about the prisoner, — the pretty spy?" 

Mark realized that the truth had to come at last; 
but before he could speak, the colonel put in: 

" Why you see, Mr. Trotter, we had it so 
devilish close here yesterday, and all got so badly 
mixed up, that your prisoner, I am afraid, got 
away. " 

" You were not guarding her yesterday, then?" 
asked Mr. Trotter fixing his keen eyes on Mark. 

" No, the captain was in the front. Now, cap- 
tain, you can go to your quarters and make an 
early report of how many men you have fit for 
duty!" 

Mark Stevens left the colonel, blessing his 
name. In due time Mark's commission came. 
Next day the regiment pushed on after the flying 
Confederates, and on the third night Mark's com- 
pany held a picket post on the extreme front. 



THE DESERTER. 331 

Every man not on actual duty was sleeping on his 
arms. The enemy were at times so near that they 
conld distinctly hear them talking, and some 
averred that they could even distinguish their 
words. 

The night was dark and gusty. A fine mist 
like rain was falling, and the soldiers drawing 
their capes about their ears sat in groups under 
the trees, some of them nodding, and some wide 
awake. Their young commander was ever watch- 
ful, ever on the alert. He stood with his back 
against a tree, his eyes fixed front, as if he would 
pierce the intense darkness. Half a dozen men 
had been thrown forward to reconnoitre, and one 
of these came back, shortly after, with the report 
that the enemy were retiring. Suddenly the sharp 
report of a musket rang out on the rainy night. 

"Fall in!" commanded Mark. In a moment 
his company was in line. 

They waited for several moments and then all 
became still. At last they heard voices approach- 
ing. Perhaps their advance was falling back or 
had sent some one to report. Mark stepped out 
in front of his company, and ordered the man who 
was advancing to halt. 

"It's all right, captain. It's Jack Weston. 
Friend with the countersign. " 

"Who fired that shot?" 



333 UNION. 

"Tom Hall." 

"At whom?" 

" We've got a prisoner, captain." 

" Where did you get him?" 

" He came to us, and says he is a deserter from 
the enemy. " 

" Bring him here!" 

The soldier disappeared in the darkness, and 
a few moments later returned with two more 
men, leading a man in badh^ faded and much 
worn gray uniform. It was too dark to see his 
features. 

" Capen, here's a chap who thinks Judpment 
Day's comin', and he's not saved,'' said Bill 
Sirams with a hoarse laugh. 

" Come here, sir, and tell me who you are!" said 
Mark to the prisoner. 

" I am a rebel tired of the business, and, if there 
is a peaceful s^Dot on all the broad green earth, I 
want to find it. " 

The voice was familiar, and Mark Stevens, with 
a gasp of surprise said: 

" So you have surrendered, Alec ?" 

" Mark, Mark ! Great Noah's flood, it's Mark !" 
cried the prisoner embracing him. " Oh, this is 
too good to be true. Say Mark, I dreamed last 
night that I found you. Have you anj^thing to 
eat over there? Have you any coffee, and good 



THE DESERTER. 



333 



bread. I've lived on hard-tack and English sea 
biscuit, until mj poor stomach almost rebels 

against it " and the 
poor fellow lattled on 




"I'm a rebel, tired of the business." 

at this rate, alternately exciting his captors to 
laughter and tears for ten minutes. 

Mark then got him quieted and leading him 
aside asked : 



334 UNION. 

" Alec, did you really intend to desert." 

" I did, Mark, for I tell yon I am tired of this. 
Besides, I heard one of the Southern Independence 
Association agents, from England, tell my colonel 
they aided the South because they hated the 
United States, which had defeated them in two 
wars, and was a living menace to monarchical 
forms of government. Mark, our fathers and our 
grandfathers fought the British, and, by the Eter- 
nal, I won't fight for them. They are just mak- 
ing cat's paws of us, that's all, and I am going to 
pull no more of their chestnuts out of the fire. 
Henceforth I am for Uncle Sam, if Uncle Sam 
wants me. " 

" Do you intend to enlist?" 

"I do." 

" Let us think the matter over, Alec, " suggested 
Captain Stevens. " Meanwhile, stay in our camp. " 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE CONFLICT IN THE CLOUDS. 

Time and trying circumstances make some 
changes in men; but characteristics so indelibly 
stamped on one as were the peculiarities of Alec 
Stevens could not be wholly changed. He was 
the same loquacious, jolly companion of old, and 
had more amusing stories to tell than any one in 
the regiment. 

" So, Mark, you've got a pair of shoulder straps 
at last. I dare say you didn't get them before 
you earned them. I have come to the conclusion 
that in this world, poor fellows like you and me 
get nothing gratuitously. You look like a mili- 
tary man now, one of the solid stuff, too ; no West 
Point martinet, fit only for dress parade or the 
ballroom, 'bout you; no weak-minded, effeminate, 
pedantic, pedagogical, carpet-pantalooned, long- 
haired, goatee and sweet-scented creatah about you, 
I'll bet. No sir, you are here to knock the John- 
nies on the head, and I am glad to know that you 
have climbed completely and teetotally over the 
335 



336 VNION. 

sun-baked, clam-headed fools, the half-finished 
squirts, the verdant dandies, lions of codfish aris- 
tocracy, coxcombs and scapegraces, who are a 
disgrace to the nation." 

In order to change the current of his thought, 
Mark asked: 

" When did you see your parents. Alec?" 

" It's been more than a year." 

" But you have heard from them?" 

" Well, yes, I have. I had a letter from home 
about three months ago. " 

" Have you heard from Charleston?" 

" Not for four or five months. " 

Mark was silent. He knew it was useless to 
ask about Elsie, for the chances were that he had 
seen her last. Mark went with Alec to the colonel 
of the regiment and the matter was laid before 
him. 

" So, young man, you have deserted the cause 
of the South and come back to the defence of your 
country," said the colonel kindly. 

" Yes, sir. As Patrick Henry said, I am no 
longer a Virginian, but an American. I realize 
that we were all teetotally bamboozled, befuddled 
and befooled by the wiles, traps and snares of Cal- 
hounism. Others can do as they please about it, 
but, as for me, I am back under the old flag, and 
I have come to stay." 



THE CONFLICT IX THE CLOUDS. 337 

Colonel Belcher grasped tlie convert's band and 
answered : 

" You have chosen wisely. You should have 
made this choice in the beginning; but it is never 
too late to mend. I hope the same truth may 
dawn on the minds of all jour deluded fellow 
Confederates, and bring them all back to the fold." 

After the conference was over, the colonel took 
Captain Stevens aside and asked : 

" Do you know him?" 

" Yes. " 

"Is he sincere?" 

" I would stake my life on it. " 

" Then I will parole him for a few days and 
give him an opportunity to enlist. " 

Mark Stevens impressed on his cousin the dan- 
ger that would follow his enlistment should he be 
captured by his former friends; but he declared 
himself willing to rislv it. 

" I felt all along that I was not exactly in my 
element, Mark. That was one reason that I never 
sought to elevate myself in the ranks. I was only 
a private in an humble place, for I felt that the 
less the responsibility on me, the smaller would be 
my crime. The South has good officers, Mark. 
You must admit that Lee, Jackson, and Joe and 
Sidney Johnston are away ahead of your Grant, 
McClellan, Sherman, or any other officer j^ou 
22 



338 UNION. 

have; but I tell you their hearts are not really in 
it. With all the enthusiasm they claim, they feel 
way down deep in their souls that they are not 
rio;ht. Thev won't admit even to themselves that 
they are in the wrong; but they feel a keen sense 
of doubt. If it was under the old flag that they 
were fighting it would be quite different. Why, 
I can hardly keep from throwing up my old slouch 
hat every time I see the old Stars and Stripes." 

Although Mark Stevens often wished to speak 
to Alec of Elsie, he refrained from doing so, and 
Alec, from some cause, though he was a fluent 
talker on all other subjects, had not mentioned the 
name of the maiden whom they both loved. 

In due time, Alec was enrolled in Mark's com- 
pany, and made a trusty, brave soldier. 

Meanwhile the great war went on. They heard 
the thunders of it all about them, and frequentl}^ 
saw the blinding flash, and were buried in the 
sulphurous smoke. The battle of Perryville, 
Kentuck}^, was fought on the 8th and 9th of Octo- 
ber. Then quickly followed Stuart's raid on 
Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, on the 10th, with a 
battle near Richmond, Kentucky. The armies in 
the East were moving about Richmond and Wash- 
ington, and in the West about Vicksburg. The 
combats "were many and terrible; but as yet the 
Southern troops seemed on the whole to have an 



THE CONFLICT IN THE CLOUDS. 339 

advantage, and they threatened to invade the 
Northern States. On November 5th, General Mc- 
Clelland was superseded by Burnside as comman- 
der in Virginia. The same day the Confederates 
were repulsed at Nashville, Tennessee. Novem- 
ber was noted for its many conflicts especially in 
the South and West. 

December, 1862, was even more noted for its 
series of bloody conflicts than the preceding month. 
It ended with the terrible battle of Stone River or 
Murfreesboro raging. 

January, 1863, brought the emancipation of the 
slaves, and the end of the battle of Stone River in 
favor of the United States troops. The remainder 
of the month was taken up with fighting and 
blockading. In fact, the year of 1863 was a year 
of decisive battles, and the historian and reader 
becomes sick of the horrible details. The Fourth 
of July, 1863, may be regarded as the turning 
point in the war for the Union. On this day, 
Vicksburg surrendered to General Grant, after a 
siege of forty -one days. On the same day, Major- 
General Benjamin M. Prentiss, at Helena, Arkan- 
sas, set a trap for a rebel army five times as large 
as his own and drew them into it. He gained a 
wonderful victory, and perhaps against greater 
odds than any Union general during the war. 
Four days later, Port Hudson with seven thousand 



340 



UNION. 



men, surrendered to General Banks. On the 13th 
of this month, there was a great riot in New York 
city brought about by the threatened draft. 

The greatest battle of the war was fought on 
July 3, 1863. This was the battle of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, where General 
Meade with a little over one 
hundred thousand men fought 
General Robert E. Lee with 
almost as many. This was the 
greatest battle of the war in 
many respects. It was fought 
in a loyal State. Lee had left 
his own territory and invaded 
the enemy's country. It was 
the battle in which there were 
the largest number of men engaged on either side, 
and the battle in which Lee was defeated when his 
own numbers were almost as great as the Union 
forces. Lee was defeated and forced to retreat 
from Pennsylvania. 

In August, General Gillmore, having invested 
Charleston, South Carolina, bombarded Fort Sum- 
ter most of the month. On the 19th and 20th of 
September was fought the terrible battle of Cliicka- 
mauga, in which the Union forces, some fifty or 
sixty thousand strong, were defeated, by Bragg 
with forty-five thousand men. The Federal loss 




GEN. GEORGE G. MEADE. 



THE COyPLICT IN THE CLOUDS. 341 

was about fifteen thousand, yet they prevented 
Bragg from capturing Chattanooga. On October 
16th General Grant took command of the Western 
armies. 

Shortly after the battle of Corinth, Colonel 
Belcher's regiment was assigned to Sherman's 
division and served under that general to the end 
of the war. As soon as Grant heard of Rosecrans' 
disaster at Chickamauga, he ordered Sherman on 
the Black River, twenty miles east of Vicksburg, 
to send a division to his aid. Sherman received 
this dispatch on the 22d of September, and at four 
o'clock that day, Osterhaus with his division was 
on his way to Yicksburg, and the next day was 
steaming toward Memphis. On the 23d, Sherman 
was ordered to follow with his whole army, and 
he pushed forward in the manner which his judg- 
ment approved. 

In the mean time. Grant was getting everything 
ready for his arrival, when he designed to make a 
general assault on the enemy's strong position. 

Both troops and animals were suffering for want 
of provisions, which the obstruction of transporta- 
tion rendered extremely scarce. Missionary Ridge 
drops like a pendant in a southwesterly direction 
from the Tennessee River above Chattanooga, and 
Lookout Mountain in the same direction from the 
river below. Chattanooga, lying in a bend of the 



343 UNION. 

river between the two mountains, was overlooked 
and commanded by both heights, and hence both 
must be taken. Hooker was selected to operate 
against Lookout Mountain ; but in order to make 
a lodgement on the south side of the river, it was 
necessary to occupy Brown's Ferry, wliich was 
three miles below it by the river, and six miles 
from Chattanooga, yet, owing to the sharp bend of 
the stream that here runs back almost parallel to 
its course, was only half a mile from the latter 
place by land. The possession of this ferry must 
also lessen the distance of transportation to Bridge- 
port. 

The chief -engineer. General W. F. Smith, pro- 
posed a plan for seizing it, which was adopted. 
Four thousand men were at once placed under his 
command. Fifty pontoons, capable of holding 
twenty-five men each, besides oarsmen, and also 
two flatboats for carrying about a hundred more, 
were built, in which fifteen hundred picked men, 
under General Hazen, were placed. It was six 
miles by the tortuous river to the ferry, three 
miles of which were picketed by the enemy. On 
the night of the 2Tth of October, these pontoons, 
mere boxes, were quietly pushed off and floated 
noiselessly down the current. It was very dark, 
and the current rendering oars unnecessary, they 
silently glided past the pickets on the shore, un- 



THE CONFLICT IN THE CLOUDS. 343 

heard and unseen. Down, around Moccasin Point, 
in front of Lookout Mountain, they rapidly floated, 
without being observed. 

While landing, they were discovered, and soon 
the flash of musketry lit up the darkness. This 
roused the neighboring camps of the enemy; but 
the Union troops landed and quickly formed to 
repel an attack, while the empty boats were 
swiftly propelled across the river to transfer the 
remainder of the four thousand, who. had secretly 
marched thither by land. These having been fer- 
ried over, a strong position was immediately se- 
cured, and entrencliments were thrown up. The 
enemy, taken wholly by surprise, after a feeble 
resistance retreated up the valley. The materials 
for a pontoon bridge, which had also been brought 
by land, and concealed, were now brought forth, 
and by noon a bridge, nine hundred feet long, 
spanned the river, by which supplies and reinforce- 
ments could be forwarded to the troops. On the 
following day, the whole of the Eleventh Corps was 
across, and encamped in Lookout Valley. The 
enemy, alarmed at this demonstration, made an 
attempt to drive them back by a night attack. 
This conflict was by moonlight, after midnight, 
amid those hills, that blazed the while with mus- 
ketry and exploding shells, — presenting a strange 
spectacle. " Fighting Joe Hooker, " as he was 



344 UNIOX. 

termed, was in the thickest of the conflict encour- 
aging his men. 

Tlie Union forces maintained their ground, and 
being firmly established, steamboats could come 
up to Brown's Ferry, from which it was but a 
mile and a half to the upper bridge opposite Chat- 
tanooga. Unless the bridge should be carried 
away by rafts sent down the stream b}^ the enemy 
from above, the army was now relieved from star- 
vation. 

Though this was a great improvement in the 
condition of affairs. Grant felt too weak to assume 
the offensive, until Sherman should arrive. 
Though Sherman crossed the Tennessee on the 
1st of November, there was no way to get his 
army over, and it had to take the long marcli 
by Fayetteville to Bridge}iort. On the loth, 
Sherman rode into Chattanooga. General Grant 
was never more pleased to see a man. He had 
received a summons from Bragg to remove the 
non-combatants from Chattanooga, as he was about 
to bombard the town, to which he had made no 
reply; but he now felt that with his strong lieu- 
tenant he would be able to meet General Bragg 
beyond the walls of the city. Sherman's troops, 
after their long and wearisome march, were sadly 
in need of rest, and expected it, before entering on 
one of the most hazardous undertakings of the war. 



THE CONFLICT IN THE CLOUDS. 345 

With a part of his command, he was directed to 
make a demonstration on Lookout Mountain, while 
with the main army he crossed the river^ and 
marched up above Chattanooga, opposite Mission- 
ary Eidge. Eeturning to Bridgeport, Sherman 
took a rowboat and passed down the river to hurry 
forward his weary, foot-sore divisions. Ewing's 
division was the force left to make the demonstra- 
tion on Lookout Mountain. The rest were hurried 
forward along almost impassable roads. Though 
foot-sore, weary and hungry, the troops toiled 
cheerfully on in obedience to the orders of their 
commander, and by the 23d were well up, and 
lav concealed behind the hills opposite Chicka- 
mauga Creek, which, skirting the extremity of Mis- 
sionary Kidge, here emptied into the Tennessee. 
One division, however, was left behind — a delay 
caused by the breaking of a pontoon bridge at 
Brown's Ferry — and it was compelled to join 
Hooker's Corps, and operate with him in the bat- 
tle that followed. 

By a skilful manoeuvi'e the same night, a small 
force was silently moved along the river, captur- 
ing every guard of the enemy's pickets but one. 
Next thing was to get the army across the Tennes- 
see, which at this point was nearl}' thirteen hun- 
dred feet wide. About three miles above Sher- 
man's army was a stream emptying into the 



346 UNION. 

Tennessee. Thither one hundred and sixteen 
boats were conveyed by a concealed road and 
launched ; while three thousand men lay ready to 
embark in them. An hour after midnight, on the 
24th, these boats floated silently down into the 
Tennessee, and passing within three miles of the 
enem3'-'s pickets, landed the troops on both sides 
of Chickamauga Creek, which emptied into the 
river opposite Sherman's army. Two divisions 
with artiller}" were soon ferried over, and a tete- 
de-pont established. In a few hours, a bridge 
fourteen hundred feet long was completed, and 
shaking to the tread of Sherman's mighty columns. 
Another bridge two hundred feet long was flung 
across the Chickamauga Creek. The extreme 
north point of Missionary Eidge was not occupied 
by the enemy, — his right wing being further back, 
near the tunnel through which the railroad passed. 
This extremity, Sherman at once seized, thereby 
threatening Bragg's communications. In the 
meantime, a cavalry force was sent off eastward 
toward Cleveland. 

Grant now had Sherman's army above, and 
Hooker's below him, and both on the same side of 
the river; while Thomas lay in front of Chatta- 
nooga. Missionary Ridge, extending southward 
from Sherman, passed in front of Chattanooga, 
where the centre lay. 



THE CONFLICT IN THE CLOUDS. 347 

General Bragg was amazed at the appearance of 
a powerful army on his extreme right, and imme- 
diately made arrangements to dislodge Sherman. 
In the mean time, Hooker, from below, moved 
against Lookout Mountain, and, by dark, carried 
the nose of it, thus opening up communications 
with Chattanooga. His advance up the steep sides 
of the mountain had been made with great celerity 
and skill. A thick fog for awhile concealed him, 
but, as it lifted before the sun, the cliffs above 
were seen crowded with the enemy, while their 
cannoii sent a plunging fire from the heights. 
Grant, far down in the mist-shrouded valley below, 
could hear the thunder of guns, and crash of mus- 
ketry high up in the clouds above, as though the 
gods were battling there. An eye-witness to the 
scene says of it: 

" At this juncture, the scene became one of 
most exciting interest. The thick fog, which had 
heretofore rested in dense folds upon the sides of 
the mountain, concealing the combatants from 
view, suddenly lifted to the summit of the lofty 
ridge, revealing to the anxious gaze of thousands 
in the valleys and on the plains below, a scene 
such as is witnessed but once in a century. Gen- 
eral Geary's columns, flushed with victory, grap- 
pled with the foe upon the rocky ledges, and drove 
them back with slaughter from their works. While 



348 UNION. 

tlie result was uncertain, the attention was breatli- 
less and painful ; but when victory perched upon 
our standards, shout upon shout rent the air. The 
whole army with one accord, broke out into joy- 
ous acclamations. The enthusiasm of the scene 
beggars description. Men were frantic with joy, 
and even General Thomas himself, who seldom 
exhibits his emotions, involuntarily said, 'I did 
not think it possible for men to accomplish so 
much.'" 

Before dawn, on the 25th, Sherman was in the 
saddle, and by the dim light which streaked the 
cloudy east, as if foretelling a stormy day, he rode 
along the entire line. A deep valley lay between 
him and the steep hill beyond, which was partly 
covered with trees to the narrow wooded top, 
across which was a breastwork of logs and earth, 
dark with men. Two guns enfiladed the narrow 
way that led to it. Further back arose a still 
higher hill, lined with guns that could pour a 
plunging fire on the first hill if it should be taken. 
The depth and character of the gorge between 
could not be ascertained. Just as the rising sun 
was tinging with red the murky rain-clouds, the 
bugles sounded the advance, and Corse taking the 
lead, briskly descended the hill, crossed the val- 
ley, and under a heavy fire began to ascend the 
opposite heights, and soon gained a foothold, 



li 



THE CONFLICT IN THE CLOUDS. 349 

though the spot where he stood was swept by the 
enemy's artillery. 

It was in Sherman's advanced columns that 
Belcher's regiment fought that day. Mark Stevens, 
with his footsore and weary soldiers, fatigued 
with marches and midnight reconnoissances, were 
in the van. Mark was cool, and his soldiers were 
all veterans. Sis had recovered from his wound 
and was again in the ranks. Bill Simms was 
with him. Alec was near his captain loading and 
firing, as he advanced, at his former friends. 

" We are going to have some hot work!" said 
Alec, during a brief lull in the attack, as they 
paused behind a large oak tree. 

" Alec, do you believe in impressions?" asked 
Mark. 

"What do you mean?" Alec asked fixing his 
eyes on the face of his cousin^ " Now look here, 
Mark, for Heaven's sake don't go to making out 
that you are expecting something bad. " 

" Alec, I have passed through many conflicts 
without a scratch, but never have I before felt as 
I do now, and have felt, ever since we commenced 
the march on Missionary Ridge. If I should be 
slain, all m}' effects, my money and a letter which 
you will find addressed to my mother are in the 
pocket of my coat. You will also find a letter 
addressed to Elsie Cole, please send it to her." 



350 UNION. 

" Do you know where she is?" 

" No. " 

Before more could be said, the order was given 
to advance and the great battle opened. For more 
than an hour it swayed back and forth in Sher- 
man's front. Bringing up brigade after bi'igade, 
this galkmt commander nobly strove to carry the 
lofty heights above him. By ten o'clock, it was 
one peal of thunder from top to base, while tlie 
smoke, in swift puffs and floating masses, draped 
it like a waving mantle. Corse, severely 
wounded, was borne to the rear, but the columns 
still stubbornly held their ground. At this point 
the battle raged furiously all forenoon. This most 
northern and vital position must be held by the 
rebels at all hazards, for if once taken, their rear 
and all their stores at Chickamauga would be threat- 
ened. So here Bragg massed his forces, and at 
three o'clock p.m. was hurling column after col- 
umn upon Sherman's advance, while gun after 
gun poured its concentrated fire on them from 
every hill and spur that gave a view of any part 
of the ground. Once the Union lines were par- 
tially forced back; but Sherman, by a skilful move, 
recovered his lost ground, and drove the enemy to 
cover. His men were sternly held to their terrible 
work; but Sherman was growing impatient for 
Grant to move on the centre, as he had promised 



THE CONFLICT IN THE CLOUDS. 351 

on the night before that he would. From his ele- 
vated position, he could see the flags of Thomas' 
corps waving in the murky atmosphere, but hour 
after hour passed away, and still they did not ad- 
vance. The enemy was still steadily massing his 
forces against Sherman, and his troops having 
fought from early dawn were almost exhausted. 

For hours Grant sat on his horse, listening to 
the thunder of artillery on his right, as Hooker 
came down like an avalanche from the heights of 
Lookout Mountain, and the deafening uproar on 
his left, where Sherman, his favorite lieutenant, 
was hurling his brave columns on the batteries of 
the enemy, and still he moved not. Thinking at 
one time that Sherman was too hard pressed, he 
sent a brigade to his relief; but Sherman, who had 
become thoroughly aroused at the resistance he 
was meeting, sent it back saying that he did not 
need it. And so, hour after hour, for six miles 
the battle flamed and thundered along the rocky 
crests, until, at last, the decisive moment looked 
for by Grant had arrived. 

Thomas' corps was moving on the acclivity four 
hundred feet high in front. Upward, step by 
step, the irrepressible Thomas pressed his way. 
Bragg displayed wonderful generalship. He was 
confronted by Grant, Hooker. Sherman and 
Thomas, with forces vastly superior to his own, 



353 UNION. 

and yet held his post with great fortitude and 
bravery, until overpowered by odds and driven 
from the field. 

It was in the last charge up the heights of Mis- 
sionary Kidge, that Mark pressed forward in the 
extreme advance with Alec, Sis, and Bill Simms 
at his side. The enemy were but a few feet away. 
He saw Sis and a Confederate both fire at each 
other at the same moment not ten paces apart, and 
both missed. Sis began to reload as he advanced, 
and the Confederate did the same. As Sis had to 
climb up the steep and rocky acclivity, he dis- 
covered that the Confederate would get loaded first. 
The rebel was already feeling for his cap, when 
Sis suddenly bounded forward, and with the butt 
of his gun knocked him down, fracturing his skull 
so that he died from the effects of the blow. They 
were soon so close that bayonets were used, then 
the sickening horrors of war were fully realized. 
One man went down with two bayonets through 
his body, the points crossing as they came out at 
his back. 

Amid all the uproar and excitement, Mark felt 
a quick and sudden pain in his side, a mist came 
before his eyes and his head swam. Alec saw 
him, and leaping to his side cried: 

"Mark, Mark!" 

He caught him in his arms and let him down 




.MAKK; — eilLMN . — OLD FRIEND, HAS IT lO.ME To THIS 



THE CONFLICT IN THE CLOUDS. 353 

easily. The captain closed his eyes, Alec glanced 
to the West. The sun was setting and the Con- 
federates, broken and defeated at every point, were 
flying from the victorious Union arm}*. With 
tears in his eyes, the kind-hearted Alec turned his 
anxious gaze upon his captain lying on the ground 
as peaceful as if asleep, and said : 

"Mark! — cousin! — old friend, has it come at 
last?" 

23 



CHAPTER XYn. 

AN ETHER FANTASY. 

When Mark Stevens awoke, almost a week after 
the fight on Missionary Ridge, he was lying in a 
hospital with Alec at his side. He never forgot 
how that friend bent over him with tears of joy, 
and said : 

" Tiiank God, you are better, — yes, thank God, 
you won't die." 

" How long have I been here?" he feebly asked. 

"A week." 

" A whole week?" 

" Yes, you are very weak. You almost bled to 
death." 

" Were you wounded, Alec?" 

" No. I took you in my arms and ran down 
that accursed hill, which I believe was bloody 
from top to bottom. I got detached to watch over 
you. Mark, Colonel Belcher is dead, and there is 
talk of " 

Mark shook his head. He felt that this was no 
time to talk of promotion. He was weak, very 
354 



AN ETHER FANTASY. 355 

weak,- but the surgeon came along and, with an 
encouraging smile, said : 

" You are better, my boy, but you must keep 
very quiet, for you have no strength to spare. " 

By a nod of his head, Mark intimated his will- 
ingness to submit to hospital regulations. Days 
wore on and Mark grew stronger, though the bullet 
was still in his side. At times it pained him, so 
that he wished that the surgeons had cut it out 
before he recovered consciousness. He soon be- 
came convinced that the operation would yet have 
to be performed, before he would fully recover. 
He talked with Alec about it one day, and he said 
he had heard the surgeon major say as much him- 
self ; so that Mark began to realize that some time 
in the future he would have to submit to the opera- 
tion. Though he shuddered with dread at the 
thought, he was glad to know that he would be 
relieved of the burden, which was becoming op- 
pressive to him. 

It seemed like a dream, yet it was a reality, — 
that story he heard of a woman, young and fair, 
who had suddenly appeared like an angel of mercy 
on the field, and in the hospital, ministering to the 
wants of the wounded. Another Miss Dix had 
come, and all Chattanooga rang with her praise. 
She was kind and gentle alike to Confederate and 
Federal. Many a hero in blue or gray, blessed 



356 UNION. 

her name with his dying breath. The Women's 
Central Association for Relief, the United States 
Sanitary Commission, and Young Men's Christian 
Associations, were all doing good and noble work, 
but all these were not enough. 

There were many evidences of individual hero- 
ism and exertion in relieving the sick and wounded. 
Scarce had the smoke of battle rolled away from 
about Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, 
when there came from some place, no one knew 
where, one of the fairest of Columbia's daughters. 
Her sole mission was to do good, and her soft, 
tender hands soothed many a fevered brow, or 
bound up many a painful wound. 

But she was searching for some one. General 
Sherman, who met her one day, ascertained that 
she was searching for a missing friend. 

" Is he among the Federal troops or rebels ? " 
asked Sherman. 

"He is a Federal," she answered. As she 
did not give his name, Sherman could not help 
her. 

She found him at last. It came about through 
Alec. He had gone from the side of his wounded 
captain for a few moments to get a few whiffs 
of fresh air, with which, in spite of all the power- 
ful disinfectants, modern science cannot fully sup- 
ply a hospital. Alec was walking slowly down 



AN ETHER FANTASY. 357 

the street, reflecting on the past, the present, and 
trying to conjecture as to the future. 

"How different — what changes!" he was think- 
ing. " Who knows how it will end?" Then he 
almost ran against some one. He stopped and 
looked at the some one in astonishment, for he saw 
a pair of roguish blue eyes, saddened by care and 
grief, a wealth of golden hair, and a face which 
had never failed to wonderfully impress him. He 
bounded forward, and caught her hand, crying: 

"What! Thunderation !— Old Nick and Gen- 
eral Jackson! Can it be? By the Holy Jumping 
Moses, it is! Well, may I be teetotally smashed, 
girl, where did you come from?" 

" Alec, — Alec Stevens, and in a Yankee uni- 
form!" 

" Yes, Elsie. I've turned over. I was a little 
in doubt about which side was right in this quar- 
rel, and I've fought on both so as to be sure." 

Elsie's face wore a look of anxiet3^ She had 
some curiosity to know Alec's history; but her 
desire to know the fate of Mark Stevens was far 
greater. She asked Alec about his cousin. Yes, 
he knew where he was, had, in fact, just come 
from his bedside. He was a captain now, and, if 
he survived the operation of cutting a ball of lead 
out of his side, he might be a colonel, as there was 
a vacancy. Alec would show her to the hospital 



358 UNION. 

where Captain Stevens was; but she must pass 
inspection by the surgeon major before she would 
be allowed to enter. 

She had met the surgeon major, who knew 
something of the noble, self-sacrificing lal)ors of 
this young woman ; but the old major was a good 
judge of human nature, and readily saw that the 
young lady had something more than a general 
interest in the wounded captain. He held quite a 
lengthy interview with her before he decided to 
admit her to the ward where the wounded captain 
lay. 

Even then, she was only admitted while he was 
under the influence of opiates, or sleeping, so that 
Mark was not sure, at first, that the sweet musical 
voice and soothing touch were not only the pleasant 
vagaries of a fevered vision. 

Gradually he began to expect this sacred pres- 
ence, and when he began to recover, felt fears that 
he might lose it. The presence grew more and 
more tangible, until he came to realize that she 
was something more than the baseless fabric of a 
dream. When he was able to be propped up in 
bed, she sat by his side and held his fevered hand. 
They did not talk of the past nor the future, for 
they were forbidden to talk at all. Sometimes he 
asked himself how she had come there, and won- 
dered if she would remain until all was over one 



AN ETHER FANTASY. 359 

way or the other. She had relatives somewhere, 
why was she not with them? She did not speak 
of them to him, nor was he at liberty to ask her 
any questions. Since the appearance of Elsie 
Cole, Alec did not come near the hospital. He 
returned to his company, though he frequently 
inquired after the captain. 

Though Mark grew stronger, he was assured 
that he must undergo the surgical operation. The 
bullet must be removed, and the sooner it was 
done, after he was strong enough to stand the 
operation, the better. He became able to sit up, 
and even walk about the room, and it seemed too 
bad to be cut and hacked to pieces by those sci- 
entific butchers. 

Mark asked himself if he would have the nerve 
to face the ordeal coolly. Any man, who is not a 
poltroon, can find courage to fight when he is in 
danger, and excited, but a surgical operation, with 
all its calm, ghastly preparations, is another mat- 
ter. To get on a table, lie down and take ether 
or chloroform, with the knowledge that one is to 
be carved, and aware that he has an even chance 
of never waking up again, calls for a pluck of a 
different order. At least, Mark thought so, and 
suffered from a secret fear that he might make a 
humiliating exhibition of himself. 

Like one doomed to execution, the conscious- 



360 UNION. 

ness that it had to be endowed him with self-con- 
trol. And like a man who is going to be hanged, 
he was anxious to have it over, and hastened 
things by helping the doctors to move and arrange 
the tables. He even rebuked one of the surgeons 
quite severely, who was rather late in coming. 

" Thank God!" he mentally ejaculated between 
commands and queries as he lay stretched on his 
back with the ether funnel over his mouth and 
nostrils. At last the cursed thing that had made 
his life a load was to be put to the sword. The 
thing was personified to his mind, at that moment, 
as a personal enemy, and the thought that if he 
lived it must perish gave him a glow of revenge- 
ful satisfaction. 

That first inhalation of ether went into his lungs 
like peppermint, and brought on a fit of coughing. 
After the third or fourth whiff, he squeezed the 
physician's hand, and experienced a desire to sit 
up and propose ether all round. 

" Doctor, " he said from under the paper cone, 
" this is delightful ; it's as good as champagne. " 

" Whir, whir, whir-r. " 

"Heavens! doctor, this is most extraordinary. 
Here, here, here! This won't do at all!" " Tap- 
tap-tap-tap!" "Why, confound you, I'll knock 
your head off!" " B'rr b'rr b'rr ! Whir, whir, 
whir-r-r-rip!" "Let go, you scoundrel! You 



AN ETHER FANTASY. 361 

won't? Murder me, would you?" " B'rr, b'rr, 
b'rr!" "Ha, ha, ha, ha!" 

He came to consciousness in his coffin. The 
darkness was black and so thick that to breathe it 
stifled him. The weight of six feet of earth 
pressed upon his breast. Although the coffin lid 
was really between him and this mass, he panted 
under its crushing pressure. The sweat burst 
coldly through his skin, the blood rushed into his 
brain, and it oozed from his eyes and ears. Each 
hair tingled to its very end. He felt in an instant 
that he should go mad and lay there in his rayless 
prison shrieking, foaming and gnashing his teeth, 
but was held from movement by the walls of wood 
and earth. If he could turn and try to lift the lid 
and the filled grave with his back, perhaps there 
might be one chance in a million that the frenzied 
strength of despair would prevail. 

Turn ! He might as well attempt to fly. The 
lid was within an inch of his chest — his chin 
touched it. His hands were by his sides and there 
was not room to move them. His fingers and toes 
answered to his will, and he could roll his head 
from side to side. That was all. 

To be a raving maniac in a bare, stone cell — 
that would be freedom, happiness; but this! 
Hissings and flashings of dazzling light within his 
brain warned him. It was better to lie still and 



362 UNION. 

die by suffocation, than to go mad and perish in a 
hurricane of impotent agony. 

It would soon be over. The air in the coffin, 
ah'eady hot, humid and sickening with the odors 
of decay, could not last long. So he composed 
himself, closed his eyes, and all his consciousness 
was centred in the one purpose of keeping an iron 
clutch upon his will. Every other thought, 
whether of life or death, self, or those he loved, he 
held at bay. 

There darted out of his memory a long, tun- 
nel-like hall of stone, in which he had once sat 
grieving for a friend. It was very dark — dark as 
this grave in which he lay manacled, shackled and 
gnashing his teeth until they cracked. This tun- 
nel-like hall was in the cemetery where he was 
buried. While he sat, his elbow on a little, 
wooden table and his head bowed upon his hand, 
far away at the end of the strange tunnel, a bright 
blue electric spark appeared, for an instant, like a 
minute star, and then came a faint ringing. 
Twice this flash and sound were repeated, and 
then all was as before, dark, damp, silent and sad. 

In his coffin he understood, and a torrent of 
horror swept over him. His friend had been 
buried alive, and had sent this appeal from the 
tomb for succor. And he had sat there dumb and 
motionless, while the one whom he loved had lain 



I 



AN ETHER FANTASY. 363 

and faced an awful death such as he was facing 
now; had gone through this ordeal, which no one 
can understand, until he has endured it! Oh, 
horrible! horrible! 

He beat his temples on the coffin's sides in an 
ecstasy of remorse. Such dulness destined him 
thus to die. Some one should always be on the 
watch in that cavern read}' to spring to the rescue 
of such poor buried wretches as touched the bell 
coi-d, with which, he now remembered, every coffin 
was provided. 

There was hope then. They could dig him out 
before life was wholly gone. 

He knew where the cord was, — just under the 
lid, above his left shoulder. He could not raise 
his hands to it, and his head was beyond it ; but 
he thought he might raise his shoulder and press 
it against the knotted end of the cord, so as to 
pull it and ring the bell. Of course it would be 
easy enough. Those who arranged such matters 
knew what they were about. 

He raised his .shoulder. 

The knotted cord, his only hope of life, was be- 
yond his reach. 

He must go mad. Life was within two inches 
of him, and he unable to reach it. If he could 
turn, his right shoulder in coming in contact with 
the knotted cord, would certainly pull it down- 



364 



UNION. 



ward and so ring the bell. But turning was im- 
possible. 

No, it was not impossible. He would turn if 
it broke every bone in liis body to splinters. 

The lid — oh, curse that lid, with a world's 




Then a warm, soft, loving hand took his. 



weight upon it, it was as immovable as a moun- 
tain! A living demon must be holding it against 
his shoulder to keep him from rubbing the cord 
which would ring away the darkness, the torture, 
and the grave. Forty men could not, all together, 



AN ETHER FANTASY. 365 

possess the splendid, furious strengtli with which 
he steadily, surely turned. Crack, bones! Bleed, 
flesh! Roar, thunder! flash, lightning! Heavens! 
can it be 

"Well, sir, how are you feeling?" 

" Hello, doctor! Haven't you begun the " 

"It's all over, my boy, and as pretty a job as I 
ever did in my life. " 

Then a warm, soft, loving hand took his. The 
mists gathered, but through them dimlv he saw 
her face, and sank into a sweet, painless slumber. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

" I HAVE A WIFE. '" 

The recovery of Mark Stevens was rapid. The 
bullet, wliich had been the thorn in his side, and 
the great hindrance to his recovery, being removed, 
his youth, strong constitution, and everything now 
was in his favor. During all that critical period 
in his illness, Elsie hovered over hira, like an 
angel of mercy and love. 

They spoke of neither the past nor the future. 
• They talked of the present only, when they talked 
at all, which was seldom. Theirs was a silent de- 
votion, and he was never happier than when she 
was at his side, holding his thin, wasted hand in 
hers; but he instinctively realized that this could 
not last always. She must go away. Elsie was 
like the angels. They approach nearer when 
comes the grim monster death, and recede with re- 
turning health. When he had recovered, she was 
gone; he knew not whither, nor could any one 
inform him. She had last been seen about the 
hospitals, flitting here and there, a ray of sunshine 
366 



"I HA VE A WIFE. ' ' 367 

wherever she went. Then she disappeared as 
completely as if she had melted into air. On 
returning to his headquarters, he found Alec, and 
asked him whither she had gone. 

" I don't know," the soldier answered, rubbing 
away on his gun barrel, which he was brightening. 

" Did she tell you she was going. Alec?" 

"No." 

Alec seemed averse to talking on the subject, 
and Mark asked him no more questions about 
her. 

" She is gone, " thought Mark. " Perhaps it 
were better if we never saw each other again. In 
time I might forget her. No, — no, I could never 
do that, — though I will not allow myself to believe 
that Elsie Cole loves me. She feels grateful, be- 
cause I saved her life ; but she has surely repaid 
the debt with interest. " 

Mark was soon able to assume command of his 
company, and a part of the time commanded the 
regiment. After the severe struggle at Missionary 
Ridge and Lookout Mountain, a short season of 
rest was granted the regiment. 

There was no slackening in the war, however. 
It raged in North Carolina, where General J. F. 
Foster, quartered at New Berne, was sending out 
raiding parties to scatter Confederate forces gather- 
ing here and there to recover the lost posts in that 



368 UNION. 

State. Althougli Charleston had become a com- 
paratively unimportant point in the grand theatre 
of war, its possession was coveted by the national 
government because of the salutary effect it would 
produce. General Quincy A. Gillmore, who suc- 
ceeded General Hunter in the command of the 
Southern department, planned an expedition against 
Charleston by land and water. After a futile 
effort to capture Fort Wagner, he began a regular 
siege. With infinite labor, a battery was con- 
structed in a morass, half-way between Morris and 
James Islands, upon a platform of heavy timbers 
standing in the deep black mud. When a lieu- 
tenant of engineers was ordered to construct it, he 
declared : 

" It is impossible. " His commanding officer 
replied : 

" There is no such word as impossible ; call for 
what you need." 

Whereupon the lieutenant, who was a wag, 
made a requisition on the quartermaster for " one 
hundred men, eighteen feet high, to wade in mud 
sixteen feet deep;" and he gravely inquired of the 
engineer if these men might not be spliced if re- 
quired. The lieutenant was arrested for contempt, 
but soon after released ; when he built the redoubt 
with the services of men of ordinary height. Upon 
the redoubt was erected a Parrott gun, which they 



I 



"I HAVE A WIFE.'' 369 

called " The Swamp Angel," tLat sent shells into 
Charleston, five miles away. 

General Gillmore was ready for another attack 
on Forts Wagner and Sumter, on the 17th of 
August, and on that day the guns of twelve bat- 
teries and of the fleet opened upon them. Be- 
fore night the walls of Sumter began to crum- 
ble, and its cannon, under the pressure of Dahl- 
gren's guns, ceased to roar. The land troops 
pushed their parallels nearer and nearer to Fort 
Wagner; while the fleet continually pounded 
away, day after day, until the 6th of September, 
when General Terry was prepared to storm the 
latter work. Then it was ascertained that the 
Confederates had evacuated it, and fled from 
Morris Island. Gillmore took possession of Fort 
Wagner, and turned its guns on Fort Sumter, bat- 
tering it terribly, and, it was thought, driving away 
the garrison ; but when a force in boats attempted 
to seize the fort, they found a strong force there, 
which repulsed them with heavy loss. Late in 
October (1863), Gillmore brought his heaviest guns 
to bear on Sumter and reduced it to a heap of ruins. 
As a commercial mart, Charleston now had no exist- 
ence. For months, not a blockade runner had en- 
tered its harbor. Wealth and trade had departed. 
The first city to strike at the flag of the Union had 
paid in fire, tears and blood, for the great wrong. 
24 



370 UNION. 

In the West and Southwest, the war was on the 
decline. The Confederates reoccupied all Texas 
in 1863, and carried on a sort of guerilla warfare 
in Arkansas during most of that year. On the 
20th of April, 1863, Marmaduke, the Confederate 
general, fought a strong Union force at Cape 
Girardeau, and was defeated and driven out of the 
State. 

General Banks, from his Red River expedition, 
marched to the siege of Port Hudson, and General 
Taylor, the Confederate, for awhile overran 
Louisiana and Texas; but the middle of July 
witnessed the fall of Port Hudson, and then Banks 
expelled the meddlesome Taylor from the country 
eastward of the Atchafalaya. This was the last 
struggle of Taylor's forces to gain a foothold on 
the Mississippi. 

At the opening of the third year of the civil 
war, 1864, there were many hopeful signs of suc- 
cess for the defenders of the life of the republic. 
Though the national debt exceeded a billion dol- 
lars, the public credit was never better. Loyal 
people stood for the government and trusted it 
with a faith that was sublime. Those who trusted 
the government in its hour of adversity, made 
money. Many a man in but moderate circum- 
stances in 1861, was a millionaire in 1871. The 
Confederate debt was almost as great as the Na- 



"J HAVE A WIFE.' 371 

tional debt, witli a prospective increase during the 
year likely to double that amount. The Con- 
federate government had contracted loans abroad, 
to almost 115,000,000, of which sum the South- 
ern Independence Association in England (composed 
chiefly of British aristocracy) loaned a large share 
and lost it ; the security offered for the Confederate 
bonds being cotton to be forwarded. This was 
never delivered. The producers of the Confed- 
eracy, better informed than their English sympa- 
thizers, were unwilling to trust the promises of 
their own government, and withheld supplies ; for 
they preconceived the worthlessness of the bonds 
and paper currency of the Confederates. The 
people in the South were no longer willing to vol- 
unteer for the military service ; and Davis and his 
associates at Richmond, in their desperation, pro- 
ceeded to the exercise of a despotic act which has 
no parallel in the history of any republic. By 
the passage of a law they declared every ivhite man 
in the Confederacy, liable to bear arms, to be in the 
military service ; and that, upon his failure to report 
for duty at a military station within a certain time, 
he was liable to the penalty of death for a deserter ! 
While the authorities at Richmond were prepar- 
ing to carry out these measures, they received a 
dispatch from Lord John Russell, the British For- 
eign Secretary, which deprived them of the last 



372 UNION. 

prop of liope for the recognition of the indepen- 
dence of the Confederate States from any foreign 
State, excepting that of the Roman Pontiff. That 
dispatch gave notice that no more vessels should 
be fitted out in Great Britain (nor tolerated in 
British waters) for depredating on the commerce 
of the United States by the " so called Confederate 
States." The last expression, ignoring the very 
existence of the Confederacy, was significant and 
offensive to the heads of the government. Davis 
made a sharp reply protesting against the "studied 
insult;" and from this time on to the end, the 
Southern Confederacy felt that England coi^ld no 
longer be looked upon as a trusted friend. 

France, in the last year of the war, took advan- 
tage of the distracted condition of the country to 
violate the })rinciples of the Monroe Doctrine sacred 
to every American; and, by the establishment of 
Maximilian as emperor of Mexico, overthrew a 
republic and set up an empire on the Western con- 
tinent; but the ambitious Napoleon III. brought 
ruin upon Maximilian and himself. 

Early in 1804, in order to more completely 
unify the army. Congress created the office of 
Lieutenant-General, and Ulysses S. Grant was 
nominated to fill the office. He became general- 
in-chief of the armies of the Republic, and fixed 
liis headcpiarters with the Army of the Potomac. 



11 



"J HAVE A WIFE." 373 

In the Southwest, Sherman was making war 
terrible. The destruction of public and private 
property was enormous, and can only be excused 
on the ground that it was necessary to conquer so 
stubborn an enemy as the South. Nevertheless 
the Christian must admit there was little of the 
humane or Christian about it. There is nothing 
humane or Christ-like in war. No])ublic property 
of the Confederates was spared, and in many in- 
stances private houses were burned. The station 
houses and rolling-stock of the railroads were re- 
duced to ashes. The tracks were torn up, and the 
rails, heated by burning ties cast into heaps, were 
twisted and ruined, and by bending them, while 
red hot, around a sapling, converted into what the 
men called "Jeff Davis neck-ties." General Sher- 
man intended to push on to Montgomery, Ala- 
bama, and then, if circumstances appeared favora- 
ble, to go southward and attack Mobile. 

In May, 1864, General John Morgan, a daring 
Confederate cavalryman, who had been a terror to 
Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana, was driven out of 
Kentucky into East Tennessee, where he was sur- 
prised at Greeneville and shot dead in a vineyard, 
while trying to escape. 

General Robert E. Lee was the master soldier of 
the war. Though an enemy to his countr}' and 
Qurs, though an enemy to the very nation his noble 



374 



UNION. 




Gen. Robert E. Lee. 



ancestors bad helped build, and though his crimes 
cannot be condoned, we must nevertheless regard 
him as the superior military genius of either army. 
The man, who came nearest being 
his match, was General Meade, at 
Gettysburg. For fighting and re- 
treating, for holding together a 
poorly equipped and poorly fed 
army, for skilful flank movements, 
for fruitfulness in resources, and 
all that goes to make up a great 
military genius, Lee rises above 
any man in either the northern or 
southern armies. 
When General Grant, flushed with the victories 
of the west, took up his headquarters with the 
Army of the Potomac with the finest army ever 
on American soil, great things were expected, nor 
was the public disappointed ; but had not Grant 
possessed inexhaustible resources, of men, money, 
arms, clothing and food, his bull-dog tenacity 
would have proved his ruin. 

These two giants, with their sjjlendid corps of 
officers, first met in the Wilderness, May -f and 
5, 1864, when the long stubborn conflict began. 
It was during this conflict that Grant sent his 
famous dispatch to the president: '' I propose to 
fiijld it out on tl/is line if it takes all summer. ^^ 



i 



"7 HAVE A WIFE." 375 

General Grant had an army of one hundred and 
forty thousand men under such lieutenants as 
Sheridan and Custer, Sedgwick, Meade, and 
others. Lee had sixty thousand men, less than 
half of Grant's forces. In two days General Grant 
lost thirty thousand men, of which only five tliou- 
sand were prisoners, while Lee's losses were but 
ten thousand. The battle of the Wilderness can- 
not be claimed as a victory for Grant, and the 
reckless loss of life can only be excused on the 
ground that the " hotter the war, the sooner would 
they have peace." May 7, 1SG4, Lee retreated 
toward Spottsylvania Court-IIouse, the Union 
army following and still fighting. On the 8th the 
battle of Spottsylvania was fought with an indeci- 
sive result. On the 10th, the battle was continued 
with a loss of ten thousand on the Union side. 
The result was still doubtful. On the 12th, Lee 
and Grant again fought with an indecisive result. 
On the 13th, General Sheridan destroyed Lee's 
depot of supplies in his rear near Beaver Dam. 
By the 21st, Lee, being flanked by overwhelming 
masses brought against him, retired from Spottsyl- 
vania to the North Anna. On the 25th, General 
Stuart, the able Confederate cavalry leader, was 
killed, and General Sheridan, who was fast rising 
in military fame, after pei'forming a series of bril- 
liant and daring deeds in Lee's rear, joined General 



376 L^.ViU.V. 

Grant. Grant seldom lost a foot of ground that 
he had gained, and at any and all cost pushed on. 
While there may have been more brilliant officers 
in the field, he possessed the excellent faculty of 
" hanging on" to an extraordinary degree. His 
frightful losses of three to one of the enemy, 
would have disheartened an}' other general. Al- 
though he had lost an army of soldiers during the 
month of May, on the 2Tth of that month he crossed 
the Pamunky and flanked Lee at Hanovertown. 

On June 1, 1864, the battle of Cold Harbor was 
fought, the result indecisive, but loss on both sides 
fearful. Tliough the rebel losses were much less 
than Grant's, they had no resources to draw from. 

On the loth, an unsuccessful assault of three 
days was made on Petersburg, with a loss on the 
Union side of ten thousand men. General Grant 
had been at the head of the Arnw of the Potomac 
less tluin three months, and had lost the enormous 
number of sixty-four tliousand men, four thousand 
men more than comprised Lee's army in the lie- 
ginning, and almost as many as were thouglit 
necessary, in 1861, to })ut down the rebellion. 
Lse's losses were a little over half as many. It 
was now c|uite evident that the war was to be a 
war of endurance. On the 20th of June, Peters- 
burg was strongly reinforced by Lee, and Grant's 
advance checked. 



"J HAVE A WIFE." 377 

In the west, GenerrJ Sherman was following the 
plan of General Grant. In fact, there was a won- 
derful similarity between these officers. Neither 
seemed to know the word failure. 

On the loth of Ma}-, while Grant and Lee were 
fighting at Spottsylvania, Sherman, after a two 
days' fight, drove Johnston from Resaca, Georgia. 
Sherman pushed on after Johnston, and these giants 
again met at Kenesaw Mountains on June 27tli. 
Johnston had been compelled to abandon post after 
post before the approach of Sherman's conquering 
columns. The Kenesaw Mountains overlook Mari- 
etta. Around these great hills and upon their 
slopes and summits, and also upon Lost and Pine 
Mountains, the Confederates had cast up intrench- 
nients and planted signal stations; but, after a des- 
perate struggle — fighting battle after battle for the 
space of about a month, while the rain was falling 
copiously, almost without intermission — the Con- 
federates were forced to leave these strong positions. 
They fled toward the Chattahoochee River, in tlie 
direction of Atlanta, closely pursued by the Nation- 
als. One of the corps commanders. Bishop Polk, 
was killed by a sliell on the summit of Pine Moun- 
tain. So persistently did Johnston dispute the 
way from Dalton, in northern Georgia, to Atlanta, 
that when he reached the entrenchments at the latter 
place, he had lost nearly one-fourth of his army. 



378 UNION. 

On the evening of July 2d, Sherman's cavalry 
threatened Johnston's flanks, also menacing the 
ferry at Chattahoochee, and the Confederates aban- 
doned the Great Kenesaw, and fled. At dawn 
next morning, when the national skirmishers 
planted the stars and stripes over the Confederate 
battery on the summit of that eminence, they saw 
hosts of the enemy flying in hot haste toward At- 
lanta. At eight o'clock Sherman entered Marietta, 
close on the heels of Johnston's army. He hoped 
to strike the Confederates a fatal blow while they 
were crossing the Chattahoochee; but Johnston, by 
quick and skilful movements, passed the stream 
without molestation, and made a stand along the 
line of it. General Howard laid a pontoon bridge 
two miles above the ferry where Johnston had 
crossed, and at the same time there was a general 
movement of Sherman's forces all along the line. 
The imperilled Confederates were forced to aban- 
don their works near the Chattahoochee, and retreat 
to a new line that covered Atlanta, their left rest- 
ing on the Chattahoochee and their right on Peach 
Tree Creek. The two armies rested until the mid- 
dle of July. The able and judicious leader, John- 
ston, was succeeded by Hood of Texas, a dashing 
but less cautious officer than his predecessor. 
Sixty -five days after Sherman had put his army 
in motion southward, he was master of the whole 



/ HAVE A WIFE.'' 



379 




country north and west of the river on the banks 
of which he was resting (nearly one-half of 
Georgia) and had accomplished one of the chief 
ol)jects of the campaign, namely, the advancement 
of the National lines from the 
Tennessee to the Chattahoochee. 

The possession of Atlanta, the 
key-point of military advantage in 
that region, was the next prize to 
be contended for. About the 16th 
of July, the National army began 
its advance, destroying railways 
and skirmishing bravely; and on 
the 20th, the Confederates, led by 
Hood in person, fell upon the corps 
of Howard, Hooker, and Palmer, with heavy force. 
The assailants were repulsed after a sharp battle 
in which both parties suffered severely. 

There were indications that Hood intended to 
evacuate Atlanta; but when Sherman's troops 
moved rapidly toward the city, they encountered 
strong entrenchments. Before these, a part of 
Hood's army held their antagonists; while the 
main body, led by General Hardee, made a long, 
night march, gained the rear of Sherman's forces 
on the morning of July 22d, and fell on them with 
crushing weight and numbers. A terrific battle 
ensued, lasting many hours ; and after a brief inter- 



Gen. W. T. Sherman. 



380 UNION. 

val, one still more sanguinary was begun, which 
resulted in a victory for the United States troops, 
and the retreat of the Confederates to their works. 
General McPherson was that day killed by sharp- 
shooters in the woods, and General John A. Logan 
took his place in command. On the 28th of July, 
another terrible battle was fought before Atlanta, 
and the Confederates were again driven to their 
lines ; and from that time until the close of August, 
hostilities in that region were confined, chiefly, to 
raids upon railways and the interruption of each 
other's supplies. On the 31st of August, the forces 
of Howard and Hardee had a severe battle at 
Jonesboro, twenty miles below Atlanta, in which 
the Confederates were defeated. When Hood 
heard of this disaster, he perceived his j^eril, and 
blowing up his magazine at Atlanta, formed a 
junction witli Hardee, and with his whole army 
soon recrossed the Chattahoochee. Hood had lost 
nearlv half his infantry in the space of a few weeks. 
The Union army entered Atlanta September 2, 
1864. 

Mark Stevens, since his recovery and return to 
the command of his company, had seen active 
service. Though he had been promoted to major, 
he never lost interest in his company. For merito- 
rious conduct, and through the influence of his 
cousin Mark, Alec, despite the fact that he had 



"J HAVE A WIFE." 381 

come, as he said, to serve the coinitry as a private, 
and carry a musket, was made lieutenant. At 
Kenesaw Mountains, the mortality of the officers 
was very great and when the conflict was over 
Alec had a captain's commission. 

While the army was operating about Atlanta 
just previous to the fall of that city, Major Stevens 
was sent with a force of one hundred and fifty men 
to a small village at the head of a creek to capture 
a Confederate colonel, who was reported to be 
lodging in a large stone house. He took witli him 
Alec and his company, and a part of two other 
companies. The country was full of Confederate 
cavalry, and there was great danger of their de- 
tachment being cut off. The night was dark and, 
as the men began the march, a fine driz/le of rain 
commenced. Bill Simms said: 

" This reminds me o' one night when I was 
with Gineral Percy." 

Upon which a comrade put in: 

" Oh, Bill Simms, for goodness sake give Gin- 
eral Percy an' all the rest o" us a rest." 

" No talking in ranks I Forimrd !"' 

Awa}' they marched in gloom, darkness and 
falling mist. Not one of the men knew the object 
of the expedition. That secret was known only to 
Mark and the two captains. For hours they 
marched in an unknown land. A forest loomed 



382 UNION. 

up before them. The major walked at the side of 
his cousin Alec, leading the force, preceded by 
the guide, a bright young mulatto, tlioroughly 
acquainted with the country. 

About two o'clock in the morning, having 
traversed a dark forest, they came in sight of the 
village. Mark and Alec held a short consultation, 
after which they drew up their forces in a peach 
orchard near the house. Accomj^anied by Alec, 
Bill Simms, Sis and Lieutenant Black, Mark went 
to the big stone house, not over fifty paces away. 

The night was dark and there was but one 
light visible at a window. This light was in the 
gable. 

The reconnoitring party went completely round 
the bourse searching for some means of entering it 
unperceived. When they had reached the rear, 
they were assailed by a ferocious dog, which Lieu- 
tenant Black ran through with his sword. 

There was a broad piazza, or high porch in 
front; and, finding no means of entering the build- 
ing save the doors which were closed, Mark deter- 
mined to demand admittance at the great front 
entrance. He left Lieutenant Black at the south 
end of the house, Bill Simms was in the rear. Sis 
at the north wing, while Alec was to remain on the 
piazza, as it would be nearest to the major. All 
were to keep their positions unless summoned by 



"/ HAVE A WIFE." 383 

the major to come to his aid. Mark went to the 
door and rapped lightly. There being no re- 
sponse, he rapped again louder than before, and 
still receiving no answer, he struck the door with 
the butt end of his revolver, a blow which made 
it tremble. 

Listening carefully, he was soon rewarded by a 
light footstep inside. 

" That is surely a woman's footstep, " he thought. 

The door opened just a little, and he heard a 
whispered: 

"Who are you?" 

Quickly throwing all his force against the door, 
he pushed it open wide enough to enter, and 
sprang into a dark corridor. As he did so, he 
heard the voice of a negro woman exclaim, 

" De good lawd a massy !" and the sound of re- 
treating feet on the carpeted hall, fell on his ears; 
but some one remained, and he grappled with this 
person. The slender wrist he caught, he knew to 
be a woman's. 

"Come, I won't harm you," he said in an 
undertone. " Get me a light. Lead me to a room 
where there is a light. " 

She made no answer, and he pushed her back 
toward the rear end of the hall, where there was a 
door opening into an apartment on the right. Into 
this he forced his prisoner. It was too dark to 



384 UNION. 

recognize her features! Pushing her into the 
apartment on the right, Mark took a match from 
his pocket and struck it, and lighted a candle that 
stood on the low mantel. Turning, he saw the 
face of his astonished prisoner, and, starting back 
with an exclamation of wonder, he gasped: 

"Elsie!" 

She stood giving him a look of cold, though 
tender reproach. For a full minute, neither spoke. 
Then recovering himself, he asked : 

" Elsie, in Heaven's name, why are you here?" 

" Do you come for any one in this house?" 

" Is there a Confederate colonel here?" 

" Yes. " Her face was pale as death , and her 
voice faltered as she answered his question. " But 
he is wounded and would die if an attempt were 
made to remove him, " she added in a broken voice. 

Mark then asked : 

" Has he any troops with him?" 

" No, he is alone." He saw tears gathering in 
her eyes and asked : 

" Elsie, is that colonel your father?" 

"He is." 

" God forgive me. I would die before I would 
harm him." 

" Where are you going?" 

" Back to camp to perjure myself, " he answered. 
" I will swear there is no Confederate here. " 



I HAVE A WIFE." 



385 



" Mark, Mark !" She held her hand toward him, 
and he paused. " Will you do this for — for me?" 

For a moment a flood of emotion swept over 
him, and he almost forgot himself. He had taken 
a step toward her, when he paused and said: 

" Yes, and I would do a thousand times more. " 

Quickly wheeling about, he left the house and 
calling Alec, Black, and the others, returned to 
his troops in the peach orchard. In ten minutes 
they were on their wa}' 
to their camp, which was 
reached at daylight. In 
a charge that day Lieu- 
tenant Black was killed. 
Mark never mentioned 
the affair to any one, 
until after the fall of 
Atlanta. 

Three days after the 
capture of the city, he 
and Alec were together, 
when the latter said-. 

" Mark, you remem- 
ber the night we went 
to capture the colonel at the old stone house?" 

" Yes. " 

" Well, I would like to know whom you saw 
there?" 
35 




'Elsie!' 



386 UNION. 

"Elsie Cole." 

" I thought so. You need not have been afraid 
of telling me. I'd a been racked on the rack, 
burnt on the stake, drawn through a thorn thicket 
and squeezed to death in a cider-press, before I 
would have peached. " 

" Alec, I never doubted you, but having been 
untrue to my trust, I did not want to make an- 
other an accessory to my crime. " 

" He was there?" 

"Yes." 

"Who was it?" 

"Elsie's father." 

For a moment Alec was silent, then in his charac- 
teristic manner he seized his friend's hand and cried : 

" Mark, I am proud of you, cussed if I ain't. 
You have showed yourself a man with a heart as 
big as an ox, and I know it. Talk about duty 
and sentiment and all that, but I would not give a 
tinker's cuss for a man who would sacrifice a 
friend, because he holds to a different notion of 
things. But, Mark," and then his face grew more 
mysterious, and his voice dropped almost to a whis- 
per, " tell me what all this mystery is? Why 
don't you propose to that girl, whom you love, 
and marry her? What is in the way? Is it me? 
If it is I'll swear I'll put myself out of the way 
very soon. " 



"7 HAVE A WIFE." 387 

" You are not in the way, Alec. " 
" Why don't you marry her, then?" 
" Because I already have a wifeV 
Alec uttered a yell and stared at his cousin as if 
he thought him suddenly gone mad. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE CLOUDS KOLL AWAY. 

" Yes, Alec, I am a married man and have been 
all these years," continued Mark Stevens in a low, 
melancholy voice. " I don't blame you for start- 
ing and staring at me. There you have it all. Alec, 
— you know what a villain I am, and I would not 
blame you, if you cut my acquaintance entirely." 

For several minutes Alec Stevens was silent. 
They had walked a long distance into the suburbs 
of the city, and reached a dismantled fort. Alec 
sat down on a gun-carriage and with his honest 
brow gathered into a knot, tried hard to solve the 
difficult and delicate problem. 

Could it be possible that his dearest friend for 
whom he had so often risked his life, and for 
whom he would have staked his all, was a villain? 
Alec would not have listened to such an im})uta- 
tion from other lips, and even now it seemed im- 
possible. Mark could not have been all these 
years living a double life. Alec's voice was some- 
what husk}', when he asked: 
388 



THE CLOUDS ROLL AWAY. 389 

" Mark, when was it? Before the war began?" 

" Yes, before I ever saw Elsie at your home in 
Florida, " the major answered. 

" Where is your wife?" 

" I don't know. Heaven knows I would give 
all I possess to know." 

" Did she desert you?" 

" No. " 

" You left her?" 

" No. " 

" Well, who? — how? — what in thunder happened 
to separate you anyway? Did the earth split in 
two and one slide off on each side?" 

" We were torn asunder within two hours after 
we were married. " 

Alec sat on the cannon gazing in open-mouthed 
amazement at his cousin for several seconds, and, 
at last, finding voice, asked: 

"Who did it?" 

" I don't know." 

" Well, but your wife's family name, you could 
surely find her by " 

" I never knew her name, " Mark interrupted. 
" Nor do I know from whence she came." 

"Oh, thunderation! Mark, are you mad — what 
kind of a cock-and-a-bull story are you telling me 
anyway ? " 

" Be patient and I will relate this melancholy 



390 UNION. 

story, which may throw some li^ht on the mystery 
that has enshrouded my life. When you left me 
in college, you know how ambitious I was to finish 
up my education, and get out into the great, busy 
world. After you left me at old Harvard, I 
studied so hard that my mind became confused. 
Horace, Plato and Integral Calculus became badly 
mixed in my brain, and I failed to sleep. I went 
to a physician, who instead of prescribing rest and 
fresh air for my insomnia, dosed me wi.th bromide 
until my mind was full of wild fantasies, and 
then to cap the climax with his stupidity, hurried 
me oS. to an asylum for the insane. 

" I have little knowledge of how I came there, 
and still less of what transpired while I was there. 
It seems my bromide delirium took a strange turn. 
My mind was full of horses and lovely maidens. 
Like Don Quixote, I imagined myself some knight 
of the past centuries, destined to rescue a fair lady 
from some enchanted castle, and one day while 
riding on horseback about the grounds with my 
attendant, we came upon a patient, fair and young, 
accompanied by her attendant, also riding on 
horseback. In my mad fancy, I supposed this the 
lady whom I was to rescue. I charged down upon 
the attendant, and with the affrighted girl fled 
through the open gate. She was a superb horse- 
woman, as I remember her now, and lovely as 



THE CLOUDS ROLL AWAY. 391 

Venus. In our mad ride, we outstripped our pur- 
suers, went to a local preacher's house, about five 
miles from the institution, and were married. 
Within an hour after, we were both arrested, and 
taken back to the institution, from which mj 
friends immediately removed me, and in a few 
weeks I recovered. My recollection of the whole 
affair is vague and dream -like, yet it has left a 
lasting impression on my life. " 

At the conclusion of Mark's storj-. Alec gave 
vent to a prolonged whistle and exclaimed : 

" Shades of the Arabian Nights, Don Quixote 
outdone! I'll be hanged if I know whether to 
laugh or cry. Mark, have you made any great 
effort to learn who your insane bride was?" 

" Yes, I have searched everywhere, and done 
everything possible to find her. All that I could 
learn is that her parents, who were wealthy, became 
indignant at the carelessness of the officials and 
removed her. I did hear an unreliable story about 
her recovering almost immediatel}' on her removal. 
She had been entered under an assumed name. 
Her friends hoped that she might recover, and the 
world never know that she had been in such an in- 
stitution. She was from some distant state, and 
every clew to her identity is lost. " 

" What are your recollections of the affair?" 

" Very meagre. I seemed actuated bv some 



392 UNION. 

inward impulse wholly uncontrollable. Horace, 
Ovid and bromide badly befuddle the brain, and 
bring up strange fancies. " 

" I suppose you remember how she looked ? " 

"Yes," he answered slowly and sadly. "To 
me she was the perfection of beauty and grace. 
She was young, childlike and innocent; but 
whether dark or fair, I have no recollection. She 
was no type. In beauty she stood alone, no ante- 
cedents, no followers and no successors. To me 
she is an ideal, a dream, bright as the morning, 
fair as the day, when there is not a cloud in the 
sky. Did I love her then? Yes. Do I love her 
yet? I certainly do, but as the recollection of a 
bright dream which it is a pleasure to recall. You 
may call me still mad, but through all these years, 
I have felt a moral obligation to this wedded un- 
known. I never loved any one more than I love 
her. I never loved any one so ardently as 1 love 
Elsie Cole; yet with all my love for Elsie, there 
constantly rings in my ears, the word 'duty, duty 
and honor to the one whom you wedded in the 
darkest hour of your existence I ' " 

A serio-comic expression took possession of 
Alec's features as he responded: 

" Mark, I'll be hanged if I believe you have 
recovered your good sense yet. " 

"Why?" 



THE CLOUDS ROLL AWAY. 393 

" That marriage is uo marriage at all. That 
wife was a dream, and I think you got too much 
of Ovid's Metamorphoses in your noggin. You 
were drunk on lore and bromide, and yow have not 
got sober yet. After all that has passed between 
you and Elsie, you love each other. That other 
marriage was a dream, — forget it and have a real 
wedding. " 

"I can't." 

"Why?" 

" My honor. " 

" Tell Elsie all about it. She is a sensible girl 
and will laugh at such a notion. A contract made 
when neither party is comjyos mentis is wholly in- 
valid. Elsie will look over all that, unless she is 
not the girl I take her to be. " 

"But the other?" 

" Oh, the dream-wife. Why she is nothing to 
you. Forget her. " 

Mark slowly shook his head as he answered : 

" Alec, I don't blame you for thinking me still 
mad. You do not know, and the world can never 
know, how strangely I am impressed b}^ the dream- 
wife as you call her. It was not all a dream. To 
me she is more realit}^ than dream. I have seen 
her a thousand times since, and if I should dwell 
long on her I would go mad in earnest. I can't 
explain to you how her vision rises before me 



394 UNION. 

every time I have thought of matrimony, and 
madly as I love Elsie, this figure comes between 
us when I think of her and says, 'I am your wife, 
will you desert me?' What can I do under such 
circumstances?" 

" I swear, I don't know," Alec answered. Soon 
after, they rose from the gun and went back to 
their camp. Mark watched his cousin, as he went 
to his quarters and murmured : 

" He is the most remarkable man I ever knew. 
He loves Elsie as devotedly as I ; yet, knowing me 
to have been a villain all these years, he still in- 
sists on our marriage. Alas, poor Alec, there 
never lived another such as you." 

The above occurred on November 13th, and on 
the morning of November 14, 1864, Sherman 
marched from Atlanta with sixty-five thousand 
men, in two columns, commanded respectively by 
Generals Howard and Slocum, and preceded by 
General Kilpatrick with five thousand cavalry, on 
his famous march to the sea. The army subsisted 
by ravaging the country, wherein they found 
ample supplies, leaving a desolate waste of smok- 
ing and blackened ruins behind. They also met 
very little opposition on tlieir march of thirty-six 
days through the heart of Georgia. It was a mili- 
tary promenade, requiring very little skill in the 
performance, and as little personal prowess- 



THE CLOUDS ROLL AWAY. 395 

On that march, Mark often wondered what had 
become of Elsie and her father. Were they shar- 
ing the hard fate of these poor people, who were 
rendered homeless and deprived of the means of 
sustaining life? Sometimes his heart almost re- 
belled against Sherman's cruel orders. When he 
saw women and children, some of the latter of 
tender age weeping at sight of blazing homes, he 
thought, "What a monster is war!" Wh}^ is it 
that the weak and innocent are the greatest suf- 
ferers? 

Finally, as the Federal army approached the 
Atlantic seaboard, they attacked and captured Fort 
McAllister, on the Ogeeehee River. That was on 
the 13th of December, and four days later, Sher- 
man appeared before Savannah and demanded the 
surrender of that city. Hardee was there with 
fifteen thousand men, and on the 20th abandoned 
the city and fled to Charleston. On the 21st, 
Sherman entered the city in triumph. By his 
march through Georgia, he discovered that the 
Confederacy in that region was a mere shell. To 
every sensible man it was quite apparent that its 
days were numbered. 

November 8, 1SG4, Abraham Lincoln had been 
re-elected to the presidency of the Cnited States 
by an overwhelming majority over General Mc- 
Clellan, the Democratic nominee. His re-election 



a'J6 umoN. 

was conclusive evidence to the world and to liim- 
self that liis course in putting down the rebellion 
was approved by the people, and on the 19th of 
December, he issued a call for three hundred 
thousand men to finish the war. On the 2 5th of 
November, an attempt was made to burn New 
York, but it failed. On the 30th, Hood with 
forty thousand men attacked General Schofield 
eight miles from Nashville, where, with only 
seventeen thousand troops, he successfully re- 
sisted four desperate assaults of the rebels, and 
then fell back to Nashville and joined Thomas. 
Hood's loss was reported at six thousand. On the 
loth and 16th of December, Hood was defeated by 
General Thomas, and fled, pursued by the victori- 
ous Federal troops. 

On December 6th, Mr. Chase, ex -secretary of 
the treasury, was appointed chief justice of the 
United States supreme court. On December 20th, 
General Stoneman captured some Confederate 
forts, salt works, lead mines and railroad bridges 
at Saltville, in East Tennessee. 

The year 186-1 closed in general disaster to the 
Confederacj', Sherman had broken the Confeder- 
ate power in Georgia, destroying its communica- 
tions with the States on the Mississippi, and taken 
Savannah. General Thomas had broken up Hood's 
army in Tennessee, and Grant had closely belea- 



THE CLOUDS ROLL AWAY. 397 

guered the southern army in Virginia, within Rich- 
mond and its defences; while Sheridan had quite 
ruined the army of Early in the Shenandoah 
valley. 

As the year 1865 dawned, the end was drawing 
near. On January 15th, Fort Fisher on the coast 
of North Carolina was captured by General Terry. 
On the 16th, a magazine exploded, killing and 
wounding three hundred Union men. On the 
17th, a Federal monitor was blown up by torpedoes 
in Charleston Harbor, On the 20th, the southern 
troops evacuated Corinth, Mississipj^i. On the 
3d, General Hood surrendered his command in 
the southern army to General Taylor. On the 
21st, General Breckenridge became the Confeder- 
ate secretary of war, and southern commissioners 
sought a peace interview with the president, hop- 
ing yet to retain slavery ; but the day of grace had 
passed, and slavery had already gone to protest. 
Two days later, congress, by joint resolutions, 
voted to submit an amendment called the 14th 
Amendment, abolishing slavery, and nine States 
ratitied the amendment within the next month. 

On the 5th of Februarv, General Grant was de- 
feated at Hatcher's Run, where he had met a 
similar defeat on 27th of October. On the 17th, 
Columbia, South Carolina, was burned. On the 
18th, Sherman took possession of Charleston, and 



398 UNION. 

Major, now General, Anderson raised the flag over 
Fort Sumter, which he had been compelled to 
lower, after a most gallant resistance, four years 
before. 

Strange emotions swayed the breast of Mark 
Stevens as he entered the city of Charleston after 
the flames had been extinguished. What a sad 
change in the once proud, gay southern city. 
Many elegant mansions which had stood in the 
town when he left were in ashes or ruins. And 
the once happy families — where were they? He 
•wandered to the beautiful suburban home of Colo- 
nel Cole. It was deserted now. No glad, laugh- 
ing eyes met him at the gate. No gaj^, happy 
voice was there to welcome him. He walked 
through the silent halls, heavily oppressed Vvrith 
woe. All were gone. Not even the echo of an 
old familiar song remained. 

The house had been used alternately as hospital, 
a barracks and a stable. It was sadly defaced, and 
the carpets and most of the furniture had almost 
entirely disappeared. He found one parlor chair, 
minus the upholstering, in the hall. An old, de- 
cayed sofa, faded and worn and only the shadow of 
its former self, was in one of the upper chambers. 

He wandered to her favorite room, and almost 
shed tears. Oh, what a change! In one corner 
was the skeleton of her piano, at which she used 



THE CLOUDS ROLL AWAY. 399 

to sit and ging such songs as seemed to charm the 
seraphims ; but it was husky now and gave forth 
only discordant sounds. It was all that was left 
to remind any one of the fair being, who, in the 
years gone b}^, had been the joy and sunlight of 
a happy home. There is little consolation in 
wandering about the tombs of buried happiness, 
and Mark returned to his regiment. 

He met Alec, who had been wandering about 
the ruined city. For once, the light of mischief 
had gone out of his eyes, and in a voice of sad- 
ness, he said : 

"It don't look like Charleston. It's not the 
Charleston we used to know. I've been all over 
it and don't see much that's familiar. I was up 
at the church and saw where a shell had torn away 
all but two of the ten commandments: 'Thou 
shalt not kill,' and 'Thou shalt not commit adul- 
tery;' but this will soon be over. The rebels are 
everywhere following my example, deserting and 
coming back to the old flag. " 

On the 4th of March, Lincoln was inaugurated 
for his second term. On the 10th, General Bragg 
was defeated at Kingston, North Carolina. On 
the 8th of February, the Confederate congress ad- 
journed and never met again. 

When Sherman left Charleston in pursuit of the 
rebels, Mark and Alec were both glad to leave the 



400 UNION. 

dismal place. Charleston seemed only to mock 
them as the grinning skeleton of a once-beloved 
friend. After a three days' rest at Fayettesville, 
Sherman moved his army forward in another dis- 
tracting march, puzzling his antagonists. On 
March 16th, while moving toward Goldsboro, his 
troops fought twenty thousand Confederates under 
General Hardee at Averysboro and defeated them. 

Mark's regiment was with Slocum's division of 
Sherman's army, and the day after the fight at 
Averysboro, they wheeled to their right, crossed 
South Eiver, swollen by rains, and took the road 
to Goldsboro, whither Howard, farther east, was 
marching, " wallowing along the miry roads." 

On the 18th, both wings were witliin a few miles 
of the place, and Sherman, thinking there would 
be no more opposition to his advance, left Slocum 
and started across the country to see Howard. 
He had gone scarce six miles, when he was startled 
b}' the sudden, angry roar of cannon behind him, 
evidently coming from the spot where Slocum's 
army lay. While listening to the heavy explo- 
sions, wondering what they could mean, a stafi" 
officer galloped up and quieted his anxiety by say- 
ing it was merely an affair between Carlin's divi- 
sion and the rebel cavalry, and that the latter were 
in full retreat. In a few moments, other officers 
arrived with the alarming intelligence that John- 



THE CLOUDS ROLL AWAY. 401 

ston's whole arm}^ near Beiitonville had assailed 
Slocum. Comprehending at once the new, dan- 
gerous position of affairs, he sent word Ijack to 
Slocum to stand solely on the defensive, until he 
could forward troops to his relief. Officers imme- 
diately dashed off over the country, hearing dis- 
patches — one to Blair, to make a night march 
with his corps, to Falling Creek church, and with 
three divisions oi the Fifteenth Corps, to come up 
in Johnston's rear, from the direction of Cox's 
bridge, — another to Howard to move at daylight 
on Bentonville, leaving his wagons behind. 

While thus engaged, couriers arrived from 
Schotield and Terry. Ordering the former to 
march on Goldsboro, and the latter to move to 
Cox's bridge, ten miles above, and establish a 
crossing there, he once more gave his individual 
attention to Slocum, and the unexpected battle 
thus suddenly thrown upon him. 

He found the latter not the least alarmed. He 
had chosen an admirable position and placed his 
artillery so as to sweep the front. He then sent 
Morgan's division to establish another line about 
half a mile in advance. Against this Johnston ad- 
vanced in overwhelming numbers and hurled it 
back in confusion, capturing three guns and cais- 
sons. Slocum, seeing the heavy force opposed to 
him, at once deployed the two divisions of the 
26 



403 UNION. 

Fourteenth Corps, under General Davis, and liur- 
ried forward at their utmost speed the two divi- 
sions of the Twentieth Corps. A line of barricades 
was hastily prepared, and the whole force put 
strictly on the defensive. In the mean time, Kil- 
patrick, aroused by the roar of artillery, cametliun- 
dering down the roads and massed his squadrons 
on the left. It was now four o'clock in the after- 
noon, and Slocum had hardly got ready to meet 
the enemy, when they came pouring in upon him 
like an avalanche. In three massive columns they 
swept up to his frail barricades and threatened b}^ 
mere weight of numbers to carry everything before 
them. Mowed down by Federal batteries and the 
deliberate volleys of infantr}^, the first column re- 
coiled, when the second, undaunted by the repulse 
of the first, charged with a cheer; but right in its 
path stood Davis' Corps — which had won such im- 
mortal honors on the bloody field of Chickamauga 
— and stopped it with one terrible blow. The 
whole fury of the attack spent itself in less than 
an hour, and yet in that time the enemy had made 
six successive assaults, and in the last charge had 
broken Slocum's line; but it rallied and, charging 
in turn, drove Johnston back. So close and des- 
perate was the combat, that man}' of the rebel dead 
lay within the lines of the government troops and 
around the headquarters of the generals. 



THE CLOUDS ROLL AWAY. 403 

It was in that last mad charge, that Mark hap- 
pened to be near Sis, when the brave boy dropped 
his gun. Leaping from his saddle, he ran to him 
and caught him in his arms as he was sinking to 
the earth. His face bore a peaceful look, almost 
to be envied in all that turmoil and uproar. Mark 
spoke to him, shook him, then gently laid him on 
the ground soaked with his own blood, and folded 
the arms of the youth across his breast. They 
found him thus when they came next day to bury 
the dead. 

Mark had the third horse shot under him that 
day. He sat on the fourth, under a tree, when he 
heard a wild, whirring noise, then came a blinding 
flash as if a bolt of lightning had struck his head. 
There was a deafening explosion, and it seemed as 
if the tree had been torn up by the roots. He felt 
himself sinking. Horse and rider went down, and 
he was conscious of his steed making some spas- 
modic plunges, while it uttered one or two almost 
human cries of agony. 

Mark was carried to the rear. Though his horse 
had been killed by the explosion of the shell, he 
had not been touched. A branch torn from the 
tree had struck his shoulder and he was badly 
shocked, bruised and insensible when, taken to the 
rear. When he recovered, the fighting was over 
for the present. 



404 UNION. 

As has been stated on another page, many of 
the Confederates, in their wild, impetuous charge, 
rushed into the Union lines. Alec saw a fine op- 
portunity to cut off a small detachment of these, 
and, by a skilful flank movement, dashed into 
their rear and swooped up the entire party, whom 
he quickly marched to the rear. The party was 
led by two brave young officers, whose uniforms 
were faded and mud-stained, and whose hard- 
pinched features told of privation and suffering for 
a cause which they now knew to be hopelessl}' lost. 
Alec led the two young Confederates aside and said : 

" You fellows are brave as hedgehogs, and I am 
going to parole you, and give you the liberty of 
the camp. I know that men so brave as you must 
be honorable " 

"Alec Stevens, a Yankee! Heavens! is it pos- 
sible?" interrupted one. 

" Dick — Dick ! what, great guns! tar and pitch ! 
is it really you? Why, I thought you were off on 
a ship somewhere. " 

Dick hastily explained that he had been aboard 
the Alabama when she sank, and that he came to 
America with his cousin Charley Cole to try bat- 
tling for the Confederacy on land; but both Dick 
and Charley, for the other was Charley, wanted tq 
know how Alec had "flopped." Alec made an 
explanatioii, declaring that he had felt just like a 



THE CLOUDS ROLL AWAY. 405 

fool all the time be was fighting the old flag. It 
is doubtful if his explanation was satisfactory to 
the prisoners; but Charley Cole said: 

" I think that you did a wise thing, Alec, 
whether you acted from principle or not, for the 
bottom is knocked out of the Southern Confederacy, 
and the old tub is sinking. " 

"You are right there, boys; but now that this 
present little squall is over, make yourselves at 
home. Here is a cracker apiece to amuse your 
stomachs, until supper is ready. I must go and 
look after our major. The last I saw of him he 
was batting off a shell with his elbow, and I want 
to see if there's enough left of him to hold a funeral 
over. I will be back soon, and we will talk over 
old times and enjoy ourselves." 

Alec expected to find Mark dead, and was re- 
joiced to learn that he was alive and not seriousl}- 
injured. The major had been badly shaken up, 
and the surgeon declared that he must be kept 
quiet for a few hours. 

That night Mark lay in a hospital tent on tlie 
field listening to the far-off thunder of cannon and 
the rattle of musketry, which seemed to proclaim 
to everybody that the four years' storm was subsid- 
ing. It was midnight, and he was in a semi-con- 
scious state produced by the narcotics of the sur- 
geon, when he heard the nurse ask some one; 



406 UNION. 

" When did jou come?" 

" I retiched the camp but two hours ago, heard 
of his injuries and, after a long search, found him. " 

How like the tender notes of a fairy's shell, as 
she winds them mellow and clear on the glistening- 
beach, enchanting the sailor, sounded those silver 
tones. He half opened his eyes, and, weak as he 
was from the shock, he could have sworn he saw 
Elsie at his side, arrayed in riding habit, her face 
very white, but beautiful as ever. He tried to 
speak, but could not. Thej^owerof the drug held 
his tongue. He heard her ask : 

" Is he dangerously hurt?" 

"Oh, no," the nurse answered. "It is only a 
shock to his nervous system, and with proper care 
he will be over it in a day or two. He is very 
still now ; but it is the effect of an opiate the doc- 
tor gave him. There is a widow lad}' living just 
across the street. You had better go there and 
stay until morning. " 

" I will. At eight I will call, for j3erhaps by 
that time I can see him?" 

" Perhaps. " 

Mark again sank into a state of unconsciousness. 
He awoke next morning and was trj'ing to settle 
in his own mind the incidents of the preceding 
night, when Alec came bounding into the tent cry- 
ing: 



THE CLOUDS ROLL AWAY. 407 

"By George, Mark! — thunder and lightning! — 

it's all right " He was almost out of breath 

with running and excitement. " I've been all night 
working on it, and have just got it fixed. The 
problem of five years is solved." 

" What do you mean, Alec? What problem 
have you solved?" 

"Your problem. You, — Great Jehosaphat! 
don't you understand me? It's you. You mar- 
ried the right girl after all." 

"Alec, are you crazy?" 

" No ; but you have been all along, or you 
might have saved yourself lots of trouble and me 
too. I tell you, you married the right girl. Look 
here," and he held up a clipping from an old 
newspaper. Mark glanced at it, and saw that it 
was one of the many accounts of his mad flight and 
marriage from the insane asylum. 

" Where did you get that?" he asked. 

" Charley Cole and Dick Stevens were captured 
yesterda}^, after that shell kissed your face. We 
talked nearly all night, and after I had told them 
everything else, I told them about you and Elsie 
and your runaway from the madhouse with a girl 
whom you never knew, never expect to know, and 
never will know. Then Charley, he up and says 
that girl you eloped with and married, while ^'our 
head was full of Horace, Ovid and bromide, was 



408 UNION. 

his sister, Elsie. They had been on a visit in 
the North, and Elsie, for a temporary nervous 
trouble, was treated by a quack on bromide, until 
she had a bromide delirium and was taken there 
under an assumed name " 

"Elsie! Elsie!" cried Mark at this moment, 
leaping to his feet and clasping in his arms the beau- 
tiful woman who had just entered the tent. " It 
was you, after all. Oh, Elsie, our love in mad- 
ness has been perpetuated through all these years. 
Tell me, darling, you who accepted me for better 
or for worse, when our miiids were clouded, will 
you still do so, now that the clouds have rolled 
away?" 

Her head rested on his shoulder, and she faintly 
sobbed : 

"Yes!" 

Alec, who had retreated to the door at the start- 
ling and romantic denouement, paused for a mo- 
ment to gaze on the scene, and muttered : 

" To think, I have been five years courting an- 
other man's wife! It makes me feel like a fool." 




'TO THINK, I HAVE BEEN EIVE TEARS COURTING ANOTHER MAN's WIFE 1 



CHAPTER XX. 

CONCLUSION. 

The great struggle was almost over. General 
Grant captured Richmond April 3d. Jefi' Davis 
had fled to Danville. On the 9th, terms were 
agreed upon between Grant and Lee for the sur- 
render of thelatter'sarmy at Appomattox, and next 
day Lee delivered his farewell address to the 
army. On the 12th of April, Lee's ami}-, number- 
ing 27,805, was surrendered at Appomattox Court 
House. The same day, Stoneman defeated the 
Confederates at Salisbury, North Carolina, and 
General Conly occupied Mobile, Alabama. 

The spunky little South was at last thrown flat 
on her back ; but it took four years to do it. Four 
years, with more than two millions of men and 
billions of money. Of the two millions of soldiers, 
two hundred and seventy-five thousand had died 
on the field of battle and in the hospitals. It has 
been stated by the adjutant -general of the Confed- 
erate army, since the close of the war, that the avail- 
able Confederate force during the entire war was 
409 



410 UNION. 

six Imndrecl thousand men, and that tliey never 
had more than two hundred thousand in the field 
at any one time. This is the only official data we 
have, and it must be taken as correct. He states 
that the Confederate force opposing Grant, Sher- 
man and Thomas at the close of the contest was 
only one hundred thousand. According to the best 
authority, the Union forces were a million, if they 
did not exceed that number. According to the 
best statistics obtainable, the Federal army lost 
more from deaths on the battle-field, in the hospi- 
tals and wounded, than the entire rebel army ever 
enrolled. Victory was won, but we can see at 
what a terrible price. The contest was fearful, and 
the cost great. The lost in killed and wounded is 
not the only loss, and in fact not the greatest. 
There are hundreds of thousands, disabled by dis- 
eases contracted in the army, many thousands of 
whom are unable to earn a livelihood, and are pen- 
sioners on the bounty of a grateful country, that 
never forgets its brave defenders. 

A few weeks before the surrender of Lee's army, 
yet when all seemed to read the inevitable, there 
was a handsome, talented young actor, playing an 
engagement at De Bar's Opera House in St. Louis. 
The name of this actor, a promising young trage- 
dian, was John Wilkes Booth, the son of the elder 
Booth. Critics had said that John Wilkes Booth 



CONCLUSION. 411 

would never equal his father, as an exponent of 
Shakespearian tragedy, and some think that his 
sensitive nature was soured and he was jealous of 
the reputation of his sire. He was a handsome 
man with a magnificent forehead and fine face. 
He wore a mustache, as many actors did in those 
days. One night, Booth played " Richard III. " 
with James Garden, an English actor, in the role, 
as Richmond. Those who saw Booth that night 
never forgot him. The soul of the murderous 
Richard seemed to have found its way back to 
earth, and taken lodgment in Booth's body. So 
intense was the interest, that several ladies, una- 
ble to endure the strain, were taken away by their 
escorts. It was a relief when the play was over, 
and they could breathe freely. Shortly after the 
performance, Booth was seen to enter a restaurant 
in company with a lad}'-, who proved to be Maggie 
Mitchell, the sparkling soubrette, then attracting 
the attention of the world. The appearance of 
Booth and Miss Mitchell attracted no special atten- 
tion. A boy showed them to a private dining 
room , and waited on them himself. Being a young- 
ster, he heard more of their conversation than he 
should, and soon discovered that Booth was mak- 
ing violent love to Miss Mitchell, who had evidently 
rejected him. Booth was very much in earnest, 
and, finally working himself into a passion, he 



412 UNION. 

straightened himself up and, witli a dramatic ges- 
ture, said: 

"Maggie Mitchell, I love you! You know I 
speak the truth. Should you reject me now, you 
shall never, so help me God, hear another word of 
love from me ; and I swear to you that when next 
you hear from me, it shall be in connection with 
some terrible and desperate deed." * 

Miss Mitchell, wlio, up to this time, had been 
tolerably composed, began to cry bitterly. This 
aroused in Booth's breast the sense of the gentle- 
man, inherent in him, and he attempted to soothe 
her. He had entirely forgotten the boy, who stood 
at the other end of the room a spellbound spectator. 
At sight of the lad, the actor's eyes suddenly flashed 
witli anger, causing the youngster to tremble in 
his shoes; but Booth said nothing beyond asking 
for some water. The boy brought it, and in a few 
moments Maggie Mitchell became somewhat com- 
posed, and they left the restaurant. 

John Wilkes Booth was a moody man, who 
seemed brooding over real or imaginary wrongs. 
Sunday, April 9, 1865, he passed almost entirely 

* The above is from the personal statement of a waiter in 
Merkle's restaurant, in 1865, on the corner of Sixth and 
Cliestnut Streets, who was the boy in question, and saw and 
heard the above. This statement was first published in the 
Cincinnati Tribune a year or two ago. 



CONCLUSION. 



413 



alone with an actor named Charles Chrone, who 
for a long time played " leads and heavies" in Ben 
De Bar's St. Louis stock company. Mr. Chrone 




"When next you hear from me, it shall be in connection 
with some terrible deed." 



says that he discovered that there was something 
on Booth's mind that day, and he tried to get at 
the trouble, but was unable to do so. His nature 



414 UNION. 

was peculiar. He was sometimes enthusiastic and 
jolly; but usually Lie was taciturn, and seemed to 
be meditating on something. Cbrone supposed 
his present melancholy was the result of some ad- 
verse criticism on his ability as an actor, in which 
he had been unfavorably contrasted with his 
father. 

On the fatal April 14, 1865, Booth was seen 
in Washington City. About midday, he went to 
Ford's theatre on Tenth Street. Harry Ford saw 
him sitting on the steps, and, knowing his strong 
southern sentiments, said: 

"Well, Booth, President Lincoln and General 
Grant are going to witness Laura Keene in the 
'American Cousin' to-night!" Booth raised his 
fierce eyes to the manager and gave him a silent 
stare. With a laugh, Harr}^ Ford added: "Yes, 
Lincoln and Grant will occupy one box, and Lee 
and Jeff Davis another. " 

At this, Booth broke forth with : 

"Lee! — Lee is a coward and a traitor to his 
country, or he would never have surrendered. He 
should have died at his post, and could have 
whipped Grant yet. " 

He went away and was seen no more about the 
theatre, until after the curtain had rung up and 
the performance begun. Then he came to the the- 
atre, and as he passed the box-office, he looked into 



CONCLUSIOX. 415 

the window, and, putting his arm through, placed 
a cigar, which he had partly smoked, on a shelf 
inside, and said, in mock heroic style: 

" Whoe'er this cigar does displace 
Must meet Wilkes Booth face to face." 

Then he passed into the theatre, and later in the 
evening, while Mr. Ford and his assistant JoeSess- 
ford were in the treasurer's office, they heard a 
pistol shot. They thought at first that it was the 
pistol fired by Mr. Harry Hawk, as Asa Trenchard 
in "Our American Cousin;" but Sessford said it 
was too early in the evening, and suggested that it 
must be an accident. They opened a little win- 
dow and, looking into the theatre, saw Booth 
crouching on the stage, with a knife in his hand. 
Even then, they could not tell what bad happened, 
and no one seemed to know. They at first thought 
that some one had insulted Booth, and he had pur- 
sued the man across the stage, and several minutes 
elapsed before they learned the terrible truth. 

While the interest of everybody was attracted to 
the stage. Booth had entered the theatre unper- 
ceived, made his way to the president's box and, 
with a Derringer pistol, shot him in the back of 
the head. The sharp report startled, stunned and 
petrified everybody. The president sat bolt up- 
right for a moment, then swayed and sank forward, 



416 UNION. 

while the assassin, leaping on the stage, holding a 
gleaming dagger in his hand, shouted: 

" Sic semper tyrannis ! " He was booted and 
spurred for the night ride, and shouting to the au- 
dience: "The South is avenged!" escaped by a 
back stage door, mounted a horse that was in readi- 
ness for him, dashed across the Anacostia,and found 
temporary shelter in Maryland. In the excitement 
and confusion, it was noticed by some that he was 
quite lame, and limped as he ran from the stage. 

Laura Keene the actress was one of the first to 
realize the awful truth. She saw the president 
swaying in his chair and ran to him as he fell. 
She clasped his dying head in her arms, and 
his life-blood stained her beautiful robes, while 
her tears mingled with those of the grief-stricken 
and horrified friends and relatives. The president 
never spoke after he was shot. He was carried to 
a house near, and expired next morning at twenty- 
two minutes past seven o'clock. There was a con- 
spiracy to kill Lincoln, Johnson, the vice-president, 
and Seward, secretary of state. An assault was 
made on Seward, and both he and his son were 
dangerously stabbed; but they recovered. For 
awhile, there was the wildest excitement in Wash- 
ington. People believed that there was a general 
and wide-spread conspiracy to overthrow the coun- 
try by assassination ; but the conspiracy evidently 



CONCLUSION. 417 

never extended beyond a few deluded fanatics, 
who should have been kept in madhouses to pre- 
vent their doing injury. 

Near Front Koyal, in Virginia, there still stands 
the old Garrett Homestead. About the ISth day 
of April, Captain Jett and a handsome young man, 
who was quite lame, came to the house. Jett told 
Mr. Garrett that the stranger was a wounded Con- 
federate soldier ; that he had surrendered with Lee's 
army and gone home to Maryland, where they de- 
manded that he take the oath of allegiance, which 
he would not do. and that he was now on his way 
to join Johnston's army in North Carolina. 

" Of course, in that case, I will do what I can 
for him," said the farmer, who had entertained 
some suspicious that they were not what they pre- 
tended to be. 

This handsome stranger had very little to say. 
He spent most of his time alone, or with Mr. 
Garrett's son William, who had been a Confeder- 
ate soldier. He talked most with the children, and 
esjjeciall}' a little three-year-old girl, of whom he 
became very fond, and called his little blue -eyed 
pet. For hours he would lie on the grass in the 
yard alone and speak with no one. While pla}-- 
ing with some of the younger children on the grass, 
a little girl saw on his arm the tattooed initials 
"J. W. B." 
27 



418 UNION. 

" What are those letters for?" she asked. 

" Why, child, those are the initials of my name, 
— James W. Boyd. " 

This was the name by which Captain Jett had 
introduced him. Mr. Boyd claimed to be from 
Baltimore, and stated that he was there when the 
Massachusetts troops were attacked. When he 
came to the Garrett house, he had a very rude pair 
of crutches; but William Garrett, who had been 
wounded in the Confederate arm}', and still had a 
fine pair of crutches, gave them to him. William 
Garrett also had a Confederate uniform, which the 
pretended Mr. Boyd wanted, and agreed to ex- 
change with him. 

" I am going back into the army and need youv 
uniform; and 3^ou are going to be a citizen and 
need my citizen's clothes," he argued. 

It was well for Mr. Garrett that the exchange 
was not made. 

There was nothing whatever in the man's manner 
that would lead one to suspect that he was the terri- 
ble criminal he afterward proved to be. Tiie first 
night he was at the Garrett house, he slept in the 
same room with Jack and William Garrett. The 
next day, he was with William Garrett most of 
the day, without arousing his suspicions. William 
had a pistol, and they went to shoot at a mark. 
The stranger claimed to be an excellent marksman, 



CONCLUSION. 419 

and said that he could fire five balls in succession 
through a knot-hole in the gate some two inches 
in diameter. Taking a position about two rods 
off, he fired all five shots and, leaning on his 
crutches, sent William to ascertain the result. As 
he could find no mark of the bullets on the gate, 
Boyd insisted that they had all gone through the 
knot-hole in the gate. When they came to reload 
the pistol, however, they found all the five bullets 
still in it, and he laughed as heartily as any at the 
mishap. 

One day, while the family were at dinner. Jack 
Garrett, who had been to town, brought a paper 
in, saying: 

" President Lincoln has been shot, and they have 
offered one hundred thousand dollars for the man 
who did it. " 

"Gracious! don't I wish he would come this 
way, and I could capture him!" said William. 

The lame stranger turned his melancholy eyes 
upon him, and asked: 

" Would you betray him for one hundred thou- 
sand dollars if you could?" 

" I would, indeed. One hundred thousand dol- 
lars is a great lot of money. " 

The stranger turned away and became thought- 
ful, and had very little to say after that. Some 
time after that, the man called Harold came from 



420 UNION. 

Bowling Green, and he and Boyd were seen talk- 
ing together for a long time. This was the first 
time that Mr. Garrett had his suspicions fully 
aroused. On the way back from the woods, they 
paused near the fence and held a long con vei'sation. 
Then Boyd came to the house and was standing on 
the porch in his shirt-sleeves, when some soldiers 
passed down the road toward Bowling Green. He 
seemed very uneasy, and Mr. Garrett said to him: 

" You seem very much excited. Have you been 
doing anything that makes you afraid of soldiers? 
K you have, you will have to find some other place 
to stay than here. " 

" Oh, no," he quickly replied. " I did get into 
a little difficulty over in Maryland, and one man I 
believe was killed ; but it was nothing with which 
the soldiers could possibly have anything todo. " 
Shortly after this, he and Harold again went off into 
the wood and did not come back until nearly night. 

Meanwhile, Mr. Garrett and his two sons had 
discussed the matter well, and finally decided that 
the two men must be members of Mosby's gang, 
and that their object probably was to steal horses. 
On their return, Mr. Garrett informed them that 
they could not sleep in the house. 

" Why can't we sleep in the house?" the lame 
man asked. This man, as the reader supposes, 
was none other than John Wilkes Booth. " If 



CONCLUSION. 421 

you will not let us sleep in the house, let us sleep 
under the house. " 

" That would not do, for the dogs would get 
after you. " 

" Let us go into one of the outbuildings, then," 
plead the lame man. To this Mr. Garrett finally 
consented, and they went into the barn, which was 
filled on one side with corn-blade fodder, the other 
side containing a lot of farming utensils and fur- 
niture belonging to refugees from Front Royal. 
After they went to the barn, William Garrett, still 
fearing they might be horse thieves, went out and 
locked the door with a padlock on the outside, so 
they could not get out without making a noise; 
but on returning to the house he was still not sat- 
isfied, and told his brother Jack they would take 
their pistols and go and sleep in the corn crib near 
the barn, that they might be ready to prevent any 
attempt to steal their horses. 

About two o'clock in the morning, they jvere 
awakened by a terrible commotion at the house, 
and both Jack and William ran to see what was 
the trouble. They found their father in his night 
clothes in the custody of the soldiers, who threat- 
ened to kill him if he did not reveal the where- 
abouts of the two men. Jack Garrett, coming up, 
said: 

" I will show you where the two men are, " and 



432 UNION. 

the officers released Mr. Garrett and took his two 
sons into custody. "The men are in the barn," 
Jack added. 

" Show us the way," commanded the officer, and 
a moment later the soldiers had surrounded the 
barn, while Jack and William were kept under ar- 
rest. One of the detectives called the name of 
Booth and demanded his surrender, and, unlocking 
the door, pushed Jack Garrett in, with orders for 
him to go and tell the others to come out. Jack 
Garrett, trembling with dread, approached the point 
where Booth was lying on the corn blades and said : 

" The sohliers are here after you, and they want 
you to surrender. If you don't come out, they 
threaten to bum the barn and destroy our property. " 

" Get out of here, 3'ouiig man, or I will take 
your life," Booth whispered, desperately. "You 
have betrayed me. " 

Jack Garrett tried to convince him of the folly 
of resistance and appealed to Booth to prevent the 
destruction of property. Booth grew violent, 
threatened to kill him, and Jack came out and told 
the officer that he would not surrender. The offi- 
cer then placed the Garrett brothers a short distance 
from the barn and set a light directly in front of 
them. Two men were placed to guard them with 
instructions to kill them at the first shot Booth or 
his companion fired at any of the soldiers. 



CONCLUSION. 423 

Booth, who had been watching the proceeding 
through a crack in the barn, on hearing the order 
of the officer, shouted at the top of his voice: 

" That is unfair ; those men are innocent. These 
people do not know who I am. " 

The officer revoked the order he had given, and 
Colonel Conger, one of the detectives, ordered 
William to pile dry brush against the corner of the 
barn, so that it could be fired. He had commenced 
doing this, when Booth called to him: 

" Young man, you had better stop that. If you 
put any more against that place, I will shoot you. " 

Colonel Conger then ordered William to stop, 
and Lieutenant Baker began a parley for the sur- 
render of the fugitives. Booth was determined 
from the first that he would not be taken alive, 
and he so informed Lieutenant Baker. Harold, 
however, wanted to give himself up, and Booth, 
after calling him an arrant coward, virtually drove 
him out of the barn into the hands of the officers. 
Another long parley between Baker and Booth en- 
sued, during which Booth begged the officer to 
draw his men ofi' fifty yards, then twenty-five 
yards, and at last came down to ten yards, and 
give him a chance for his life. 

"Be fair, captain," said Booth, coolly — "be 
fair and give me a show for my life. I could have 
killed you a dozen times to-night; but I took you 



. 424 UNION. 

to be a brave man. Now give me a chance for 
my life." 

" You must surrender, " replied Baker. " We 
came to take you prisoner, not to kill you." 

"I will never be taken alive," retorted Booth. 
" You may make up your mind I will light to the 
death." 

Hardly had the last words died upon his lips, 
before a blaze shot up among the dry fodder. 
Colonel Conger had, during the talk, slipped around 
to the back of the barn and, lighting a handful of 
dry straw, had passed it through a crack in the 
boards and fired the building. The combustible 
material inside the barn burned like tinder, and in 
a moment the whole inside of the building was a 
blaze of light, and in the middle Booth was seen 
leaning on his crutches, with his carbine in his 
hands, trying to get a shot at his enemies. He 
could not see beyond the light which surrounded 
him, while those outside could see plainly. At 
last when the fire was fast approaching him, he 
started for the door as if about to take his last des- 
perate chance for life. He had only advanced a 
step or two, when Boston Corbett, a sergeant, got 
an aim at him through a crack. There was a sharp 
report, and Booth dropped his crutches and fell, 
shot through the neck. 

Lieutenant Baker and William Garrett ran into 




BOOTU WAS SEEN LEANING ON HIS CRUTCHES 

ENEMIES. 



TRYING TO GET A SHOT AT HIS 



CONCLUSION. 425 

the burning building and carried him to the house 
and laid him on the porch with his head toward 
the door. He made several efforts to speak ; but 
only inarticulate gurgling sounds issued from his 
wounded throat. They tried to place him on a 
mattress ; but he would not let them ; nor would 
he allow them to put a pillow under his head. He 
was suffering such intolerable agony, that to move 
him was torture. He could utter but few words 
for the wound was in his throat. 

" Tell mother," he began, and then the detective 
who bent his ear close to his lips heard him add, 
" that I died for my country. " 

The detectives would allow no one to come near 
him, for they wanted all the secrets he had to re- 
veal. They were constantly bending over him, to 
catch any word he might utter. When they wanted 
anything they ordered the Garrett girls, who pale 
and horrified stood on the porch gazing on the 
scene, to bring it to them. Pieces of cloth saturated 
with brandy were frequently held to Booth's lips, 
and he sucked it eagerly. This seemed to revive 
him for the time being; but he was of course grow- 
ing weaker all the while. An eye-witness to the 
scene said : 

" I can never forget the sad scenes of that night. 
They fixed themselves indelibly upon my mind. 
I remained around during all the bustle that at- 



426 UNION. 

tended tbe affair and looked on, little realizing the 
meaning of what was passing. Booth died just as 
the sun came up." 

This is the history of America's greatest assas- 
sination. What inspired John Wilkes Booth to 
kill the great and good man, just as he was bring- 
ing the nation from turmoil, war and bloodshed to 
peace, is a mystery to this day. Booth had never 
been active in politics and certainly was derange'd. 
His was not a family of warriors or desperadoes, 
but scholars. No one had ever before deemed 
him capable of a desperate or cruel act. His 
brother Edwin Booth lived to be one of the world's 
greatest Shakespearian exponents. Undoubtedly 
the shadow of the great historic crime that insep- 
arably connected the name of Booth with that of 
Lincoln lay, throughout all his subsequent life, 
upon the melancholy spirit of Edwin Booth, who 
died this year (1893), and in the same year, al- 
most at the same time. Ford's Theatre, in which 
the tragedy occurred, and which had since been 
used by the government as a national museum, fell 
and buried a number of employees in its ruins. 

There has never been known such a funeral on 
this continent as that of the martyr president. 
His body was taken iu solemn procession to his 
home in Springfield, Illinois, by way of Baltimore, 
Philadelphia, New York, Albany and western 



CONCLUSION. 427 

cities, everywhere receiving tokens of respect and 
grief. Funeral honors were displayed in many 
cities of the land. 

OnthelSth of April, General Sherman arranged 
the preliminaries for the surrender of all the re- 
maining Confederate forces under General John- 
ston, commanding the southern army in North Caro- 
lina, with the consent of the Confederate secretary 
of war and President Davis. This included the 
basis of a general peace, and a policy of reconstruc- 
tion ; but the Federal government rejected the prop- 
osition and ordered hostilities to be resumed. On 
the 26th of April, Johnston finally surrendered. 

Nearly all the armed Confederates had now sur- 
rendered. General Kirby Smith and a few men 
leading the lives of guerillas rather than soldiers 
were still at large. Jeff Davis at last lost all hope 
and began his flight across Georgia, doubtless in- 
tending to make his way to Mexico. On the 10th 
of May, he was captured in Georgia. On the 26th 
of the same month, General Kirbv Smith, the last 
leader of a military organization, surrendered his 
command, and the last shadow of war passed awa}', 
leaving the glorious Union stronger and more firmly 
cemented than ever before, and so, let us hope, it 
will remain until time shall be no more. 

We must not end this volume without personal 
mention of some of the characters in the storv, in 



428 UNION. 

which the reader may have some interest. Not- 
withstanding Dick Stevens failed to build vip a great 
southern empire, Miss Lorena Lancaster, the Eng- 
lish beauty, kept her promise, and a year after the 
war closed she became his wife, and they to-day 
form one of the happiest families in Charleston. 
Nearly all our southern friends came out of the 
war financial wrecks ; but they went to work with 
a hearty good will, building up the devastated 
country, and it is hoped that the South will soon 
reach its former power and glory, and even surpass 
it. They have learned a sad lesson ; — let us forgive 
them, take them by the hand, call them brothers, 
and remember their wrongs no more. 

Alec Stevens fared better than most of his south- 
ern relatives. His father's plantation suffered 
little, save, as Alec puts it, " in the loss of a hun- 
dred worthless niggers." Alec got over his love 
affair with Elsie Cole, when he learned that all the 
time she had been the wife of another. He soon 
made another discovery which was very important 
to his future happiness. It was that his cousin 
Clara was a very sweet, amiable girl, and that she 
was very kind to him, even though he had turned 
Yankee. He found tljat he could talk to her with- 
out " feeling just like a fool, " and the upshot of the 
whole thing was, he and Clara were married shortly 
after her brother Dick brought home his wife from 



CONCLUSION. 429 

England. Colonel Cole survived tlie war but a 
^iew mouths, and his son Charles, after vainly try- 
ing to resurrect the lost fortune of his parents, 
went to California, where he has been extensively 
and profitably engaged in fruit growing. 

Bill Simms lives at Eising Sun, Indiana, and is 
regarded as the champion liar of the town. He 
draws a pension of twenty-two dollars per month, 
quite sufficient for his modest wants. He is a 
member of the " G. A. R. " and spends most of his 
time around Grand Army headquarters, or the 
offices of examining boards, telling stories of the 
war and " trying for an increase. " One, to hear 
Bill and put any confidence in one-half he says, 
need not be surprised that victory should perch on 
the banners of Grant and Sherman, so long as they 
hud Bill Simms with them. And they would be 
at a loss to tell what those generals would have 
done, if Bill Simms had not been along. 

In Boone County, Kentucky, near the old orig- 
inal Stevens homestead, lives Major Mark Stevens, 
now past the meridian of life. He is happy with 
his children and grandchildren about him, while 
his wife, once known as the " Peerless Elsie of 
Charleston, " seems to still possess a matured beauty, 
to him more lovely than when she outshone the 
splendor of the southern sun. The major is not 
rich, but "well-to-do in the world." He often 



430 UNION. 

looks back over the past twelve generations of the 
Stevens family, to the time when his first ancestor, 
Hernando Estevan, touched the western continent 
with Columbus. By stories of their forefathers for 
the last four hundred years, in establishing this 
great republic, he tries to inspire his children and 
grandchildren with a love for this land of the free 
and home of the brave, which should be dear to 
every American, whether native or adopted, and 
which we trust may forever remain one, complete 
and indissoluble Union. 



APPENDIX. 



II 



CHAPTER I. 

ANDREW JOHXSON AND THE RECONSTRUCTION. 

At no time during the great struggle of our coun- 
try was Abraham Lincoln more needed than at his 
death. After the conflict of arms came the conflict 
of reorganization, and the same hand that had steered 
the ship of state safely through the dangerous reefs 
was now needed to land her in port. Six hours after 
the death of President Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, 
his constitutional successor, took the oath of office as 
president of the United States, which was adminis- 
tered by Chief Justice Chase. 

It was believed by many, that the assassination of 
President Lincoln, was only part of a plan, in which 
the murder of the cabinet ministers and i^rominent 
Republicans was contemplated. Jefferson Davis and 
many prominent southern people were thought to be 
in the plot, and large rewards were offered for them ; 
but there was never any evidence implicating the chief 
rebel or any of his officials. It seems to have been 
only a plot concocted by a few fanatical, maddened 
and disappointed southerners about Washington. 

After the terrible convulsions produced by the civil 
war, by which a deep-rooted social system had been 
overthrown, by the euactment, early in 1865, of the 
XIII Amendment to the national constitution, the 
country was far from gliding at once into that peace 
28 433 



434 UNION. 

and trauquillity, which was so much desired. The 
XIII Amendment was as follows: 

" Section I. Neither slavery nor involuntary ser- 
vitude, except as punishment for crimes, whereof the 
party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist with- 
in the United States, or any place subject to their 
jurisdiction. 

"Section II. Congress shall have power to enforce 
this article by appropriate legislation." 

The slave was free; now what was going to be done 
with him? That was a serious question in that day. 
It is a serious question at this day. The leaders of 
the Eepublican party were eager to have the black 
become a citizen of the United States with all tiie 
rights and j^rivileges of any white man. The Dem- 
ocrats claimed that their pretended symjDathy for the 
negro was only to get his vote, to perjDetuate that 
party in power. Thus the unfortunate black man 
has been a bone of contention, muclito his detriment, 
between the two great political parties ever since he 
became a political factor. 

President Johnson took a preliminary step toward 
reorganization, on April 29, 1865, when he jDro- 
claimed the removal of restrictions on commercial in- 
tercourse between all the States. A month later he 
issued a proclamation stating the terms by which the 
people of the late seceded States, with specified excep- 
tions, might receive full amnesty and pardon, and be 
reinvested with the right to exercise the functions of 
citizenship, supposed to have been destroyed by par- 
ticipation in the insurrection. This was followed by 
the appointment of provisional governors for seven of 
those States Avhich had formed tlie original fabric 
known as the "Confederate States of America," 
clothed with authority to assemble citizens in con- 



APPENDIX. 



435 



ventioii, who had taken the amnest}' oath with power 
to reorganize State governments, and secure the elec- 
tion of representatives in the national congress. 

When Andrew Johnson was inaugurated president, 
there were painful apprehensions among men who 
knew hira intimately, that he would not act with the 
j)arty in power. He was from 
Tennessee and was strongly sus- 
pected of Democratic proclivities, 
which at this time were rejiugnant 
to the Republicans. His nomi- 
nation and election on the ticket 
with President Lincolu, has 
proved the folly of political 
comjoromises. The Republicans 
claimed that they had put down 
the rebellion, and that they should 
have the reorganization. A pilot 
was needed at the helm, possessed 
of a combination of moral and in- 
tellectual forces of a rare order, 
strong and unswerving convic- 
tions, sobriety of conduct, firm- 
ness of will, a thorough knowledge 
of men, an accurate and impartial judgment, a will- 
ingness to take counsel, a clear perception of righteous- 
ness, and all the acuteness of a true statesman. 

Much as historians and politicians have attempted 
to mask the cause of the quarrel between Johnson and 
his Republican cabinet and congress, it arose on the 
very subject it might have been expected to rise, " the 
enfranchisement of the negro. " Johnson was a south- 
ern man with all the prejudices and instincts of a 
southerner. Although of humble parentage, by his 
own indomitable will and energy, he had worked his 
way up, until he now occupied the chief place in the 




Andrew Johnson. 



436 UNIOX. 

nation. He was loyal to his government in its hour 
of peril ; but he could not bring himself to believe in 
the doctrine of enfranchisement of the negro. ]S'ot 
onl}' did it smack of the " doctrine of equality," offen- 
sive to every southern man, but he seriously doubted 
the propriety of placing the ballot in the hands of a 
horde of ignorant blacks who must become the tools 
of scheming politicians. The Republican party, 
partly from a sense of right to men made citizens of 
the United States, and partly from hope of perpetuat- 
ing their party in power, held that now that the slave 
was free, he should be made a citizen. Johnson, 
driven to extremes, proposed to make intelligence the 
test, to grant every negro capable of reading the 
Amendment that made him free, or who owned a cer- 
tain amount of property, the right to vote. This did 
not answer the purpose of the opposition, who knew 
that there were perhaps not a dozen negroes in Mis- 
sissippi who could read or write. The negro problem 
was far from being solved, and wise and patriotic men 
began to seriously consider the matter. Of course 
the colored vote of the South far exceeded the white 
vote, and many thinking men, regardless of party, to- 
day doubt the propriety of turning the government 
of those southern States over to that mass of unintel- 
ligent beings. 

The quarrel between Johnson and the liepulMican 
party grew more and more acrimonious. The })resi- 
dent was charged with being more friendly to the hite 
enemies of his country than its defenders. As in all 
quarrels, both parties were to blame. Johnson was 
stubborn and unwilling to take advice from any one. 
The Republicans ])elieved that the enfrnnchisement 
of the negroes would give them the " Solid South." 
They did not understand the negro, or they would 
have seen that, as a political factor, he would be more 



APPENDIX. 437 

likely to turn against them, than act with them. The 
negro does not live for the past, nor the future, but 
for the present. The result is that the Eepublicans 
were surprised and disappointed in him, though 
hardly willing eveu to this day to admit it. 

The cpiarrel between the Republicans and Johnson 
became more and more earnest. People looked with 
great anxiety to the assembling of congress, hoping 
for some relief from the impending danger. 

The 39th Congress assembled December 4, 18G5, 
and took up, among the first orders of business, the 
subject of reorganization. On the first day of the 
session, congress agreed by a joint resolution to appoint 
a joint committee to be composed of nine members of 
the house and six of the senate, to " inquire into the 
condition of the States which formed the so-called 
Confederate States of America, and report tliose en- 
titled to be represented in either house of congress, 
with leave to report at any time by bill or otherwise ; 
and until such report shall have been made and finally 
acted upon by congress, no member shall be received 
in either house from the so-called Confederate States, 
and all papers relating to the representatives of the 
States shall be referred to said committee." This 
body was known as the " Reconstruction Committee." 

This act of congress was a virtual condemnation of 
the action of the president. It was an interference 
of the representatives of the people with his policy of 
reorganization, and he was highly olfended. His 
opposition to the legislative branch soon became open 
and active. In his public addresses, he displayed, 
in a most unguarded way, his antipathy to the legis- 
lative branch of the government. He exercised the 
veto power as no other man save Grover Cleveland 
has done. In February, 1800, he vetoed an act for 
enlarging the operations of the Freedmen's Bureau, 



438 UNION. 

which had been established for the relief of freed ref- 
ugees, and for the cultivation of abandoned lands. 
In March, he vetoed an act known as the Civil Rights 
Law, which was intended to secure to all citizens, 
without regard to color or previous condition of ser- 
vitude, equal rights in the republic. These acts be- 
came law by the constitutional two-thirds vote of both 
houses. The president was soon involved in a bitter 
quarrel with his cabinet, and all resigned save Ed- 
ward Stanton, secretary of war. He wns urged to re- 
main, and, by doing so, became an object of the 
president's bitter hatred. 

Notwithstanding the quarrel between congress and 
the president, the work of reorganization went on; 
and on the 29th of July, after a long and laborious 
session, congress adjourned. The president had by 
proclamation on April 2d, formally declared the civil 
war at an end. The first fruits of the congressional 
plan of reorganization were seen in the restoration of 
the State of Tennessee to the Union, six days before 
the adjournment of congiess. 

Meanwhile, notable events in the foreign relations 
of the government had occurred. The emperor of 
France had been informed by Secretary Seward that 
the continuation of French troops in Mexico was not 
agreeable to the United States; and on April 5, ISOd, 
Napoleon's minister for foreign affairs gave assurance 
to our government that those troops should be with- 
drawn within a specified time. This was done; and 
the Grand Duke ^[aximilian of x\ustria, whom Louis 
Na]ioleon had, by military power, placed on the throne 
in the neighboring republic, with the title of emperor 
of Mexico, was deserted by the perfidious ruler of 
France. The deceived and betrayed Maximilian, 
after a struggle against the native republican govern- 
ment for awhile, was captured at Qneretero and shot, 



APPENDIX. 439 

and liis loving wife, Curlotta, overwhelmed bv her 
misfortune and grief, became hopelessly insane. Such 
was the sorrowful ending of one of the schemes of 
the emperor of France for the gratification of his am- 
bition. He had longed to aid the Confederates, with 
a hope that the severance of our Union would give 
him an opportunity to successfully defy the " Monroe 
Doctrine," and extend the dominion of the Latin 
race on the American continent, as well as monarchi- 
cal institutions. It is thought by well-informed his- 
torians, that Louis Napoleon picked a quarrel with 
Mexico, solely to seize that weak country, and have 
the soldiers on the frontier ready to aid the southern 
Confederacy; but the quarrel and seizure of ]\Iexico 
came too late. Already the war of the rebellion was 
waning, and it was ended before he could render any 
effective aid. 

There is no doubt that the English ministry was 
anxious to render service to the cause of the Confed- 
eracy. In fact, our country has never had a foreign 
or domestic quarrel, in which Great Britain did not 
openly or secretly espouse the other cause. The Brit- 
ish government not only desired to aid the Confeder- 
acy, but did so, until the enormous reserve power of 
the United States alarmed them, when they aban- 
doned the insurgents, whom they had deceived with 
false promises, and sneeringly called their ]iolitical 
organization the " so-called Confederate States of 
America. " Notwithstanding this faithlessness to their 
traditions and fairly implied, if not absolutely stated, 
treaty stipulations on the part of tlie rulers of Great 
Britain, our government was faithful to them all. 
When, in 1866, a military organization of Irish resi- 
dents in our country, known as the Fenian Brother- 
hood, associated for the avowed purpose of freeing 
Ireland from British domination, in May and June, 



440 UNION. 

for a formidable invasion of the neighboring British 
province of Canada, the United States Government, 
instead of investing them with " belligerent rights," 
was true to its pledges to Great Britain concerning 
neutrality laws, interfered and suppressed the warlike 
movement. Though these are events of the past and 
should not be cherished in hatred, we would be foolish 
to forget what may be to our interest to remember, in 
order to guide our footsteps aright in the future. 
There is no reason why Great Britain and the United 
States, both people of the same language and nation- 
ality, should not be friendly. They are of one com- 
mon ancestry, and save the political ditfereucein their 
governments, there is little difference in their tastes 
and desires. It is gratifying to note that, in 1866, 
a peaceful bond of union was formed between the two 
countries, by the successful establishment of perma- 
nent telegraphic communication between the two 
countries. 

On May 15, 1866, the ];)resident vetoed a bill ad- 
mitting Colorado. On the 2i»th of this month, Gen- 
eral Winfield Scott, the hero of two wars, died at 
West Point, Xew York. 

Trouble between the white and colored races in the 
South began soon after the Avar, aud continues yet. 
It was no more than might have been expected when 
the negro was made apolitical factor. On July 30th, 
there was a great riot in New Orleans, in which many 
colored people were killed. 

On December 14, 1866, congress passed a bill grant- 
ing the elective franchise in the District of Columbia 
to persons " without any distinction on account of 
color or race." The president vetoed the bill, on the 
7th of January, 1867, when it was immediately passed 
by the constitutional majority of both houses in its 
favor. 



APPENDIX. 441 

On the same da}", Mr. Ashley of Ohio, ai'ose in his 
place, and charged " Andrew Johnson, Vice president 
and acting-president of the United States, with the 
commission of acts, which, in the estimation of the 
constitution, are high crimes and misdemeanors, for 
which he ought to be impeached." He arraigned 
the president on the following charges: (1) In that 
he has corruptly used the appointing power; (2) in 
that he has corru^itly nseil the pardoning power; (3) 
in that he has corruptly used the veto power; (4) in 
that he has corruptly disjiosed of public property of 
the United States; and (5) in that he has corruptly 
interfered in elections, and committed acts which, 
in the contemplation of the constitution, are high 
crimes and misdemeanors. Mr. Ashley also olfered a 
resolution, instructing the committee on the Judiciary 
to make inquiries on the subject. This resolution 
was adopted, and Avas the first move in the impeach- 
ment of Andrew Johnson, president of the United 
States, which terminated in his trial in 18G8. On 
March 1, 18U7, Xebraska was admitted as a State. 

An act was passed for limiting the authority of the 
president in making official ap})ointments and in re- 
moval from office. Among otiier provisions, was one 
to deprive him of the power to remove a member of 
the cabinet without permission of the senate, declar- 
ing they should hold office for and during the term 
of the president by whom they had been appointed, 
and for one month thereafter, subject to removal by 
and with the consent of the senate. This law, known 
as the "Tenure of Office Act," was vetoed by the 
president, when it was passed over his veto by a large 
majority. The fight between the legislative and the ex- 
ecutive powers of the government from this on became 
doubly acrimonious. Congress passed laws depriv- 
ing him of the power to grant amnesty and pardon to 



443 UNION. 

those who had been eugaged in the great rebellion, 
for a military government in the disorganized States, 
which were divided into five districts: 1st, Virginia, 
2d, North and South Carolina, 3d, Georgia and Ala- 
bama, 4th, Mississippi and Arkansas, and 5th, Lou- 
isiana and Texas. 

The thirty-ninth congress closed its session at mid- 
day, March 4, 18(J7, and twelve hours after, the first 
session of the fortieth congress was begun. The fight 
between the president and the new congress was not 
one whit less bitter. Both were petulant, aggressive 
and foolish. A hundred side issues became iuvolved, 
so that the main subject of dispute was almost hidden. 
Johnson was charged with seeking to destroy the gov- 
ernment. This charge was as foolish as it was false. 
He had been loyal to the Uuion during the war of 
the rebellion, and no sane man, looking at the matter 
with unprejudiced eyes, can for a moment believe 
that he ever harbored such an idea. He wislied to 
forgive the southern people at once and take theui 
back as "erring brothers." Perhaps he had his own 
political schemes as well as his Republican opponents. 
They wished to enfranchise the negro to perpetuate 
their party in power. He wished to issue a general 
amnesty to the late Confederates, in order that they 
might have an opportunity to aid the Democratic 
party. 

The " Tenure of Ofiice Act" was a slur on Johnson, 
and congress seemed determined to strip him of offi- 
cial power. In violation of the act, he removed the 
secretary of war, Mr. Stanton, and put General Grant 
in his place. Johnson's personal friends were amazed 
at this and declared that he had gone too far. At 
the second session of the fortieth congress, the strife 
showed no signs of abating. Tlie president's annual 
message was so offensive in tone and temper, that, 



APPENDIX. 443 

when the usual resolution was offered in the senate to 
print it, Mr. Sumner took fire and vehemently de- 
nounced it as a "libel and insult to congress." Wiser 
and less impulsive counsel prevailed, and, while "the 
tone and temper and doctrines of the message" were 
decidedly condemned, 'it was thought best to print it. 

On December 5, 1867, the judiciary committee 
offered the following resolution: 

" Resolved, That Andrew Johnson, president of the 
United States, be impeached of high crimes and mis- 
demeanors." After a long debate, the resolution was 
rejected by a decided majority. 

A week later, the president sent to congress a mes- 
sage, in which he gave his reasons for removing the 
secretary of war, whicli not being satisfactory, the 
senate reinstated Stanton, January 13, 1868, and 
General Grant retired from the office. The strife was 
far from being over, for, on February 21st, Mr. John- 
son issued an order directing Mr. Stanton to vacate 
the office of secretary of wjir, also another order to 
Adjutant-General Lorenzo B. Thomas to enter and 
take the place of the deposed secretary. Mr. Stanton 
refused to be deposed in this manner, and congress 
Avas driven to a frenzy. On the following day, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1868, the house of representatives, by an 
almost strictly party vote of 12(5 to 47, " Resolved, 
That Andrew Johnson, president of the United States, 
be impeached of high crimes and misdemeanors." 

The charges against liini were, (1) unlawfully or- 
dering the removal of Mr. Stanton as secretary of 
war, in violation of the provisions of the " Tenure of 
Office Act;" (2) unlawfully appointing General Lo- 
renzo B. Thomas as secretary of war ad interim; (3) 
substantially the same as the second charge, with the 
additional declaration that there was, at the time of 
the appointment of General Thomas, no vacancy in 



444 UNION. 

the office of secretary of war; (4) conspiring with 
Lorenzo B. Thomas and other persons to the House 
unknown, to prevent, by intimidation and tlireats, 
Mr. Stanton, the legally appointed secretary of war, 
from holding his office; (5) conspiring with (xeneral 
Thomas and others to hiiider the execution of the 
■Tenure of Office Act, and, in pursuance of this con- 
spiracy, attempting to prevent Mr. Stanton from act- 
ing as secretary of war; (6) conspiring with (General 
Thomas and others to take forcible possession of the 
war department; (7) and (8) substantially charged 
conspiring to prevent the execution of the Tenure of 
Office Act, and for taking possession of the war de- 
partment; (?) charged that the president called be- 
fore him the commander of the forces of Washington 
and declared to him that a law, passed the 30th of 
June, 18t)7, directing that " all orders and instruc- 
tions relating to the military operations, issued by 
the president or secretary of war, shall be issued by 
the general of the army, and, in case of his inalnlity, 
through the next in rank," was unconstitutional and 
not binding on the commander of the department at 
Washington, the intent being to induce the com- 
mander to violate the law and to obey the orders issued 
by the president directly. 

For the impeachment and prosecution of the presi- 
dent of the United States, the house of representatives 
appointed the following managers: Thaddeus Stevens 
of Pennsylvania, Benjamin F. Butler of Massachu- 
setts, John A. Bingham of Ohio, George S. Boutwell 
of Massachusetts, James F. Wilson of Iowa, Thomas 
Williams of Pennsylvania, and John A. Logan of 
Illinois. 

Two additional charges were adopted against the 
president, on March o, 18(iS. Tlie hrst charged him 
with making inflammatory speeches, during a jour- 



APPENDIX. ■ 445 

ney lie made through the country. The second that 
the president had in August, ISGfi, in a public speech 
in \Vashiugton, declared that congress was not a body 
authorized by the constitution to exercise legislative 
powers. The Democratic members of the house, 
forty-live in number, entered a formal protest to the 
whole proceeding. This makes the impeachment of 
Andrew Johnson purely a partisan measure, and it 
was wholly unworthy patriotic Americans, acting in 
their cool, sober senses. Johnson had not the power 
to check the fiery, impetuous course of tlie politicians, 
flushed with victory over the South, as Lincoln could 
have done, had he lived, and as he did do during his 
administration. 

The United States senate was organized into a high 
court of impeachment, with Chief Justice Salmon P. 
Chase as president, and on March 30th, the trial be- 
gan. The details of that trial are too long for this 
volume. It continued until May 25th, when the 
president was acquitted. Secretary Stanton left the 
cabinet, and General John ]M. Schofield wasapjiointed 
secretary of war in his })lace. 

North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, having ratified the 
amendments, and having, by the adoption of a State 
constitution, approved by congress and by the election 
of national senators and representatives, complied 
with prescri])tions of congress, took their places as 
revived States of the Union. The perfect reorgani- 
zation was not ett'ected until the spring of 1872, when, 
on the2;kl of May, the remaining States having taken 
their places with their sisters, every seat in congress 
was filled, for the first time since the winter of 18GL 

In the Summer of 18G8, General U. S. Grant and 
Schuyler Colfax were nomiiuited for president and 
vice-president of the United States on the Republi- 



446 UNION. 

cn,n ticket, and Horatio Seymour of New York and 
General Frank P. Blair of Missouri, for president 
and vice-president on the Democratic ticket. The 
election resulted favorably to Grant and Colfax. 

Daring the year 1868, there was considerable trouble 
with Indians on the frontier. It was at this time 
that General Sherman is accused of saying, " Tliere 
is no good Indian, but the dead Indian." The ex- 
pression is consistent with a soldier whose trade is 
blood; but to a humane man and a Christian, it is 
wholly repugnant. Besides, the statement was in 
contradiction of facts. Missionaries and educators 
among the Indians have proved that there are many 
good Indians. In his report in 1S75, Commissioner 
E. P. Smith says: 

" The civilization of the Indian is not only entirely 
possible, but is fairly under way." He reported that 
out of the entire Indian population within the do- 
main of the United States. (278,003 souls), 40,(;38 
men and boys supported themselves by the labor of 
their own hands. About one-sixth of the barbarian 
population in our republic had become producers. 
"Five years ago," said the Commissioner, "10, .329 
Indian families were living in houses. This year 
shows i9,i)02; again of 92 percent." He also re- 
ported that the number of children attending school 
was 10,000. The increase has been very satisfactory 
since, and the red man, under honest treatment, and 
in the light of Christian development, will soon be- 
come a respected and valuable citizen. 

February 26, 1869, the following resolution, as 
the fifteenth amendment, passed both houses: 

"Section I. — The right of citizens of the United 
States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the 
United States, or by any other State, on account of 
race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 



APPENDIX. 447 

" Sectiost II. — The congress, by appropriate legis- 
lation, ma}' enforce the provisions of this article." 

The tnrbulent administration of Andrew Johnson 
came to an end March 4, 18G9. On the day he re- 
tired, he issned a long address to the people of the 
United States in vindication of his conduct. It is 
too soon yet to say Just how much Johnson and the 
Keiiublicans were to blame, or to fasten the blame on 
either. The whole contest was a political battle over 
partisan issues, and though it did not appear in the 
impeachment at all, the great question between John- 
son and Congress v;as extending the elective franchise 
to the negroes. The Republicans won, and it is doubt- 
ful if the whites or the blacks are any better off for 
it, and certain it is, the Republicans were losers in 
the game. 



CHAPTER II. 

grant's two administrations— "ALABAMA" CLAIM 
— TROUBLE WITH SPAIN — COKRUPTION OF OFFI- 
CIALS — THE "whiskey ring." 

Ulysses Simpson Grant was inaugurated president 
of the United States March -i, 1SG9. His cabinet 
was as follows: Hamilton Fish, secretary of state; 
George S. Boutwell, secretary of treasury; John A. 
Rawlins, secretary of war; Adolph E. Borie, secretary 
of the navy; Jacob D. Ooxe, secretary of the interior; 
A. J. Creswell, postmaster-general, and E. Rockwood 
Hoar, attorney-general. 

The beginning of President Grant's administration 
was bright with hope and promise. The only cloud 
that darkened the tirmament was the nnsettled ac- 
count for the depredations committed by the Alahaina, 
fitted out in England by tacit sanction of the British 
government. To eifect a peaceful solution of the 
problem, Reverdy Johnson of Maryland was sent to 
Enghmd, in 1868, to negotiate a treaty for that pur- 
pose. The treaty was rejected by the American sen- 
ate. Johnson was recalled, and J. Lothrop Motley 
was appointed minister to the British court, charged 
with the negotiation of another treaty for the same 
purpose; but Mr. Motley met with no greater suc- 
cess than his pr^lecessor. 

The reduction of tlie national debt over $600,000,- 
000 in the space of three years and eight months, at 
the accession of President Grant, made the outlook 
448 



APPENDIX. 



449 



encouraging. The country was prosperous. Return- 
ing soldiers, with back pay and bounties, were pur- 
chasing farms, horses and cattle, and spreading money 
all over the country. In 1864, a laAV was passed pro- 
viding for a separate bureau in the treasury depart- 
ment, the chief otticer of which was called the comp- 
troller of the currency, Avhose office is under the 
general direction of the secretary of the treasury. It 
also provided for the formation of private banking 
associations, within defined limits, to have existence 
for twenty years, the stockholders to be equally liable 
to the extent of the stock for the debts and contracts 
of the bank. Every such association was required, 
preliminary to the commence- 
ment of banking, to transfer 
bonds of the United States to an 
amount not less than $30,000, 
and not less than the capital 
stock paid in. Then the asso- 
ciation was entitled to receive 
from the comptroller of the cur- 
rency, circulating notes equal in 
amount to twenty })er cent of 
the current market value of the 
bonds transferred, but not ex- 
ceeding ninety per cent of the 
par value of such bonds. The 
government of the United States 
was thus made the basis of se- 
curity for the redemption of 
paper currency, and that circu- 
lating medium was of equal value in all parts of the 
United States. This was the formation of national 
banks, which system, in LS75, was made free, without 
any restrictions as to the amount of circulating notes 
that might be issued by the comptroller of the treas- 
:i9 




\ 
Ulysses S. Grant. 



450 UNION. 

ury. The system is condemned by certain classes and 
npheld by others. 

At an early period of Grant's administration, an 
important amendment to the national constitution 
was proposed by Mr. Julian of Indiana, for securing 
the ballot to women, in the following terms: 

"The right of suffrage in the United States: — citi- 
zens, whether native or naturalized, shall enjoy the 
right equally, without any distinction or discrimi- 
nation whatever, founded on sex." 

This never became a law. It was thought that the 
fourteenth amendment, declaring " that all persons, 
born or naturalized in the United States and subiect 
to the jurisdiction thereof (without any allusion to 
sex) are citizens of the United States and the State 
wherein they reside," clearly gave women the rights 
and privileges of citizens-. 

An important event of 1860 was the completion of 
the Pacific Railroad, thus uniting the Atlantic and 
the Pacific coasts by a band of steel. The impressive 
ceremony of laying the last" tie" and driving the last 
"spikes" took place on May 10, 1869, in a grassy val- 
ley, near the head of the great Salt Lake, in Utah. 
It was performed in the presence of many hundred 
people of various nationalities, including Indians of 
the plains. That " tie" was made of laurel wood, 
brightly polished, its ends bound with silver bands. 
The " spikes" were three in number. One of solid 
gold came from California; another of solid silver 
from Nebraska; and a third, composed of gold, sil- 
ver and iron, was furnished by the citizens of Arizona. 
That great railway crosses nine mountain ranges in 
its passage of about three thousand four hundred 
miles, between New York and San Francisco by way 
of Chicago. 

Early at the close of the war, the subject of a ship 



APPENDIX. 451 

canal across the Isthmus of Darien, to connect the 
waters of the two oceans, was brought before the 
American people, and has occupied much public at- 
tention ever since, though it has not become a reality. 
In 1871, the United States and Great Britain, having 
agreed to arbitrate the Alabaina claim, the tribunal 
for that purpose assembled at Geneva, in Switzerland, 
where Count Sclopis was chosen to preside. After 
several meetings, in September, 1872, the tribunal de- 
cided that the government of Great Britain should 
pay to the government of the United States, the sum 
of $15,500,000 in gold, to be given to citizens of the 
latter country, for losses by depredations of the Ala- 
bama and other Anglo-Gonfederate cruisers. 

On October lOtli and 12th, 1871, there occurred at 
Chicago the great fire, in which over 1300,000,000 
was lost. Many insurance companies were forced to 
make assignments. It is said that the fire originated 
from a cow kicking down a lamp. It was during 
this year that the Grand Duke Alexis of Eussia paid 
the United States a visit and made a tour through 
several States and Territories. On January 3,. 1872, 
Brigham Young, the great Mormon chief, was arrested 
for murder, being charged with complicity in the 
Mountain Meadow massacre. He was not convicted; 
but a jury found a Mormon official named Lee guilty, 
and he was afterward executed. On March 7th, three 
members of the Kuklux Klan were convicted and 
sentenced to twenty years in the penitentiary. The 
Kuklux Klan was a southern organization to prevent 
negroes from enjoying the elective franchise. 

May 3, 1872, the Liberal Republicans, in conven- 
tion at Cincinnati, nominated Horace Greeley for 
president, with B. Gratz Brown of Missouri for Vice- 
President. Mr. Greeley, the eminent editor of the 
New York Tribinie, and one of the greatest men of 



452 



UNION. 



his age, had been an earnest advocate of abolition, 
and was thought to be one of the stanchest Repub- 
licans in the nation. He was loyal and true; but 
when the Confederates surren- 
dered, he believed the war over 
and was willing to take them by 
the hand and forgive them. He 
became one of the bondsmen for 
Jefferson Davis, which made him 
repugnant with the mass of Re- 
publicans, who seemed to still 
snifp the smoke of battle. Hor- 
ace Greeley was not the political 
mountebank that he has been 
accused of being. He was a hu- 
mane man. His love of human- 
ity made slavery of the blacks 
hateful, and his love of human- 
ity revolted at the oppressive 
means suggested to humiliate 
the conquered people of the 
South. His views on the tariff 
Uvere thoroughly Republican and not far from the 
ideas held by the party to-day. 

The Republican ])arty had determined to renomi- 
nate General Grant. Though Grant had not evinced 
any brilliant statesmanship, yet he had made no seri- 
ous mistakes, and his brilliant military record made 
him popular. On June (i, 1872, he was renominated. 
William H. Seward, Lincoln's secretary of state, 
stabbed on the night of the president's assassination, 
died October 1-i, 1872. The presidential election re- 
sulted in the election of Grant and Wilson. On the 
25th of November, after the election on the 5th, 
Horace Greeley died, at the age of G2. 

On the 9th of this month a destructive fire broke 




Horace Greeley. 



APPENDIX. 453 

out in Boston, resulting in a loss of about $75,- 
000,000. 

President Grant's second term of office began March 
4, 1873. It was an intensely cold day at the national 
capital ; but the inaugural ceremonies were performed 
as usual, in open air, at the east front of the capitol. 
Chief Justice Chase administered the oath of oflfice. 
It was one of the last public acts of that distinguished 
jurist. His health had been failing for some time, 
in consequence of a paralytic stroke in 1872, and he 
died two months after the imposing ceremonies. 
President Grant's second cabinet was as follows: 
Hamilton Fish, secretary of state; William A. Eich- 
ardson, secretary of the treasury; William W. Bel- 
knap, secretary of war; George A. Robeson, secretary 
of the navy; Columbus Delano, secretary of the in- 
terior; John A. J. Creswell, postmaster-general. 
Changes in the personnel of the cabinet afterward took 
place, and only Mr. Fish remained in General Grant's 
cabinet during the eight years of his administration. 

At the close of the third session of the forty-second 
congress, which closed March 4, 1873, at noon, there 
was rushed through the infamous salary-grab bill. 
Had this law been enacted prior to the presidential 
election, it would have materially aided Horace Gree- 
ley. By this law, the president's salary was raised from 
125,000 a year to $50,000 a year, payable in monthly 
instalments. The salary of the vice-president was 
fixed at $10,000; chief justice of the supreme court, 
$10,500, and the associate justices at $10,000 each; 
the heads of the several departments, attorney-general 
and sjieaker of the house of representatives at $10,000 
each, and senators and representatives at $7,500 each. 
President Grant signed this bill, and it became a law, 
just before he began his second term of office. 

The South was in a miserable condition. Intelli- 



454 UmON. 

gence under the ban of rebellion was disfranchised, 
and ignorance and imported politicians called " carpet 
baggers" controlled the country. It was still under 
military rule. Ignorance, to a certain extent, ruled 
intelligence in local affairs. The enfranchised negro 
was about the only citizen in the South entitled to 
vote or hold office. Local offices were in many cases 
held by negroes incapable of reading or writing. 
There was a gradual lightening of the burdens of tax- 
ation which the war had imposed, and this made the 
masses of the people hopeful for the future. The 
protective tariff, proposed as a war measure, was prov- 
ing beneficial in peace. Manufacturing industries 
sprang up all over the land; labor was in demand, 
and wages were good. This soon began to attract the 
attention of the laboring people of the old world. 
The wage earner in the United States was receiving 
double the wages the laborer received in the old world, 
and emigration from Europe poured into America in 
one continuous stream. In the year 1873, the emi- 
gration reached the unprecedented figures of 473,000. 
The great panic of 1873 prostrated thousands of 
commercial and manufacturing institutions, cutting 
off, or reducing the wages of thousands of people, 
which put a check to emigration, though it has never 
ceased. The vast unoccupied lands in the western 
States and Territories have been rapidly filling up 
with foreign emigrants and people from the over- 
crowded eastern States. 

November 6, 1873, an American vessel named the 
Virginius was captured by Spanish authorities near 
Cuba. Her crew and persons aboard of the vessel 
were accused of aiding the insurgents in Cuba. They 
were taken to Santiago, Cuba, where several were 
shot. This brought about some diplomatic corre- 
spondence with Spain. It was supposed that General 



APPENDIX. 455 

Grant would stubbornly insist on satisfaction, which 
Spain seemed not in the least inclined to give. One 
of the men killed by the Spanish authorities was a 
citizen of Iowa, and it was declared that he was in no 
way connected with "filibusters," if any of them 
were. To the surprise of all, the matter passed away 
and was hushed up. Some of the newspai)ers at the 
time intimated that Secretary Fish had a son or a 
son-in-law at this time interested in some financial 
matters in Spain, and that this probably accounted 
for the unsatisfactory way in which the matter ended. 

Through the unwise " peace policy" of President 
Grant, by contiuuing the vicious system of treating 
the Indians as foreigners and at the same time wards 
guarded by rapacious and unscrupulous agents, who 
swindled and continually excited their righteous an- 
ger, the Modocs became incensed and took up the 
hatchet. In their mountain fastnesses and lava beds, 
they made a desperate resistance. General Canby and 
Reverend Dr. Thomas were commissioned to treat 
with them, and were treacherously murdered by the 
infuriated Modocs. 

The government became roused, and the Modocs 
were driven to their lava beds and forced to surrender. 
Captain Jack and three of his companions were tried 
by a court-martial and hanged at Fort Klamath, in 
Oregon, October 3, 1873. 

The trouble originating in the South from giving 
the negro the elective franchise was renewed in ls74, 
and in fact in every biennial, or quadrennial election, 
tliere are reports of outrages in the South, until people 
have come to expect trouble at the polls when an elec- 
tion is held. 

A report of the discovery of gold in the Black Hills 
caused the government to send Mr. Jenny, govern- 
ment geologist, to make a survev of that region. He 



456 UNION. 

was escorted into the reservation b}' six companies of 
cavalry and two of infantry. The Sionx, at once 
suspecting that they were to be deprived of their lands, 
began their dances and prepared for war. In 1.S76, 
a campaign against them was organized. The general 
plan was for the military force to make a simulta- 
neous movement under experienced leaders, in three 
columns, — one from the department of the Platte, led 
by General Crook ; one from the department of Da- 
kota, commanded by General Terry ; and a third from 
the Territory of Montana, led by General Gibbon. 
The latter was to move with his columns down the 
valley of the Yellowstone, to prevent the Sioux from 
escaping northward. General Custer, at the same 
time, pushing across the country from the Missouri 
to the Yellowstone, was to drive the Indians toward 
General Gibbon, while General Crook was to scout 
the Black Hills and drive out any of the hostile Sioux 
that might be found there. The expedition was un- 
der the chief command of General Alfred H. Terry, 
a brave, judicious and experienced officer. He and 
his staff accompanied Custer from Fort Abraham 
Lincoln to the Yellowstone River. On their arrival 
in the vicinity, about June 1, 1876, by communi- 
cating with General Gibbon, they learned that the 
Indians were in that neighborhood, in large numbers, 
and well supplied with munitions of Avar. 

The reports of scouts caused a belief that the In- 
dians, with their great movable village, were in the 
meshes of the net prepared for them near the waters 
of the Big Horn and Little Horn, Powder and Tongue 
rivers (tributaries of the Yellowstone), and Rosebud 
Creek. The concentrated troops began to feel for 
themselves. On the 17th of June, Crook had a 
sharp fight with a superior force of Sioux, who were 
thoroughly armed and equipped, and he was obliged 



APPENDIX. 457 

to retreat. Terry and Gibbon met at the moutli of 
the Rosebud. Custer was there, at the head of the 
stronger column, consisting of the whole of the Tth 
regiment of cavalry, composed of twelve companies, 
and was ordered to make the attack. He and Gibbon 
marched to the vicinity of the Big Horn Eiver. 
Custer arrived first and discovered an immense In- 
dian camp on a plain. He liad been directed to await 
the arrival of Gibbon, to co-operate with him, before 
making the attack; but, inferring that the Indians 
were moving off, he directed Colonel Reno to attack 
them at one point with seven companies of the cav- 
alry, while he dashed off with five companies (about 
three hundred men) to attack at another point. A 
terrible struggle ensued on the 25th of Ji;ne, 1870, 
with a body of Indians, five to one of the white men. 
The savages were led by a chieftain named "Sitting 
Bull," a man with more than ordinary ability, and 
who, had he been Christianized and civilized, might 
have been a power in the land. Custer and almost 
his entire command were slain. Two hundred and 
sixty-one were killed and fifty wounded. With Gen- 
eral Custer, perished two of his brothers, a brother- 
in-law, and other gallant officers; but the Indians 
were finally driven from their lands to a reservation 
set apart for them, and a peace established. 

The Territory of Colorado was admitted as the 
thirty-eighth State in the year 1876. 

General Grant's second administration was sad- 
dened by some of the most gigantic frauds and swin- 
dles ever brought to light against government officials 
and prominent men in political circles. During the 
latter part of tlie year 1875, disclosures were made 
of a wide-spread conspiracy among the United States 
revenue officers, distillers and others to defraud the 
government of its revenue on whiskey. This was 



458 



UNION. 



known as the "whiskey ring." 0. E. Babcock, 
President Grant's private secretary, was one of the 
accnsed, but on trial was acquitted. 

Tlie " whiskey ring" seemed to have its headquarters 
in St. Louis, though there were branches extending 
to Kansas City and St. Joseph. It was wholly witli- 
in the ranks of Kepublican officials and Eepublican 
leaders, whose object was to increase their own wealth 
by violating the law and defrauding the govern- 
ment. Eespectable Kepublicans kept aloof from the 
gigantic fraud, and saved their good names from 
reproach. Those familiar with the ring and its 
schemes understand its strenuous and persistent ef- 
forts to dominate and control city, State and national 
politics. 

For six years, all else had to yield to or feel its in- 
fluence. The chief Republican paper of St. Louis 
and Missouri was the iSf. Louis Democrat, owned by 
Fishback, Houser and William McKee, all three hav- 
ing an interest in it. This paper, from its skill and 
enterprise, had gained a wide influence during the 
war. March 23, 1872, William McKee and D. M. 
Houser sold their shares in the Democrat to Fishback 
& Co. for 1-450,000. On July 18, 1872, McKee and 
Houser established a new Republican paper, called 
the Glolie, which it is supposed derived its flrst vigor 
from the proceeds of the whiskey ring fi'auds, though 
there is no evidence that Mr. D. M. Houser, or any 
one else, connected with the paper, save McKee, had 
anything whatever to do with the whiskey ring frauds. 
The emoluments of the whiskey frauds, according to 
the statement of General McDonald, reached the enor- 
mous amount of 12,786,000. Of this, it is said that 
McKee of the Gloie received $;300,000. On March 
19, 1875, McKee and Houser purchased the Democrat 
from Fishback & Co., and, consolidating it with the 



APPENDIX. 459 

Glohe, it became tlie St. Lonis Glohe-Democrai ., wliicli 
name it bears to-day. 

The power of the whiskey riug was ahiiost unlimited. 
Scarce any dared oppose it, and he who did was crushed 
by the weight of its influence. Republican State 
conventions were manipulated in its interest, and 
Ohauncey I. Filley, the Republican leader then and 
now in the State, because he would not accede to the 
wishes of the ring, was retired from the State com- 
mittee. He was, at the time of its exposure, by Geo. 
AV. Fishback to Secretary Bristow, postmaster of St. 
Louis. These gigantic frauds on such a wholesale 
plan could not go entirely unnoticed. On May 10, 
1875, seizures were made by two revenue oificers 
going to St. Louis for that purpose after Fishback 
had given into the hands of Bristow the sworn proof. 
The parties in St. Louis who aided in furnishing tlie 
information were Jesse B. Woodward, an attorney, 
and Myron Coloney, a special agent. 

On May 15, 1875, the commissioner of revenue 
was superseded by Commissioner Pratt of Indiana, and 
in June, McDonald, Joyce and Fitzroy were indicted. 
In July, General John B. Henderson was appointed 
special attorney to assist Colonel Pat Dver, the district 
attorney, in the ])rosecution of the frauds. Hender- 
son, being a politician, hesitated to incur the displeas- 
ure of the great opposing newspaper, and a ring tliat 
had gained such a wonderful power. He consulted 
with Mr. Filley, the postmaster, also a prominent Re- 
publican, who wielded wide influence in the State and 
nation. Mr. Filley said that the way to favor was to 
"stand up for the country and the right," and Hen- 
derson, having his spiritual strength renewed, decided 
to take hold and prosecute witli a vengeance. 

Henderson had been an applicant for a foreign mis- 
sion in 1872, and President Grant, having been in- 



460 UNION. 

formed of a personal attack made by Henderson on 
him, refused to appoint the general. It is said by 
one who knew Grant well, that he never overlooked 
a personal attack. On being appointed to prosecute 
the whiskey ring, Henderson could not resist tlie tem- 
tation to vent his spleen on the president, and he de- 
clared that the whiskey frauds were a ring that ex- 
tended to the AVhite House. Henderson was at once 
removed, and Hon. James 0. Broadhead, an eminent 
lawyer and Democratic statesman, was appointed in 
his place. General Grant, in making this appoint- 
ment, gave utterance to the famous order: 

" Let no guilty man escape!" 

November 4, 1875, McKee and Maguire were in- 
dicted for " consjiiracy to defraud the government." 
In September, John A. Joyce was indicted in the 
western district court at Jefferson City for failure 
to report official investigation. On November 13, 
Joyce was sentenced to three years in the peniten- 
tiary and 12,000 fine. McDonald was convicted in 
the same month. W. 0. Avery, a clerk in the com- 
missioner's office, was tried at St. Louis and convicted 
December 3d. In February, 1876, Babcock was 
acquitted by a jury. On February 1st, William 
McKee was convicted. The same day collector of in- 
ternal revenue Con. Maguire plead guilty. McKee 
was fined ten thousand dollars and sentenced to two 
years in the county jail. Maguire was sentenced to 
six months in the county jail. In St. Joseph, John 
L. Bittinger was, on April 15, 1876, sentenced to 
two years in the State penitentiary, and to pay a 
fine of one thousand dollars. Other members of the 
ring were more or less punished ; but there is no doubt 
that many of the guilty escaped. So many promi- 
nent politicians, newspaper men and men wealthy 
and occupying high places in society, were per- 



APPENDIX. 461 

haps never before convicted by their own political 
friends. 

The Kepublican party in Missouri has never yet 
gotten over the blighting effects of the whiskey ring. 
Ever since, the State has been Democratic. Chauncey 
I. Filley, the great Eepublican organizer and leader, 
refused to sign a petition or write a letter for the 
pardon of William McKee of the St. Louis Glohe- 
Democrat, and has ever since been the object of that 
paper's hate. Mr. Filley gives the following reason 
for declining to sign a petition, or write a letter to 
President Grant for the pardon of William McKee: 

" 1 declined to sign a letter or petition for the par- 
don of McKee, not upon any personal grounds, but 
because he, as an intelligent man and publisher of a 
great newspaper, whose duty it was to be faithful to 
the public as a public educator, had been false to his 
public and individual duty, and the means of suborn- 
ing and contaminating so many young men, and so 
many public officers, federal, State and city, that he 
had no claims for consideration, and should be made 
to suffer for his own acts, and to atone for the homes 
he had destroyed, as well as the lives of so many who 
fell under his blight." 

Filley has never ceased to feel the effects of his re- 
fusal. William McKee died in 1879, and a statement 
published in many of the leading papers and never to 
our knowledge denied, is to the effect that he called 
his wife, Joseph McCullagh, editor of the St. Louis 
GloJje-Deiiiocrat, and D. M. Houser, its manager, to 
his death-bed, and made them promise never to cease 
to fight Chauncey I. Filley so long as he lived and 
the Glol)e-Democrat existed. Wliether such an obli- 
gation was imposed on the survivors of William Mc- 
Kee or not, it has been acted upon. When Filley or- 
ganized the shattered ranks of the Republican party 



463 UNION. 

ill his part of tlie nation, after the defeats of 1870 
and 1874, and led them to victory in 1876, 1880 and 
1888, the UloI)e-Democrat assailed him, and soon had 
the ear of the administration turned against him 
in each case. Filley went down in 181)2, and so did 
the Republican party. The Glohe- Democrat and its 
followers are denominated the " silk-stocking" faction 
of the Eepublican party, while Filley and his followers 
are called " hoodlums. " Both pseudonyms are misno- 
mers, as one can see by the history 
of the origin of the factions. 

1870 was not only a presidential 
year, but also the year of the great 
centennial exposition, celebrating 
the one hundredth anniversary of 
American Independence. The 
centennial exposition was held 
in Philadelphia. Kutherford B. 
Hayes of Ohio and William A. 
Wheeler of New York were nom- 
inated for president and vice- 
president of the United States on 
the Kepublican ticket at Cincin- 
nati, June 16, 1876. Belknap, 
secretary of war, left the cabinet, 
Samuel J. Tilden. and on June 17th, B. H. Bristow, 

secretary of the treasury, resigned. 
On the 28th and 29th of June, Samuel J. Tilden 
and Thomas A. Hendricks were nominated for presi- 
dent and vice-president of the United States on the 
Democratic ticket. The election was so close that for 
months it was in doubt. At last an electoral com- 
mission was agreed upon, and the result was that 
Hayes and Wheeler were declared elected. The com- 
mission was very unsatisfactory, and we hope will 
never be resorted to again. 




CHAPTER III. 



HAYES — GAKFIELI) — AND ARTHUR. 



Many evil things were said of the manner in 
which President Hayes Avas elected. He was called 
the "Fraudulent President;" but whatever may be 
said of the fraud, if there were a 
fraud, which placed him in the 
presidential chair, President 
Hayes was no party to it himself. 
He found himself chief magistrate 
of a mighty nation, and perhaps 
in as trying a position as ever a 
man was placed in time of peace. 
He proved himself conscientious 
and worthy of the high trust re- 
posed in him. His cabinet was, 
William- M. Evarts of New York, 
secretary of state; John Sherman 
of Ohio, secretary of the treasury ; 
George W. McCrary of Iowa, sec- 
retary of war; Richard W.Thomp- 
son of Indiana, secretary of the 
navy; Carl Schurz of Missouri, 
secretary of the interior; David 
M. Key of Tennessee, postmaster-general, and Charles 
Devens of Massachusetts, attorney-general. 

Mr, Hayes at once set about a much needed reform 
in the South. He realized that the war had ended 
twelve years before, and that a standing army was no 
463 




Rutherford B. Hayes. 



464 UNION. 

longer necessary in the South. He believed the peo- 
ple of the South capable of controlling their own 
affairs without the intervention of federal or military 
authority, and South Carolina and Louisiana, being 
left to themselves, declared the Democratic nominees 
for governor of those two States elected. The South- 
ern States have been solidly Democratic ever since 
and are rapidly recovering from the devastation of 
war. 

Mr. Hayes, on June 22, 1877, issued the folloAving 
circular letter to all government office holders: 

" Sir : — I desire to call your attention to the following 
paragraph in a letter addressed by me to the secretary of the 
treasury on the conduct to be observed by officers of the 
government in relation to elections : 

" ' No officer shall be required or permitted to take any 
part in the management of political organizations, cau- 
cuses, conventions, or election campaigns. Their right to 
vote and express their views on public questions, either 
orally or through the press, is not denied, provided it does 
not interfere with the discharge of their otficial duties. No 
assessments for political purposes on officers or subordi- 
nates should be allowed. This rule is applicable to every 
department of the civil service. It should be understood 
by every officer of the general government i^hat he is ex- 
pected to conform his conduct to its requirements. '" 

The summer of 1877 was memorable for the Nez 
Perce (Pierced-Nose) Indian war in Idaho. The his- 
tory of this war is only another record of a series of 
aggressions and impositions of the white men upon 
the red. The Nez Perces were first discovered in 
1803, by a party of explorers. They were quite 
friendly and continued so until about twenty years 
ago. They were organized, like most of the tribes 
west of the Rocky Mountains, with no general chief. 
An Indian agent was sent among them, who forced 
upon them a principal chief, whose only recommenda- 
tions were that he could speak English, and could be 



APPENDIX. 465 

controlled in the interest of the agent. They waited 
patiently for the appointed chief to die, that they 
might again enjoy their old political system ; hut when 
this event did transpire, another chief was chosen in 
opposition to "Joseph," a member of one of the most 
illustrious families of the tribe. He was the father 
of Joseph, the leader of the band in war. Old Josejjh 
withdrew in disgust from the councils of the Nez 
Perces. 

The Nez Perces had lived from time immemorial 
in the Wallowa valley, distinguished for its wealth 
of roots and fishing. The white men envied them 
their lands, and by various treaties, which they in 
their ignorance could not understand, provided them 
with reservations and annuities. Old Joseph and his 
band refused to go upon the reservation, and remained 
in their ancestral home in the Wallowa valley. 80 did 
many others who refused to become parties to the 
treaty. 

In 1871, old Joseph died and left his son Joseph at 
the head of his band. Like his father, he denied the 
right of a portion of the tribe to give up their lands. 
Not having signed the treaty, they determined to re- 
main in the Wallowa. White people came into the 
valley for the purpose of crowding them out. The 
oppression of the Indians became terrible and, as 
might be supposed, resulted in war. Joseph, at the 
head of a few followers, made a gallant fight. A dis- 
tressing war continued from June until the second 
month in Autumn of 1877, when, on the 5th of 
October, Joseph and his band surrendered to General 
Nelson A. Miles at Eagles' Creek, Montana Terri- 
tory. Joseph in his speech said to General Miles: 

"Tell General Howard I know his heart. What 
he told me before I have in my heart. I am tired of 
fighting. Our chiefs are all killed. Looking-glass 
30 



466 UNION. 

is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young 
men who must say yes or no. He who led the young 
men is dead. It is cold, and we have no blankets. 
The little children are freezing to death. I want 
time to look for my children and see how many of 
them I can find. May be I shall find them among 
the dead. Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired. My 
heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now 
stands, I shall fight no more forever." 

A more pathetic speech has not been heard since 
the time of Logan the famous Mingo chief. 

Since the death of Custer, Sitting Bull, the terri- 
ble Sioux, and his followers had been at large. Gen- 
eral Terry, commander of the military department of 
the Northwest, was placed at the head of the com- 
mission, and on hearing of the surrender of the Nez 
Perces, and considering it a favorable time to nego- 
tiate, started for the rendezvous of Sitting Bull, near 
Fort Walsh, where they met the chief, who rejected 
the proposals of peace made by the commissioners, 
and the commission returned. The British authori- 
ties gave Sitting Bull notice that if he should attemjit 
to cross the border with hostile intentions, he would 
have the English as well as the Americans for his 
enemies. In 1881, about one thousand of Sitting 
Bull's followers surrendered ; but it was several years 
before the chief would consent to be placed on a 
reservation. 

January 1, 1879, was the time set for the resump- 
tion of specie payment, and as the time drew near, 
timid persons began to fear a panic; but resumption, 
like many anticipated evils, proved a blessing. In 
1878, the "Bland Silver Bill," of which Mr. Richard 
Bland of Missouri was author, became a law. It pro- 
vided for the coinage of silver dollars of the weight 
of 412^ grains and that the rate of coinage should be 



I 



APPENDIX. 467 

at least 12,000,000 a month, and not more than 
14,000,000. In the fall of 1878, the yellow fever pre- 
vailed as a fearful epidemic in the region of the 
Lower Mississippi, from Memphis to New Orleans. 
In his annual message, the j^resident called the atten- 
tion of congress to the necessity for investigating the 
causes of the epidemic. The senate appointed a 
committee to act in the matter in conjunction with 
one from the house, and 850,000 was appropriated. 

On January 1, 1879, the much-dreaded specie re- 
sumption came. In fact, under the wise manage- 
ment of Secretary Sherman, it had been reached 
weeks before. As the time approached, all dread of 
the monster passed away, and, instead of producing 
the tinancial panic predicted by so many, 1879 was 
the most prosperous year the nation had seen since the 
war. 

On the Pacific coast there has long existed a strong 
prejudice to the Chinese, and in 1879 the matter was 
brought to the attention of congress in an effort to 
restrict Chinese emigration. A bill was passed to 
that effect; but the president vetoed it. 

Early in the Autumn of 1879, there was an upris- 
ing of the Ute tribe of Indians. They murdered 
N. C. Meeker, the Indian agent at White Eiver, and 
for several weeks held his wife and daughter in cap- 
tivity. Major Thornbreak of the United States Army 
was sent with a force to suppress the hostiles, and in 
a battle with them on Milk River, he and ten of his 
men were killed. The Indians were finally subdued, 
and the captives released. 

1880 was another presidential year. General Grant's 
friends set on foot a movement to break the precedent 
set by George Washington, which until this year had 
been respected by the most ambitious politician Amer- 
ica had ever produced. Early in the year, in fact, 



468 UNION. 

the year before General Grant was announced us a 
candidate for the "third term," he had taken a tour 
around the world, and an admiring press had given 
him a liberal amount of laudation. Ilis chief oppo- 
nent was that brilliant statesman, James G. Blaine. 
Koscoe Conkling and General John A. Logan were 
the special champions of General Grant. 

This mistake, to a considerable extent, dimmed the 
lustre which General Grant's name had already ac- 
quired. The campaign was very bitter, and some 
hard things were said of the general who liad received 
the sword of Lee. The convention was held in Chi- 
cago, and the ex-president was accused of imperialism 
and Ca?sarism. Washington Avas held up in contrast 
with the third-term candidate. The salary grab, the 
whiskey frauds, and many other things for which the 
general was not responsible were charged against him. 
The Young Men's Republican Clulj from New York 
had their headquarters at the Palmer House, and 
with them was a chorus of excellent singers and a 
number of orators, the lay of whose songs and the 
burden of whose speeches were against the " third 
term." 

It soon became evident that safety to the party lay 
in a comiDromise candidate. The galleries rang with 
applause whenever James A. Garlield, avIio was a dele- 
gate, appeared in the convention hall, and the del- 
egates wisely decided that he was the coming man. 
General Grant received 306 votes; but the Blaine and 
Sherman men went to Garfield, and he was nominated 
for president, with Chester A. Arthur for vice-presi- 
dent. 

The Democrats nominated General Winlield Scott 
Hancock, a brave soldier in the late war, with William 
H. English for vice-president. The National ((jreen- 
back) party nominated General John B. Weaver of 



APPENDIX. 



469 






Iowa and Benjamin J. Chamber? of Texas. The Pro- 
liibition candidates were Neal Dow of Maine and 
A. H. Thomi)son of Ohio. Gar- 
field and Arthur were elected. 
President Hayes' adminis- 
tration was prosperous and, 
save the Indian troubles, peace- 
ful from beginning to end. 
Honor was never done him dur- 
ing his life, and the world can- 
not honor him now. Mrs. 
Hayes was more nearly a Mar- 
tha Washington, in her sweet 
Cliristian-like spirit and sim- 
plicity, than any woman who 
has ever graced the White 
House. Her character was a 
power for good. Unlike the 
weak ladies who preceded her, 
she refused to allow liquors to 
ever appear on her table. No foreign diplomat was 
ever known to taste wine in the White House while 
she presided over it. It is to be regretted that her 
successors have not all followed her example. 




WiNFiELD Scott Hanc 



Garfield. 

President Garfield's constitutional advisers were: 
secretary of state, James G. Blaine of Maine; secre- 
tary of the treasury, William Windom of Minnesota; 
secretary of war, Robert Todd Lincoln of Illinois, 
son of President Lincoln; secretary of the navy, 
William H. Hunt of Louisiana; secretary of the in- 
terior, Samuel J. Kirkwood of Iowa; postmaster-gen- 
eral, Thomas L. James of New York ; attorney-gen- 
eral, Wayne McVeagh of Pennsvlvania. 



470 UNION. 

Soon after the inauguration of President Garfield 
and the selection of his cabinet, there sprang up a 
bitter fight between Senator Koscoe Conkling and the 
administration. Conkling, still smarting under his 
defeat in his efforts to nominate General Grant for 
the "third term," and the elevation of his personal 
enemy Mr. Blaine to the highest place in his cabinet, 
became doubly bitter against President Garfield. 

Conkling, Logan and all tlie supporters of Grant 
were styled "Stalwarts," while the Pejiublicans that 
had opposed him for the "third term," were called 
" Half-Breeds. " Judge Robertson had been a New 
York delegate to the Chicago convention, and refus- 
ing to be bound by the uuit rule which they sought 
to impose on the delegates to insure the State for 
Grant, and being friendly to Blaine, he incurred the 
displeasure of Senator Conkling and all his followers. 
A foolish custom has prevailed for many years in pub- 
lic affairs at Washington. Not only is it foolish but 
dangerous. That custom is to allow the congressmen 
and senators from each State to select such persons as 
they choose, and nominate them for the various 
federal offices within their State or district. Con- 
gressmen and senators are elected to make laws for the 
people, and not as patronage brokers. Besides, the 
system is dangerous in this, that it enables a wily and 
corrupt politician to perpetuate himself in office, by 
having that powerful weapon, patronage, by which 
he can sway his constituents as a master does his 
slaves with the lash. Garfield and some of the best 
of our presidents, have paid little attention to this 
rule. 

When President Garfield ap{)uinted Kubei'tson col- 
lector of New York, Conkling became enraged and 
resigned his seat in the senate, and Senator Thomas 
C. Piatt followed his example. They went home re- 



APPENDIX. 



471 



lying on being returned by the New York legislature 
then in session in Albany. Tlie legislature failed to 
return tliem, and Conkling became soured and retired 
from i)olitics, tliougli Thomas C. Piatt has ever re- 
mained loyal to the party of his choice. 

President Garfield's administration was full of 
bright promise. The country was at peace with all 
the world and was never more 
prosperous, and everybody felt 
that a long era of good times was 
at hand. Among the army of 
office seekers who had been prowl- 
ing about Washington, was one, 
Charles J. Guiteau, who wanted a 
foreign mission. But little atten- 
tion was paid him, until, mad 
with a desire for notoriety, on July 
2, 1881, he shot President Gar- 
field, in the depot at Washington 
City, as he and Mr. Blaine were 
about to take the train. From 
the very first, it was feared the 
wound was mortal. For long 
weeks, the president lingered be- 
tween life and death, and the people waited with deep- 
est anxiety. As a last resort, he was taken to the sea- 
coast at Elberon, where he died, September 19, 1881. 

Charles J. Guiteau was arrested and put in prison. 
While incarcerated, Sergeant Mason of the United 
States Army fired at him, but missed. Mason was 
promptly arrested on a charge of assault with intent 
to kill, was tried and convicted. 

Guiteau's trial was a farce. He was defended by 
his brother-in-law Mr. Scoville. The prisoner was 
more like a low comedian in a farce comedy than a 
man on trial for his life, and he continually inter- 




James a. Garfield. 



472 



UNION. 



rupted the proceedings with the most ridiculously 
foolish remarks. There can be little doubt of Gui- 
teau's insaiiity, and it is even questioualjle if he was 
accountable for the act. Nevertheless, public opin- 
ion v,?as greatly against him, and he was convicted 
on January 25, 1882, and hanged on the 30th of the 
following June. 

Arthur, 



The constitutional successor of James A. Garfield 
was Mr. Chester A. Arthur. The first change Mr. 
Arthur made in the cabinet was in Noveml)er, 1881, 
when Secretary Windom was suc- 
ceeded by Judge Folger of New 
York. On January 1, 1882, Mr. 
James resigned as postmaster-gen- 
eral and was succeeded by Mr. 
Howe. 

Slight trouble between Chili, 
Peru and the United States gave 
rise to some diplomatic corre- 
spondence. Mr. William H. Tres- 
cott was sent as a special envoy to 
Chili and Peru. These countries 
were at war with each other at the 
time; but after some delay and 
trouble, matters, so far as the 
United States of America were 
concerned, were adjusted. 

The famous "star route" trials 
were during the administration of 
Arthur. Senator Dorsey, and second assistant i)ost- 
master-general Tliomas J. Brady were indicted for 
defrauding the government in postal contracts, were 
tried and acquitted. 




Chester A. Arthur. 



APPENDIX. 473 . 

Duriug this year, the United States contested the 
riglit of any European power to guarantee the neu- 
trahty of the Panama canal, maintaining that the 
United States had the sole right so to do. It inti- 
mated an intention of withdrawing from the Clayton- 
Bulwer treaty, wherein a joint guaranty of those 
powers was established. This position was taken by 
the United States because of the changed condition 
of affairs since that treaty was made. Then the 
United States made concessions to England, because 
possessed of resources and wealth too limited for so 
arduous an undertaking. Now the country was larger, 
twice as populous and richer by far. Above all, its 
possessions on the Pacific coast would be exposed to 
attacks from the enemy in case the neutrality of the 
canal were guaranteed by European powers alone. 

The Mormon question, which has for years been 
troubling Americans, was the occasion of some restric- 
tive legislation during President Arthur's adminis- 
tration. 

With Germany, an extensive corresponden'ce took 
place, not on such lofty subjects as the rights of 
American citizens, or treaty obligations, but on that 
harmless, necessary animal, the American hog. In 
consequence of alleged discoveries of trichinte in pork 
imported from the United States, the question was, 
in 1878, raised in Germany as to the advisability of 
allowing its consumption. After much correspond- 
ence, the "American hog" was, for a time, prohibited 
from taking European tours. 

A panic, started early in 1884, almost prostrated 
business. General Grant and his son had gone into 
business in Xew York City with a man named Ward. 
General Grant seems to have given little attention to 
the business in which he had staked his all, but en- 
trusted it to Ward and his son. Ward evidently 



474 



UNION. 



proved too much for his son. The concern went down 
in ruins. Ward was arrested for swindling and sent to 
the penitentiary. Other banks tumbled in ruins, and 
the panic became general. It was over a year before the 
country fully recovered, and confidence was restored. 
There were two notable deaths during Arthur's 
administration. One was the poet Henry W. Long- 
fellow, who died March 24, 1883, 
and the other the great philan- 
thropist, Peter Cooper. 

It was Arthur's desire to be 
his own successor; but the Ke- 
publican convention, which met 
in Chicago, nominated James G. 
Blaine of Maine and John A. 
Logan of Illinois for president 
and vice-president of the United 
States. The Democratic party 
nominated Grover Cleveland, of 
New York, and Thomas A. Hen- 
dricks of Indiana. General But- 
ler was nominated for president 
on the Greenback ticket, and 
John P. St. John of Kansas on 
the Prohibition ticket. The 
campaign was the most exciting and enthusiastic since 
the hard-cider campaign of 1840. Conkling sulked 
in his tent. George William Curtis, who had been 
in the convention that nominated Mr. Blaine, went 
over to the Democracy, Henry Ward Beechpr de- 
clared for Cleveland, yet Mr. Blaine went to work 
with an energy such as no candidate lias ever dis- 
played. He still had a few faithful leaders, and with 
these he entered into the conflict. He made a grand, 
noble fight ; but he lost New York by a few hundred, 
which gave the election to Grover Cleveland. 




Benjamin F. Butler. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CLEVELAND'S ADMIXISTIiATIOX AXD THE CAMPAIGX 

OF 1888. 



James G. Blaixe was for years known as the Glad- 
stone of America. His defeat was u surprise to his 
friends, but Mr. Blaine liimself had })redicted it, be- 
fore he was nominated. The week before the meeting 
of the Kepublican national convention in 1884-, on 
Thursday, Mr. Blaine telegraphed 
Murat Halstead at Cincinnati, 
saying he would be glad to see him 
at his residence in Washington, 
before the convention assembled. 
Late next day, Mr. Halstead rang 
the door bell of Blaine's house, 
which was on the opposite side of 
Lafayette Square from the place 
where Blaine died. He took Mr. 
Halstead into his back parlor and 
said he had sent for him on an im- 
pulse, and did not know but that 
he had caused him a journey with- 
out suflticient errand to warrant it, 
and it might seem very peculiar 
and unreasonable. He added: 

*' I am alarmed about this convention." Mr. Hal- 
stead assured him there was no reason for alarm so 
far as he was concerned, for things were going his 
way as well as his friends could desire. 
475 




James G. Blaine. 



476 UNION. 

"All, that is what I am afraid of," answered Mr. 
Blaine. "As the case stands I shall be nominated, 
and I do not desire to be, and it ought not to be. It 
would be a mistake. I ought not to be nominated, 
for I could not carry New York. The Arthur ad- 
ministration would be inefficient, at least, and faction 
would do its work. I could not carry New York, and 
defeat is certain without that State. We might 
work ourselves up, during the campaign, to the belief 
that we could carry the essential State; but at last 
we should miss it, may be just a little, but enough. 
1 feel that there is no doubt about it. Why should 
we be defeated, when we can name the candidate, a 
ticket certain to be elected? Put up William Te- 
cumseh Sherman and Robert T. Lincoln, and we 
shall go right through to certain victory. The names 
of Sherman and Lincoln would be irresistible. I 
have written fully to General Sherman and he under- 
stands my views. He says 'No' of course; but he has 
a sense of duty through which he may be controlled. 
I want you to assist at Chicago to carry out the Lin- 
coln and Sherman programme. I wanted to see you 
to tell you so myself, that there might be no mistake 
about it, that you could act with the knoAvledge that 
I do not want to be a candidate, and should not be, 
and the reasons why. I have said so many times to 
William Walter Phelps aniong others, and to friends 
now in town from Virginia." 

Mr. Halstead listened with profound surprise and 
concern. Through State and personal associations he 
was for the nomination of John Sherman, and asked : 

" You could not make the ticket John Sherman 
and Robert Lincoln?" 

Mr. Blaine doubted the ability of John Sherman 
to get the nomination, or carry New Y'ork even if he 
did get it, whereas General Sherman was a certainty. 



APPENDIX. 



477 



Mr. Blaine's excuse for not having spoken sooner, 
was because there was one thing needful, the pre- 
vention of the nomination of Arthur, whose candi- 
dacy would be a fatality. Arthur was skilfully man- 
aging the whole power of the administration to secure 
the nomination ; but he would be slaughtered in New 
York and Ohio. Mr. Blaine added that he had not 
seen the time when he could safely withdraw in the 
positive terms that would carry conviction, that he 
Avas really out of the field, without preparing the way 
for Arthur's success in the convention, and defeat of 
the party at the polls. Mr. Halstead assured Mr. 
Blaine it was now too late to recede. That liP fould 
not convince Mr. Blaine's friends 
in the convention that he was in 
earnest or not a traitor. Mr. 
Blaine was nominated, was de- 
serted by Carl Schurz, George 
William Curtis, Henry Ward 
Beecher, and many others, who 
had heretofore claimed to be Re- 
publicans, while Roscoe Coukling 
sulked, if he did not give his se- 
cret influence to the Democracy, 
and Mr. Blaine, as he predicted, 
was " beaten at least just a little. " 
On March 4, 1885, Grover 
Cleveland was inaugurated presi- 
dent of the United States with the 
usual ceremonies. His cabinet advisers were as follov/s : 
Thomas F. Bayard, secretary of state; Daniel Man- 
ning, secretary of the treasury; AVilliam C. Whitney, 
seci'etary of the navy; William C. Endicott, secretary 
of war; L. Q. C. Lamar, secretary of the interior; 
Augustus H. Garland, attorney-general, and William 
F. Vilas, postmaster-general. During the latter part 




Grover Clevei.anu. 



478 umox. 

of Mr. Cleveland's administration, another cabinet 
position was created, called the department of agricul- 
ture, and Norman J. Colman, of Colman's Rural 
World, St. Louis, Mo., was appointed secretary of 
agriculture, which position he held but a short time, 
retiring with the administration. 

After twenty-four years, the Democratic party 
again held the reins of government. An attempt 
was made to change the tariff, by the introduction of 
the " Mills bill," of which Mr. Mills of Texas was the 
author; but it was checked in the Senate, which had 
a Republican majority, and failed to become a law. 
The Mills bill, however, formed the issue for the next 
campaign. The first business that attracted the at- 
tention of the new administration was the civil war 
raging in the Central American States, to the detri- 
ment of American interests there. A naval force was 
dispatched to the scene of disturbance, and a force of 
marines landed to protect life and property at Aspin- 
wall, which had been occuj)ied and burned by one of 
the belligerent forces. 

About the time of the election of Mr. Cleveland, 
the public was shocked and grieved by the report that 
General Grant, the distinguished soldier, was afflicted 
by an incurable disease, a cancer of the tongue. The 
last act of President Arthur was signing a bill restor- 
ing him to his rank in the army; but the old liero 
was not destined to hold the honor long. Bowed 
down with financial trouble and affliction, his last 
days were full of pain and sorrow. He died, July 
23d, at Mount MacGregor, and on August 8th his 
remains were taken to New York. The body lay in 
state two days in the city hall, and was then trans- 
ported to a spot on the banks of the Hudson in River- 
side Park, which the city had assigned for that pur- 
pose. The procession which accompanied the funeral 



APPEXDIX. 479 

car was immense. The president, vice-president and 
cabinet, as well as ex-Presidents Hayes and Arthur, 
Generals Sherman and Sheridan, and hosts of his old 
comrades, who came from far and near to pay the 
last honors to their chief, were j^resent. 

On the 28th of November, Vice-President Hen- 
dricks died suddenly. By his decease before the 
meeting of congress, the succession to the presidency, 
in case of the death or disability of the president, 
was left undetermined. By the constitution, con- 
gress has the power to provide for filling the vacancy in 
case of the president's and vice-president's death or re- 
moval; but congress had not yet been organized. 
When it did meet, on the 7th of December, the senate 
elected Senator John Sherman its president p7'o tem- 
pore, the acting vice-president thus being the leader 
of the opposition to the president's policy. So great 
was the anxiety felt at this unexpected state of affairs 
that, by the advice of his cabinet, the president de- 
clined to attend the funeral of his colleague. Vari- 
ous proposals have been made with a view to settling 
beyond peril the question of succession. In the early 
part of 1883, a bill for this purpose was brought in, 
and the death of Mr. Hendricks again called the at- 
tention of congress to this important matter. A bill 
prepared by Senator Hoar was finally passed. By its 
provisions in case of the death of both president and 
vice-president, the functions of the office are to be dis- 
charged, until an election can be held under tlie 
articles of the constitution, by the cabinet officers, in 
the order of the authority of their offices. 

Among the chief events of Grover Cleveland's ad- 
ministration, no*" already mentioned, were the dedi- 
cation of the Washington Monument, February 21, 
1885; the publication of the revised Old Testament, 
May loth; the arrival of Bartholdi's statue of Liberty 



480 UXIOJV. 

in New York, July IStli; the blowing up of Flood 
Kock, in East River, New York, October 10th. On 
October 29th, General George B. McClellan died. 
On December 8th, William H. Vanderbilt, the 
great New York millionaire, died suddenly of heart 
disease, with which he had long been afflicted, and 
which had for years been a clond npon his life. 

The year 1886 was also notable for the death of 
many prominent men. General Winfield S. Hancock 
died February 18th; Horatio Seymonr, Democratic 
statesman, died February 12th; John B. Gongh, the 
noted temperance lecturer, died February 13th; 
Judge David Davis died at Bloomington, Illinois, 
June 26th; Samuel J. Tilden died August 4th; Ex- 
President Chester A. Arthur died November 18th, 
and General John A. Logan died December 18th. 
Scarcely any of these men were far enough advanced 
in life to have died of old age. 

During the month of May, there were great labor 
agitations throughout the United States, and on the 
fourth of that month occurred the Haymarket riots 
in Chicago, during which, one of the rioters called 
anarchists threw a dynamite bomb, which exploded 
and killed and wounded a number of police. Seven 
of the accused were sentenced to be hanged, and one 
to serve fifteen years in the penitentiary. On No- 
vember 10th, 1887, Governor Oglesby commuted the 
sentence of Samuel Fielden and Michael Schwab, two 
of the anarchists, to imprisonment for life. The 
same day, Louis Ling, one of the anarchists, com- 
mitted suicide, and on August 11th, August Spies, 
A. R. Parsons, Adolph Fisher and George Engel were 
Ining. In 1 893, (Tovernor Altgeld of Illinois pardoned 
the remaining anarchists in prison, who are now at 
large. 

On June 2, 1886, Mr. Grover Cleveland, president 



APPENDIX. 481 

of the United States, was married to INIiss Frances 
Folsoni. 

Early in 1887, an interstate commerce law was en- 
acted. On March 8th, the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher 
died. On Angnst 10th, there was a terrible railroad 
accident near Chatsworth, Illinois, in which nearly 
one hundred persons were killed. 

There arose in congress some bitter discussion on 
the question of American fisheries. It was reported 
that Canadian authorities had been imposing on 
American fishermen. That able American, Senator 
Fry of Maine, declared that " England had played the 
bully with the United States," and the silver-tongued 
orator from the Sunflower State, Senator John J. 
Ingalls of Kansas, raised his powerful voice in the in- 
terest of American liberties. Efforts were made to 
adjust the matter of American right and more clearly 
define the three-mile limit as contemplated in the 
treaty with Great Britain, also to include the s.al- 
fishery question in Alaskan waters; but these are still 
disputed points that may at some time in the future 
cause trouble. 

From March 12th to 14th, 1888, occurred a terrible 
blizzard in New York city, such as was never known 
before. Ex-Senator Roscoe Conkling, being caught 
in that blizzard, contracted a severe cold in his head, 
from the effects of which he died August 5th. On 
October 1st, President Cleveland signed the Chinese 
Exclusion Bill. 

The year 1888 was a presidential year. The Re- 
publican convention at Chicago in 1888 liad many 
candidates, all prominent and able men. New York 
asked for Chauncey M. Depew. Ohio was divided be- 
tween John Sherman and the brilliant statesman 
AVilliam McKiiiley. Kansas put forth her talented 
John J. Iiigalis. Iowa had Senator Allison, and 
31 



482 UAION. 

Michigan had General Russell A. Alger, the great 
statesman, soldier, Huancier and philanthropist, 
lllinios was divided between Walter Q. Gresham and 
Robert T. Lincoln, while Indiana advanced the claims 
of Benjamin Harrison. 

The Democrats met in national convention at St. 
Louis, June 6th, and nominated Grover Cleveland 
and Allan G. Thurmau. During the same month, 
the Republicans met at Chicago and nominated Ben- 
jamin Harrison of Indiana for president and Hen. 
Levi P. Morton for vice-president. Streeter was the 
labor candidate, and the j^rohibition candidate. Gen. 
Clinton B. Fisk. Harrison was a grandson of William 
H. Harrison, and his managers raised the old Tippe- 
canoe enthusiasm of 1840. Old campaign songs, 
badges and medals, that had slumbered for almost 
half a century, were resurrected and brought to swell 
the campaign. The l)all-rolIing, and everything that 
would rouse the early patriotism and enthusiasm of 
the nation Avas brought to bear, and Harrison and 
Morton were elected November 6, 1888. 

The latter part of Cleveland's administration wit- 
nessed a slight cloud in the firmament with Germany 
over -that country's aggression in the Samoan Islands. 
It was claimed that Germany was trying to secure a 
ruler in Samoa whom they could control in the in- 
terests of that nation. This matter was not adjusted 
duri7ig Cleveland's administration. 

Almost the last official act of President Cleveland 
was to sign a bill admitting as States, North and 
South Dakota, Montana and Washington. He re- 
tired on the 4th of March and went to New York, 
where he engaged in the practice of law. 



CHAPTEE V. 

Harrison's administration — trouble with chile 
— defeat — cleveland again elected — ha- 
waiian trouble — conclusion. 

Benjamin Harrison was inaugurated president of 
the United States March 4, 1889. His cabinet ad- 
visers were: secretary of state, James G. Blaine; 
secretary of the treasury, William Windom ; secretary 
of the navy, Benjamin F. Tracy; secretary of war, 
Eedfield Proctor; secretary of the interior, John 
W. Noble; attorney-general, Wm. H. H. Miller; 
postmaster-general, John W. Wanamaker; secretary 
of agriculture, Jeremiah M. Rusk. 

The first thing requiring the attention of the new 
administration was the settlement of the Samoan dif- 
ficulty. A peaceful and satisfactory adjustment was 
quickly made. 

Oklahoma, a portion of the Indian Territory, was 
opened up for settlement April 32, 1889, and in a 
month the wilderness became a well-populated coun- 
try. 

On the 30th of April of this year was the centennial 
celebration of the inauguration of George Washing- 
ton, as first president of the United States. The cel- 
ebration was observed with appropriate ceremonies 
all over the land. 

On May 31st and June 1st of this year, there oc- 
curred the greatest disaster ever known in the history 
of America, the Johnstown flood. A dam on the Cone- 
483 



UNION. 



maugh lake gave way, and the whole valley was 
flooded. Thousands of lives were lost, and property 
amounting to millions of dollars was destroyed. 

From August to December, the Clan-na-Gael, or 
Cronin murder trials attracted the general interest of 
the public. The Clan-na-Gael was 
an Irish political society on the 
Fenian order, having for its object 
the liberation of Ireland, and 
Cronin, who was a member of the 
society, it was claimed, had re- 
vealed some of its secrets, for 
which, it was claimed, he was 
murdered. At least, he mysteri- 
ously disappeared. Three men 
accused of his murder got life sen- 
tences, and another, John Kunze, 
was sentenced to three years in 
the penitentiary. 

The year 1890 was eventful. 
Samuel J. Eandall, Democratic 
statesman, died April loth. As the 
fourth century had almost elajjsed since the discovery 
of the New World by Columbus, it was decided to 
hold a quadro-ceutennial celebration in the form of a 
Columbian exposition and world's fair. A world's 
fair bill passed the senate April 21st, and on the 25th, 
President Harrison signed it, making it a law. Idaho 
became a State, July 3d, 1890. Gen. Clinton B. 
Fisk, the great temperance advocate, died July 9th; 
Gen. John C. Fremont, the explorer, July 13th. 

The new Republican congress had formulated a 
new tariff bill, arranged by Hon. AVilliam McKinley, 
known as the "McKinley Bill." This bill passed 
both houses, was signed by the president, October 
1st, and went into effect October 6th. Early in De- 




Benjamin Harrison. 



APPENDIX. 485 

cember of this year, there was an outbreak of the 
Sioux Indians, who, it is reported, were driven to 
desperation on account of the scarcity of food. They 
began their ghost dances, and soldiers were hurried 
to their reservation. Tliere were some skirmishes 
with tliem, in which several Indians were killed. It 
was reported by the newspapers that even the women 
Avere fired upon. On the loth. Sitting Bull, the 
great chief, was killed. 

Chicago having won the AVorld's Fair in the con- 
test between many of the prominent cities of the 
United States, the president issued a proclamation on 
the 2-ith of October, announcing the fact that the 
World's Fair would be held in that city in 1893. 

On December 31st, Gen. F. E. Spinner, ex-treasurer 
of the United States, died. January 29, 1891, William 
Windom, secretary of the treasury, died, February 
13th, Admiral David D. Porter died. On the next 
day, February 14th, Gen. AYilliam T. Sherman died. 

On March 14th, a mob of American citizens broke 
open the jail in New Orleans, in which there were 
eleven Italians, who had been accused of murdering 
David Hennessey, a police (tflficer, and hung them all. 
Some of the Italians had been tried for the murder 
and acquitted by a jury. As some of the lynched 
men had never been naturalized, the Italian govern- 
ment demanded satisfaction and temporarily withdrew 
their minister. 

April 7th, 1891, P. T. Barnum, the great Ameri- 
can showman, died. 

On the 9th of July, this year, ground was broken 
for the exhibition at the fair grounds in Chicago, and 
after that time the work of erecting enormous build- 
ings went steadily forward until they reached comple- 
tion, making the grandest exposition buildings the 
world has ever known. 



4«0 UNIOX. 

During the winter of 1891 and 1892, the United 
States of America became embroiled in a quarrel with 
our sister republic Chile. The unfortunate aifair 
which was the immediate cause of the trouble occurred 
in the streets of Valparaiso on October 16, 1891. A 
party of sailors from the United States cruiser Balti- 
mo7'e, then lying in the harbor at Valparaiso, went on 
shore and were attacked by a mob of Chileans. The 
Chileans were armed with pistols and knives, while 
the American sailors were unarmed. In the fight, a 
boatswain's mate was dragged from a street car by a 
mob and shot to death. Five other n)en, William 
Turnbull, a coal heaver; John Hamilton, a carpenter; 
David N. Andrew, a painter; George Panter, a coal 
heaver, and John W. Talbot, an apprentice, were 
dangerously wounded with bayonets. Turnbull died 
from the effects of his wounds. Thirty-five other 
sailors were arrested by main force and dragged 
through the streets of the city and locked up in prison. 

Captain Schley of the Baltimore made a careful in- 
vestigation and reported it to the government at 
Washington. President Harrison made a demand 
for full satisfaction for the insult. ^Maiiy of the op- 
position papers thought Harrison a little severe, es- 
pecially as it had only been a few common sailors 
who had been killed and maltreated ; but Harrison 
believed the life of a common sailor as dear to him as 
that of an admiral, and was determined in his demand 
for reparation. Chile was a little slow, and he was 
on the eve of asking congress to declare war, and 
had already ordered many war ships to the Chilean 
coast, when that government hastened to make such 
reparation as they could. The attack on the Ameri- 
can sailors is said to have resulted from hatred of the 
United States, from some supposed meddling on the 
part of that government in the war with Balmaceda. 



APPENDIX. 487 

July 6th, 1892, witnessed one of the most terrible 
conflicts since the war, at Homestead, Pennsylvania. 
At this place, is located the Carnegie iron and steel 
works. Owing to the lowering of wages, the hands 
to the number of several hundred struck, and the 
Carnegie iron works officials at once brought a body 
of Pinkerton's detectives from Chicago, Philadelphia 
and New York, armed with Winchesters. They came 
in a boat partially bullet-proof. The workmen as- 
sailed the boat, and for ten hours a conflict raged in 
which a number were killed and wounded, when the 
Pinkerton detectives surrendered and were led through 
the town by the victors to a hall where they were im- 
prisoned, until they could escape the fury of the 
mob. 

During the latter part of President Harrison's ad- 
ministration, the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands 
to the United States became an absorbing topic in 
diiDlomatic circles, and was freely discussed in the 
newspapers. Some of the natives and American citi- 
zens had overthrown the government, dethroned the 
queen, and set up a provisional government, in the 
form of a republic with Mr. Dole at the head, and 
sent commissioners to the United States to ask to be 
annexed to this nation. The party in power seemed 
friendly to annexation, and President Harrison sub- 
mitted a treaty to the United States senate, but a 
change of administration interrupted the proceedings. 

The year 1802 being a presidential year, the Repub- 
licans renominated Benjamin Harrison for president 
Avith Mr. Whitelaw Keid of New York for vice-pres- 
ident. The Democratic Party nominated G rover 
Cleveland of N^ew York for president and Mr. Steven- 
son of Illinois for vice-president. The Po])ulists, 
or People's Party, which had gained considerable 
strength, nominated General Weaver of Iowa at the 



UNION. 



head of its ticket. General Bidwell of California 
was the standard-bearer of the Prohibition party. 

Cleveland and Stevenson were elected president and 
vice-president of the United States. 

The mortality during Harrison's administration 
was great. His own family and his political associ- 
ates were very unfortunate. The daughter and wife' 
of Secretary Tracy perisheil iu a conflagration which 
consumed the house. President Harrison's wife, an 
estimable Christian lady, died during the campaign 
which witnessed her husband's defeat. On January 
16, 1893, Rutherford B. Hayes, ex-president of the 
United States, died. On January 11th, Gen. Ben- 
jamin F. Butler died, and on Jan- 
uary 27th, at 11 A.M., Hon. James 
G. Blaine died. Phillips Brooks 
and Confederate General Double- 
day died the same month. Dur- 
ing the month of February, Con- 
federate General Beauregard died. 
During this month, Hon. William 
^IcKinley suffered great financial 
losses from having indorsed notes 
for friends. He was heavily em- 
barrassed, but refused aid, saying 
that he would redeem all the 
obligations he had assumed for 
others. McKinley was, in 1892, 
elected governor of Ohio, the 
greatest honor the State could 
confer upon him. 
During the campaign of 1892, Judge Walter Q. 
Gresham announced his intention to vote for Grover 
Cleveland. That announcement alone no doubt car- 
ried thousands of votes to the Democratic candidate. 
He was rewarded by Mr. Cleveland with the first 




AViLLiAM McKinley. 



APPEXDIX. 489 

place iu his cabinet, that of secretary of state, an 
appointment astonishing to both Eepublicans and 
Democrats. The remainder of the cabinet is as fol- 
lows: secretary of the treasury, John G. Carlisle of 
Kentucky; secretary of war, Daniel S. Lament of 
New York; attorney-general, Richard Olney of Mas- 
sachusetts; postmaster-general, Wilson S. Bissell of 
New York ; secretary of the navy, Hilary A. Her- 
bert of Alabama; secretary of the interior, Hoke 
Smith of Georgia; secretary of agriculture, J. Ster- 
ling Morton of Nebraska. 

On March 4, 1893, G rover Cleveland took the oath 
of office for a second time as president of the United 
States. 

Reference has been made to the dethronement of 
the queen of the Hawaiian Islands, during President 
Harrison's term. There was a division of opinion in 
regard to the subject of annexation, and unfortunately 
this division seemed to assume the form of a political 
question. Mr. Cleveland withdrew from the senate 
tlie treaty which Mr. Harrison had submitted and 
dispatched Hon. James H. Blount of Georgia as 
special commissioner, or minister plenipotentiary and 
envoy extraordinary to the Hawaiian islands to make 
full inquiry as to what part the minister of the United 
States and the officers and sailors of the United States 
man-of-war had taken in dethroning the queen. The 
theory of the president, based on the report of Com- 
missioner Blount, was that the queen of the Hawaiian 
islands had been overawed by United States officers, 
including the minister and the captain of the man- 
of-war, and that her abdication was only temporary, 
with the understanding that her cause might be sub- 
mitted to the government of the United States, and 
she be restored if found to be in the right. 

This representation induced ex-Minister John L. 



490 UNTON. 

Stevens to publish ti letter giving his version of what 
had happened at Hawaii. Mr. Stevens stated that 
on the death of King Kalakaua, his sister Liliuokalani 
succeeded him to the throne, and surrounded herself 
with libertines and gamblers, taking her paramour 
to live with her in her palace. The biennial legis- 
lature of 1893 voted out the queen's immoral minis- 
try. She seemed for a while to acquiesce, but, aided 
by her friends, she carried by bribery the opium and 
lottery bills, which were odious to the more intelligent 
and honorable people of her country, and then forced 
out the Wilcox-Jones ministry, and appointed in their 
places four of her palace retainers, two of whom the 
legislature and a responsible public had recently and 
repeatedly rejected. Minister Stevens was absent 
from Honolulu at the time on board the Boston. As 
he was coming into the harbor at noon on January 
14, 1892, the legislature was prorogued. The revolu- 
tionary edict of Hawaii's misguided queen, was about 
to be proclaimed; rumors of it had already reached 
the public ear. A few minutes before the appointed 
hour for the coNp (rvtai, immediately npon Minister 
Stevens reaching the legation from the Boston, he 
was urged to go at once to the British minister, and 
ask him to accompany him to the queen, and try to 
dissuade her from her revolutionary design; but it 
was too late. The maddened and misguided woman 
had already launched the revolution. Saturday night 
told every intelligent man in Honolulu that the Ha- 
waiian monarchy was at an end forever. There was a 
great mass meeting on Jannary 16th, representing the 
wealtli, influence and patriotism of the islands. They 
resolved to be no longer ruled by an immoral queen, 
but to overthrow her, set up a provisional government, 
and then ask to be annexed to the United States, so 
they might be j)rotected by that great power. They 



APPENDIX. 491 

appointed a "committee of public safety," which ap- 
pealed to Minister Stevens to land a force of men from 
the Boston^ lest a riot and incendiarism should burst 
forth in the night, for no reliable police force longer 
existed, and whatever there w-as of force was then in 
the control of the usur2)ers, and lottery gamblers, who 
had inaugurated the revolution by forcibly ejecting 
the Wilcox-Jones ministry. Minister Stevens con- 
cluded his statement as follows: 

" Under the diplomatic and naval rules which were 
and are imperative, the United States minister and 
naval commander would have shamefully ignored 
their duty, had they not landed the men of the Bos- 
to)i for the security of American life and property, 
and the maintenance of public order, even had the 
committee of public safety not requested us to do so. 
As American representatives, five thousand miles 
away from our government, we could not have escaped 
the responsibility, even had we desired to do so. 
Fortunately, the commander of the Boston^ and those 
under his command had no desire to shirk their duty. 
On shore and in perfect order, they stepj^ed not an 
inch from their line of duty. They never lifted a 
Unger to aid the fallen monarchy nor the rising pro- 
visional government. The former sought their aid, 
but neither party had the least assistance of force by 
Captain Wiltse and those under his command. All 
assertions to the contrary^ Ijy whomsoever uttered^ are 
audacious falsehoods witliout a semblance of truth." 

On November 10, 1893, the secretary of state issued 
a letter in which it was intimated that it was the in- 
tention of the president to restore the queen to her 
throne in accordance with the knowledge gained bv 
the report of Commissioner Blount. This announce- 
ment caused excitement all over the United States, 
and for weeks the papers were full of rumors. The 



492 UNION. 

Hawaiian question unfortunately became more a party 
issue, which always hinders a fair and impartial inves- 
tigation. One of the conditions ujjon which President 
Cleveland j^roposed restoring the queen Avas that she 
should grant general amnesty to all those who had 
been concerned in the revolution that dethroned her. 
This she at tirst refused to do, but after it was too 
late she assented to the condition. 

lu accordance with Mr. Cleveland's instructions, 
Minister "Willis, who succeeded Mr. Stevens, on De- 
cember 22, 1893, went to Mr. Dole, the ^iresident of 
the Hawaiian government, and in the name of the 
United States demanded that the provisional govern- 
ment should abdicate in favor of the deposed queen. 
This President Dole took under advisement, and 
finally refused to do, and for many days, even up to 
this writing, great excitement has prevailed in the 
Plawaiian Islands and in the United States. On 
January 10, 1894, Mr. Gresham announced that the 
policy of the administration of " restoring the queen 
had been dropped." 

The summer of 1893 was noted for the great World's 
Fair held in Chicago. It was officially ojjened May 
1st, and closed October 30th of that year. It was 
the most successful exhibition ever known, and ex- 
ceeded in attendance even the Paris exposition. As 
an educational feature, the World's Fair has perhaps 
done more for the American people, than any exhibi- 
tion since the formation of the government. Among 
the many distinguished visitors at the Columbian ex- 
position was the Duke of Yeragua, who is said to be 
a lineal descendant of Christopher Columbus. 

As early as April, 1893, evidences of a business de- 
pression were discernible, which in May culminated 
in a financial panic. From that time to the end of 
the year and into the first month of 1891, the present 



APPENFIX. 493 

writing, the depression increiised. Some financiers 
thouglit the cause of the sudden and unexpected 
"hard times" was the "Sherman Law," which pro- 
vided that the secretary of the treasury should pur- 
chase 4,500,000 ounces of silver bullion every mouth 
to he hoarded away in the treasury, on which treasury 
notes were issued payable in coin, which were invari- 
ably paid in gold. Though this law was known as 
the "Sherman Law," and was enacted as a compro- 
mise to prevent "free silver," Senator John Sherman 
denied arny responsibility for it. 

President Cleveland called an extra session of con- 
gress to meet August 7th, and take action on the 
silver question, and after a long session and many de- 
bates, the Sherman Law was repealed on November 
1, 1893. It was predicted that "good times" would 
be restored as soon as the iniquitous silver law was 
"wiped off the statute books," but the prediction 
failed. Financial matters grew worse. Railroads 
were seriously nifected, and at this writing, more 
than one-fifth of the railroads of the L'^nited States 
are in the hands of receivers. Corporations and in- 
dividuals failed for millions, and factories closed their 
doors, throwing many thousands of people, dependent 
on their daily labor for support, out of employment. 
Millionaires, common people, and ])aupers suffered. 

Disasters went on multiplying until it is estimated 
that more than fifty-five millions of dollars were lost 
in failures in 1893. 

There were State elections in many of the States 
on November 7th. Greatest interest centred in 
Hon. William McKinley, who was a candidate for re- 
election for governor of Ohio. The election was on 
purely party lines, for both Governor McKinley and 
his opponent were men of unimpeachable characters. 
The tariff became the issue, and ^IcKinley won by a 



494 UNION. 

majority of nearly ninety thousand. New York also 
went Republican, and other States showed Eepuhlicau 
gains. 

On January 1, 1894, New York City had half a 
million unemployed people, many of whom were des- 
titute and suffering, while the proportion in Chicago 
and other cities was equally great. 

The principal events of the year 1893, not already 
mentioned, were the opening of the Cherokee Strip, 
September 16th; the assassination of Carter Harrison, 
mayor of Chicago, by an ex-policeman, October '28th ; 
the strike on the Lehigh Valley Railroad, which for 
a while tied up the business of that great thorough- 
fare, but which, thanks to prudence, reason and 
justice, was amicably settled ; the steps taken for the 
erection of a monument at Wakefield, Virginia, to 
mark the birthplace of George A\'ashington, and the 
unveiling in New York City, on November 25th, of 
the statue of Captain Nathan Hale, the young i^atriot 
who was hanged by the British for a spy. 

The year 1894 dawned gloomy and depressing on our 
glorious republic, yet the American people are ever 
hopeful, and through the darkest clouds the sun may 
sometimes break forth in radiance and glory. AVe 
are at peace with all the world, while the crowned 
heads of Europe constantly watch each other with 
suspicion. Though financial panics have wrought 
disaster to countless thousands, the American people 
are not a nation to despair, and already the people 
are grasping all the vital questions of the day with a 
boldness and patriotism that will soon set matters 
right, and this model republic which Ave have traced 
from its formation will then enter upon a new era of 
prosperity and will grow in strength and glory with 
each additional age of wisdom. 

THE EXD. 



HISTOEIOAL IJSTDEX. 



PAGE 

Alabama at Cherbourg 300 

Alabama claims against England settled 451 

Alabama, the, built at Birkenhead, England 148 

Alabama's fight with the Kearsarge 306 

Alabama, on board the 296 

Alabama, originally the "390," fitting out and sailing 151 

Alabama received as a state of the Union 445 

Alabama claims, trouble with England over 448 

Alabama, the, sinks the Hutteras 162 

Amendment, thirteenth, to constitution 434 

Anderson, Major, in command of troops in South 

Carolina harbor 100 

Anderson, General, raising the American flag, over 

Fort Sumter in 1865 398 

Anderson takes command of Fort Sumter 103 

Anderson, Mrs., visits her husband at Fort Sumter 

and takes him Peter Hart 116 

Appomattox, Lee surrenders at 409 

Arthur, Chester A., death of 480 

Arthur, Chester A., president of the United States. . . 470 

Ashley of Ohio offers resolutions of impeachment. . . . 441 

Banks, General, captures Port Hudson 340 

Banks, General, on Red River 370 

Battle of Belmont 224 

Battle of Bentonville 401 

Battle between the Alabama and the Kearsarge 306 

Battle of Cold Harbor 376 

Battle of Corinth 316 

495 



496 HISTORICAL INDEX. 

PAGE 

Battle of Gettysburg 340 

Battle of Jonesboio 390 

Battle of Kenesaw Mountain 377 

Battle of Lookout Mountain 347 

Battle of Missionary Ridge 350 

Battle of Pea Ridge 334 

Battle of Perryville 338 

Battle of Resaca, Georgia 377 

Battle of Shiloh 236 

Battle of Spottsylvania Court House 375 

Battle of the Wilderness 374 

Barnuni, P. T., death of 485 

Bartholdi's statue, arrival of, in New York 479 

Beauregard orders the bombardment of Fort Sumter. . 142 

Beecher, Henry Ward, death of 480 

Bell, John, nominated by the Union party for presi- 
dent in 1861 89 

Birkenhead, England, where the Alabama was built. 148 

Black Hills, gold discovered in 455 

Blaine, Conkliug's opposition to 470 

Blaine, James G., nomination and defeat 474 

Blaine, James G., death of 488 

Blizzard in New York 481 

Blair, Frank P., nominated for vice-president on 

Democratic ticket 446 

Bland silver dollar law 466 

Booth assassinates Lincoln 416 

Booth at Garrett's 417 

Booth discovered by detectives and soldiers in a barn 

at Garrett's 433 

Booth, Edwin, the actor, effects of his brother's crime 

on 436 

Booth in Washington 414 

Booth, John Wilkes, playing Richard HI. atDe Bar's 

Theatre, St. Louis, in 1865 401 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 497 

PAGE 

Booth killed by Boston Corbett 424 

Booth's threat to Maggie Mitchell 412 

Breckinridge nominated by one portion of the Demo- 
cratic party in 1861, for president 89 

Bragg, General, makes arrangements to dislodge Sher- 
man at Missionary Ridge B47 

Buchanan, James, president of the United States. ... 77 

Buchanan, weakness of 99 

Buckner, S. B. , captain Kentucky State Guard 167 

Buell arrives at Shiloh 253 

Bull Run, battle of 214 

Burnside supersedes McClellan 339 

Butler, Benjamin F. , nominated for president on 

Greenback ticket 474 

Butler, Benjamin F. , death of 488 

Cabinet of Buchanan 77 

Cairo, Grant and Prentiss at 210 

Calhoun, John C, promulgation of the doctrine of 

State Supremacy 76 

Campbell, shipping agent for the Alabama 150 

Corse, General, severely wounded 350 

Centennial 462 

Charleston, excitement in 99 

Chase, Chief Justice, death of 453 

Cherokee Strip opened 494 

Chicago, great fire at 451 

Chicago, World's Fair held at 485 

Chile, trouble with 472 

Chilean authorities kill American sailors 486 

Clan-na-g ael trials 484 

Cleveland elected president of the United States 474 

Cleveland 's cabinet — his inauguration 477 

Cleveland again elected president of the United 

States 488 

Cobb, Howell, aiding the secessionists 97 

32 



498 HISTORICAL INDEX. 

PAGE 

Colfax, Schuyler, nominated for vice-president 445 

Conkling and Gariield fight 476 

Conkling, death of 481 

Congress appoints the reconstruction committee 437 

Constitution, fifteenth amendment to 44(5 

Corbett, Boston, the man who shot John Wilkes Booth 424 

Corinth, battle of 31(5 

Corinth, General Rosecrans at 275 

Crook sent to fight the Sioux in Dakota 456 

Cummings Point, place from which first shot was 

fired at Sumter 142 

Custer, General, and command slain by Sitting Bull's 

Indians 457 

Darien ship canal 451 

Davis, Jefferson, candidateforpresident of the United 

States in 1860 88 

Davis, Jelferson, capture of 427 

Davis, Jefferson, description of 201 

Davis, Jefferson, entrance to Richmond 200 

Davis flees to Danville 409 

Davis, Jefferson, president of the Confederacy 136 

De Bar's theatre, Booth at 411 

Democratic convention at Charleston 88 

Democratic party, division in 77 

Donelson, Fort, invested 233 

Douglas, Stephen A. , nominated for president 89 

Dred Scott decision 78 

Emancipation of slaves advocated by a part of the 

Democratic party 77 

Emancipation proclamation in 1863 349 

Fenians suppressed 439 

Fisheries, Canadian, troubles 481 

Floyd fails to have Anderson removed and leaves the 

cabinet 104 

Floyd, John C. , secretary of war, aiding the South. .. 96 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 499 

PAGE 

Ford's Theatre, Laura Keene playing "American 

Cousin" in 414 

Fort Fisher captured 397 

Fremont, Jolm C. , death of 484 

Fugitive slave law, fruits of 82 

Gardner, Colonel, removed from command at Charles- 
ton 100 

Garfield, assassination of 470 

Garfield's inauguration and cabinet 469 

Garfield, James A. , and Arthur nominated by Repub- 
licans 468 

Geneva, arbitration of Alabama claims at 451 

Georgia revived as a state of the Union 445 

Germany's embargo on American pork 473 

Gillraore, General, besieging Charleston 368 

Gillmore, General, investing Charleston 340 

Gough, John B. , death of 480 

Grant and Ward failures in 1884 473 

Grant and Colfax, election of 446 

Grant and Wilson elected 452 

Grant, General, death of \ . . 478 

Grant defeated at Hatcher's Run 397 

Grant's inauguration and cabinet 448 

Grant, General, investing Lookout Mountain and Mis- 
sionary Ridge 341 

Grant made Lieutenant-General 372 

Grant landing troops at Belmont 219 

Grant, General, moves on Belmont 214 

Grant nominated for President, 1868 445 

Grant renominated for President in 1872 451 

Grant, General, seizes Paducah 40 

Grant's third term campaign 467 

Greeley, Horace, nominated by Liberal Republicans, 

1872 451 

Greeley, Horace, death of 453 



500 HISTORICAL INDEX. 

PAGE 

Guiteau, the assassin of Garfield .471 

Hale, Nathan, unveiling of statue of 494 

Halleck, General, supersedes Grant 359 

Halstead, Mr. Murat, and Mr. Blaine 475 

Hamlin, Hannibal, nominated for vice-president. ... 87 

Hancock and Englisli nominated by Democratic party 468 

Hancock, Winfield Scott 480 

Harrison, Benjamin, elected president of the United 

States 482 

Harrison, Carter, mayor of Chicago, assassinated 494 

Harrison, Mrs. , deatli of 488 

Hart, Peter, a New York policeman, goes to aid Major 

Anderson 109 

Hatc;her's Run, General Grant defeated at 397 

Hatteras, the, sunk by the Alabama 163 

Hawaii revolts and asks to be annexed 487 

Hawaii, trouble with 489 

Hayes' administration, his cabinet 463 

Hayes and Wheeler nominated and elected 463 

Hayes, ex-President, death of 488 

Hayes, President, brings about a reform in the South 463 

Hayes', President, Civil Service order 464 

Haymarket riots 487 

Hendricks nominated for vice-president 463 

Hendricks, Thomas A., vice-president, death of 479 

Henry, Fort, captured 333 

Homestead riots 487 

Hooker's gallant fight at Lookout Mountain 347 

Hooker, General, at Lookout Mountain . . 343 

Huntei- succeeded by General Gillniore 397 

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, articles of 443 

Impeachment of Johnson, prosecutions in 444 

Indians, trouble with 446 

Island No. 10 captured 356 

Italians hung at New Orleans 485 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 501 

PAGE 

luka, battle of 275 

Jack, Captaiu, the Modoc, hanged 455 

Jett, Captain, the*nian who took Booth to Garrett's. . 417 

Jolnison, Andrew," character of 435 

Johnson, charges in impeachment 443 

Johnson, Andrew, inauguration of 433 

Johnson, retirement of 447 

Jolmson tried and acquitted 445 

Johnston, Col. A. Sidney, sent with soldiers to attact 

Mormons at Salt Lake 87 

Johnston, General, surrenders to Sherman 437 

Johnstown flood disaster .' 483 

Joseph's, Chief, capture, his pathetic address 465 

Kansas admitted to the Union 137 

Kansas, civil war in 80 

Kearsarge, the, at Cherbourg 301 

Keene, Laura, at the side of the dying president 416 

Kell, Mcintosh, Captain, of the Alabama 162 

Kell, officer, reports the Alabama ready for action. . . . 305 

Kentucky's stand in 1861 165 

Kuklux Klan trials and convictions 45d 

Lee, Colonel Robert E., sent to capture John Brown. 72 

Lee, General, as a soldier 374 

Lee, General, surrendering at Appomattox 409 

Lincoln, Abraham, nominated for president, 1860 ... 89 

Lincoln's assassination 416 

Lincoln's impressive funeral 426 

Lincoln inaugurated 137 

Lincoln proposes to abolish slavery 274 

Lincoln re-elected president 395 

Lincoln's second inauguration 399 

Logan, John A. , death of 480 

Longfellow, H. W. , poet, death of 474 

Mason and Slidell captured aboard a British ship. . . . 273 

Marmaduke, General, in Southwest 370 



503 HISTORICAL INDEX. 

PAGE 

Maximilian in Mexico 373 

Maximilian seized by Mexicans and shot 438 

McKinley's, Wm. , great victory in Ohio 494 

McKinley Law 484 

McPherson, General, killed by sharpshooters 380 

Meade, General, hero of Gettysburg 340 

Meeker massacre 467 

Mitchell, Maggie, and John Wilkes Booth 412 

Mississippi revived as a Stg-te of the Union 445 

Modoc War 454 

Monitor and Merrivuic 234 

Mormons, trouble with 86 

Morton, Levi P. , vice-president 482 

National banking system, how originated 449 

Negroes granted a vote in District of Columbia by 

congi'ess 440 

Negro suffrage, Andrew Johnson's opposition to 436 

Nez Perce War 465 

North Carolina, General J. F. Foster in 367 

North Carolina revived as a State of the Union 445 

Oglesby, Colonel Richard, sent to St. Francois River. . 211 

Oklahoma Territory opened up 483 

Old Testament, revised, published . . 479 

Pacific Railroad, completion of 450 

Panic of 1884 473 

Peace in 1859 59 

Pea Ridge, battle of 234 

Pittsburg Landing captured 234 

Pittsburg Landing, Grant at 234 

Prentiss, General B. M. , at Cairo 210 

Prentiss, General, brings on engagement at Shiloh. . . 236 

Prentiss, General, great victory at Helena 389 

Price, General Sterling, at Corinth 321 

Prosecutions in the Johnson impeachment trial 444 

Quarrel between Johnson and congress comes off 435 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 503 

PAGE 

Question of slavery 77 

Race war in the South began 440 

Randall, Samuel J. , death of 484 

Reconstruction committee appointed by congress .... 437 

Reorganization began bj' President Johnson 434 

Republican party gaining strength 87 

Resumption of specie payment 466 

Richmond, false alarm in 191 

Richmond, Grant enters 409 

Richmond made seat of Confederate government .... 200 

Rogers, Colonel, killed at Corinth 320 

Rosecrans, General, at luka 275 

Rosecrans, General, victory at Corinth 327 

Ruffin, the man who fired the first shot at Fort Sumter 144 
Russell, Lord John, refuses to allow war-ships built 

in England, for so-called Confederate States. 371 

Salary grab 453 

Savannah, Ga. , captured 395 

Scott, General, urges the fortifying of Charleston. . . . 100 

Scott, General Winfield, death of 446 

Secession advocated - 90 

Semmes, Captain Raphael, of the Alabama 153 

Serames, Captain, rescued by Mr. Lancaster 313 

Semmes' speech to crew 305 

Seward, Secretary, and son stabbed 416 

Seymour, Horatio, nominated for president on the 

Democratic ticket 446 

Seymour, Horatio, death of 480 

Sioux, trouble with 456 

Sitting Bull placed on a reservation 466 

Sitting Bull, the great Sioux chief 457 

Sherman's advance on Missionary Ridge 347 

Sherman's army at Missionary Ridge 345 

Sherman in the Southwest 373 

Sherman Law on silver purchase clause, repeal of . . . . 493 



504 HISTORICAL INDEX. 

PAGE 

Sherman's march to the sea. 394 

Shiloh, battle of 236 

Slocum, General, attacked near Bentonville 401 

Smith, General Kirby, surrender of 437 

South Carolina revived as a State of the Union 445 

South Carolina secedes 98 

South, condition of 454 

South, excitement in, over Lincoln's election 93 

Southern Confederacy in straitened circumstances. . . 371 

Specie payment, resumption of 466 

Spottsylvania Court House, fight at 375 

Star of the West fired on — first shot of the war 132 

Star Route trials 473 

State Supremacy, early development of 76 

Stanton removed and Grant given his place 443 

Stephens, Alexander H., vice-president of the Con- 
federacy 136 

Stevens, Major, commanding Confederate battery 

that fired on Star of the West 133 

Stuart, Lieut. J. E. B., sent to demand surrender 

of John Brown at Harper's Ferry 73 

Sumter, ineflfectual efforts to capture 369 

Sumter retaken by United States forces 397 

Taney, Roger B. , chief justice of the United States, 

renders the Dred Scott decision 79 

Taylor supersedes Hood 397 

Tenure of office Act a slur on Johnson 443 

Tilden, Samuel J., nominated by Democrats for presi- 
dent 463 

Tilden, Samuel J., death of 480 

Union Branch' fight of 334 

United States senate organized into a high court of 

impeachniMit to try President Johnson 445 

Ute Indian War 407 

Van Dorn, General, at Corinth 331 



HISTORICAL ISDEX. 505 

PAGE 

Veto power exercised by Andrew Johnson 437 

Vicksburg surrenders to General Grant 339 

Virginius captured by Spanisli authorities and 

American sailors shot 454 

Wallace, General Lew, at Shiloh 234 

War of the Rebellion, causes of 90 

War vigorously prosecuted in the South 399 

Washington Centennial celebration 483 

Washington's, Colonel, horses taken and slaves set at 

liberty by John Brown 70 

Weaver, General John B. , nominated by the Green- 
back party 468 

Wilderness, battle of 374 

Winchester, battle at 234 

Windom, William, death of 485 

Winslow, Captain of Kearsarge, sinking the Alabama 311 

Whiskey ring frauds 457 

World's Fair decided on 484 

World's Fair at Chicago 492 

Yancey advocates secession 90 

Young, Brigham, arrested for Mountain Meadow 

massacre 451 

Young, Brigham, Mormon ruler, declares w«r agninst 

the United States 86 



OHROlSrOLOGT. 



PERIOD XII.— AGE OF UNION. 

From a.d. 1854 to a.d. 1894. 

1864. Kansas-Nebraska Biix. repealing Compromise of 
1850, passed, —March 3. 
Kansas Territory formed, — Maj' 30. 
Nebraska Territory formed,— Maj'^ 30. 
OsTEND Manifesto issued by American ministers, 
Oct. 21. 
1855. Kansas troubles ; emigration from slave and free 
States. 
Niagara Suspension Bridge completed. 

1857. James Buchanan inaugurated president, —March 4. 
Dred Scott Decision ; opinion delivered by Chief 

Justice Taney, — March 6. 
Trouble with Mormons in Utah ; militarj' sent by 
the United States. 

1858. Minnesota admitted into the Union, — May 11. 
First Message by the Atlantic cable, — Aug. 16. 

1859. Oregon admitted into the Union, — Feb. 14. 
John Brown seized United States arsenal at Har- 
per's Fei'ry, — Oct. 16. 

Victoria Bridge, Montreal, opened. 

1860. South Carolina seceded, — Dec. 20. 

1861. Star of the West fired upon off Charleston Har- 

bor, — Jan. 9. 
Kansas admitted into the Union, — Jan. 9. 
507 



508 CHRONOLOGY. 

Confederate Government organized at Mont- 
gomery, Ala., — Feb. 8. 

Jefferson Davis, president ; Alexander II. Ste- 
phens, vice-president, — Feb. 9. 

Colorado Territory formed, — Feb. 28. 

Dakota Territory formed, — March 2. 

Nevada Territory formed, — March 2. 

Abraham Lincoln inaugurated president, — March 
4. 

Fort Sumter, S. C, bombarded by Beauregard, — 
April 12. 

United States Arsenal at Harper's Ferry de- 
stroyed by Federals, — April 18. 

GOSPORT Navy- yard destroyed by Federals (Nor- 
folk, Va.),— April 20. 

Battle of Philippi, W.Va. ; Confederate defeat, 
June 3. 

Battle of Big Bethel, Va. ; Pierce defeated, — 
June 10. 

Battle of Romney, Va. ; Federal victory, — June 
11. 

Battlb of Boonville, Mo. ; Lyon victorious, — 
June 17. 

Battle op Carthage, Mo. ; Gov. Jackson and 
Sigel ; indecisive, — July 5. 

Battle of Rich Mountain, W. Va. ; Rosecrans 
victorious, — July 11. 

Battle near Centreville, Va., — July 18. 

Confederate capital changed to Richmond, Va. , 
—July 20. 

Battle of Bull Run, Va. ; McDowell defeated, 
—July 21. 

Battle of Dug Spring, Mo. ; Lyon victorious, — 
Aug. 2. 

Battle of Wilson's Creek, Mo. ; Lyon killed, — 
Aug. 10. 



CHRONOLOGY. 509 

Battle of Hatteras Inlet, N. C. : Federal vic- 
toiy,— Aug. 28, 29. 

Columbus, KJ^, seized and fortified by Confeder- 
ates, — Sept. 4. 

Grant occupied Padueah , Kr. , — Sept. 6. 

Battle of Lexington, Mo. ; Price defeated Mul- 
ligan,— Sept. 17-20. 

Battle of Ball's Bluff, or Edwards' Ferry ; 
Baker killed,— Oct. 21. 

Scott retired and McClellan appointed general-in- 
chief, —Nov. 1. 

Battle of Port Royal Entrance, S. C. ; Feder- 
als victorious, — Nov. 7. 

Battle of Belmont, Mo. ; Grant and Polk, inde- 
cisive, —Nov. 7. 

Mason and Slidell taken from the Trent, — Nov. 8. 
1802. Battle of Mill Springs, Ky. ; Thomas victori- 
ous,— Jan. 19, 20. 

Fort Henry, Tenn., captured by Foote, — Feb. 6. 

Battle of Roanoke Island, N. C. ; Bumside 
victorious. — Feb. 8. 

Fort Donrlson, Tenn., surrendered to' Grant, — 
Feb. 16. 

Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark. : Curtis victorious, 
—March fi-8. 

The Virginia {Merrimac) destroyed the Cumber- 
land and Congress, at Hampton Rords, Va., — 
March 8. 

Battle between the Virginia {Merrimac) and 
Monitor, at Hampton Roads, Va., — March 9. 

Battle of New Madrid, Mo. ; Pope victorious, 
— March 14. 

Battle of New Bern, N. C. ; Bumside victori- 
ous, — March 14. 

Battle near Winchester, Va. ; Shields victori- 
ous, — March 23. 



510 CHRONOLOGY. 

Battle of Pittsburg Landing, or Shiloh. Tenn. ; 
Grant defeated Beauregard ; A. S. Johnson 
killed ; 20,000 men lost ; April 6-7. 

Island No. 10, with 6,000 men, captured by Foote 
and Pope, — April 7. 

Battle of Fort Pulaski. Ga. ; Gillmore victo- 
rious, — April 10-13. 

Farragut's fleet passed Forts Jackson and St. 
Philip, La.,— April 24. 

New Orleans, La., captured by Farragut's fleet, 
—April 25. 

New Orleans, La., occupied by Federals under 
Butler,— May 1. 

Battle of Williamsburg, Va. ; McClellan vie- 
torious, — May 5. 

Norfolk, Va. , captured by Wool, —May 10. 

Hanover Courthouse, Va. , captured by Fitz 
John Porter, —May 27. 

Beauregard evacuated Corinth, Miss., — May 27. 

Battles of Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, Va. ; 
McClellan victorious, — May 31 and June 1. 

Lee appointed to chief command of the Confeder- 
ate army, — June 3. 

Gunboat fight near Fort Pillow, Tenn.,— June 6. 

Davis, successor of Foote, captured Memphis, 
Tenn., — June 6. 

Seven Days' Battles in Virginia ; McClellan and 
Lee, — June 26 to July 1. (Mechanicsville, June 
26 ; Gaines' Mill, 27 ; Cliickahominy, 28 ; Sav- 
age's Station, 29 ; White Oak Swamp, 29-30 ; 
Glendale. 30; Malvern Hill, July 1.) 

Battle of Cedar Mountain, Va. ; Jackson vic- 
torious ; Winder killed, — Aug. 9. 

Sioux war in Minnesota began, — August. 

Pope's battles, between Mana.ssas and Washing- 
ton, D. C.,— Aug. 26 to Sept. 1. (The more 



CHRONOLOGY. 511 

important were Groveston, Aug. 39 ; second 
Bull Run, 30 ; Chantilly, Sept. 1 ; victorious 
campaign for Lee ; Kearney and Stevens 
killed.) 
Battle of Richmond, Ky. ; Kirby Smith victori- 
ous, — Aug. 30. 
Invasion of Maryland by Lee ; crossed the Poto- 
mac near Point of Rocks, — Sept. 4-7. 
Battle of South Mountain, Md. ; McClellan vic- 
torious, — Sept. 14. 
Harper's Ferry, with 13,000 men, surrendered 

to Jackson by Miles,— Sept. 15. 
Battle of Antietam, Md. ; McClellan and Lee,— 

Sept. 17. 
Munfordsville, Ky. , captured by Confederates,— 

Sept. 17. 
Battle of Iuka, Miss. ; Rosecraus victorious,— 

Sept. 19-30. 
Battle of Corinth, Miss. ; Rosecrans victorious, 

—Oct. 3-4. 
Battle of Perryville, Ky. ; unsuccessful attack 

by Bragg. — Oct. 8. 
Battle of Prairie Grove, Ark. ; Blunt victori- 
ous, — Dec. 7. 
Battle of Fredericksburg, Va. ; Lee victorious, 

Federals lost 13,000 men,— Dec. 13. 
Battle of Kingston, N. C. ; Foster victorious.— 

Dec. 14. 
Battle of Stone River, or Murfreesboro, Tenn., 
—Dec. 31 to Jan. 3. (One of the fiercest of the 
war, — Rosecrans victorious.) 

1863. Emancipation Proclamation, issued by Lincoln, 
— Jan. 1. 
Battle of Fort Hindman, or Arkansas Post; 
McClernand victorious, — Jan. 11. 



512 CHRONOLOGY. 

Second expedition to the Yazoo ; Giaut arrived 
at Young's Point, La., — Feb. 2. 

Arizona Territory formed,— Feb. 24. 

National Bank Act approved, — Feb. 25. 

Idaho Territory formed, — March 8. 

Third expedition to the Yazoo, under Porter,— 
March 15. 

Fort Sumter, S. C, bombarded by the Federals; 
Du Pont unsuccessful, — April 7. 

Grierson's cavalry raid through Mississippi; 
left La Grange, Tatm., — April 17. 

Battle of Port Gibson, Miss. ; McCJellan victori- 
ous, — May 1. 

Battle of Chancellorville, Va. ; Lee victori- 
ous ; Federals lost 18,000 men, — May 3, 3. 

Battle of Fredricksburo, Va. ; Early victori- 
ous,— May 3, 4. 

Battle of Raymond, Miss. ; McPherson victori- 
ous, — May 12. 

Battle of Big Black River, Miss. ; McClernand 
victorious, — May 17. 

Battle of Vicksburo, Miss. ; Federals rejiulsed, 
—May 23. 

Battle of Port Hudson, La. ; Federals repulsed, 
—May 27. 

Battle of Brandy Station, Va. , by cavalry ; 
Gregg victorious, — June 9. 

Maryland and Pennsylvania invaded by Lee, — 
June. 

West Virginia admitted into the Union, — June 19. 

Morgan's raid crossed the Cumberland River, 
near Bucksville, Ky.,^ — June 27. 

Battle of Gettysburg, Pa. ; Meade and Lee ; 
50,000 men lost,— July 1-8. 

Battle of Helena, Ark. ; attack by HoIn>es re- 
pulsed ; Prentiss victorious, — July 4. 



CHRONOLOGY. 51« 

Surrender op Vicksburg to Graut by Pember- 
tou, — July 4. 

Port Hudson, La., surrendered to Banks, — July 
8. 

Riots in New York City ; opposition to the draft, 
—July 13-16. 

Jackson, Miss., destroyed by Sherman, — July 16. 

Fort Wagner, S. C, captured by Federals, — 
Sept. 6. 

Chattanooga, Tenn. , occupied by Crittenden, — 
Sept. 8. 

Little Rock, Ark., occupied by Steele, — Sept. 10. 

Battle of Chickamauga, Ga. ; Bragg victorious ; 
Rosecrans lost 16, 000 men, — Sept. 19, 20. 

Battles of Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain ; 
Federals defeated Bragg, — Nov. 23-25. 

Battle of Knoxville, Tenn. ; Longstreet raised 
the siege, — Dec. 4. 
1864. Sherman's raid, from Vicksburg ; reached Merid- 
ian, Miss., — Feb. 14. 

Battle of Olustee, or Ocean Pond ; Finnegau 
defeated Seymour, — Feb. 20. 

Banks' Red River Expedition moved up the river, 
March 12. 

Battle of Mansfield, or Sabine Crossroads ; 
Banks defeated, — April 18. 

Battle of Pleasant Hill, La. ; Banks victori- 
ous, — April 9. 

Battle of Fort Pillow^, Tenn. ; captured by 
Forrest.— April 13. 

Plymouth, N. C. , surrendered to Confederates 
under Hoke, — April 20. 

Bermuda Hundred seized and intrenched by But- 
ler, — May 5. 

Battles of the Wilderness between Grant and 
Lee ; 30,000 men lost,— May 5-7. 
38 



514 CHRONOLOGY. 

Sherman's Georgia Campaign, with 110,000 men, 
began at Chattanooga, Tenn., — May 7. 

Battle of Spottsylvania Courthouse, Va. ; 
20, 000 men lost, —May 10. 

Battle of Resaca, Ga. ; Sherman defeated 
Johnston,— May 13-15. 

Battle of Newmarket, Va. ; Sigel defeated, — 
May 15. 

Battles of North Anna, Va. ; Federals victori- 
ous,— May 23-27. 

Montana Territory formed,— May 26. 

Battles of Dallas, Ga. ; Sherman victorious, — 
May 25-28. 

Battle of Totopotomoy Creek, Va. , — May 30. 

Battle of Cold Harbor, Va. ; Grant repulsed 
by Lee, — June 1-3. 

Battle of Petersburg, Va. ; Grant repulsed ; 
10,000 men lost, —June 16-18. 

Siege of Petersburg, Va. , by Grant, begun, — 
June 18. 

The Alabama sunk by the Kearsarge, off Cher- 
bourg, France, — June 19. 

Battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. ; Sherman 
repulsed, — June 27. 

Invasion of Maryland by Early ; Washington, 
D. C. , threatened,— July 9-14. 

Battle of Monocacy, Md. ; Early defeated by 
Wallace,— July 9. 

Battles at Atlanta, Ga. ; Sherman victorious ; 
McPherson and Walker killed,— July 22-28. 

Chambersburg, Pa., attacked and burned by Mc- 
Causland, — July 30. 

Battle of Petersburg ; explosion ; Federals re- 
pulsed, — July 30. 

Battle of Mobile Bay, Ala. ; Farragut victori- 
ous, — Aug. 5. 



CHRONOLOGY. 515 

Weldon Railroad, running south from Rich- 
mond, seized by Federals, — Aug. 18. 
' Battle of Beam's Station, Va. ; Weldon Rail- 

road ; Hancock repulsed, — Aug. 25. 

Battle of Jonesboro, Ga. ; Sherman victorious, 
— Aug. 31 and Sept. 1. 

Atlanta, Ga. , occupied by Sherman, — Sept. 2. 

Battle of Winchester, Va. ; Sheridan victori- 
ous; — Sept. 19. 

Battle of Fisher's Hill, Va. ; Sheridan vic- 
torious, — Sept. 23. 

Nevada admitted into the Union,— Oct. 31. 

Battle of Franklin, Tenn. ; Schofield victori- 
ous, — Nov. 30. 

Fort McAllister, Ga. , captured by Hazen, — 
Dec. 13. 

Battle of Nashville, Tenn. ; Thomas victori- 
ous, — Dec. 15-16. 

Savannah, Ga. , occupied by Sherman's army, — 
Dec. 22. 
1865 Fort Fisher, N. C, captured by Porter and Terry, 
— Jan. 15. 

Sherman's march northward from Savannah, Ga. , 
—Feb. 1. 

Columbia, S. C. , surrendered to Federals ; Sher- 
man's march, — Feb. 17. 

Charleston, S. C. , occupied by Federals ; Sher- 
man's march, — Feb. 18. 

Wilmington, N. C. , captured by Schofield, — 
Feb. 22. 

Lincoln began second presidential term, — March 
4. 

Battle of Averysboro, N. C. ; Slocum victori- 
ous, — March 16. 

Battle of Bentonsville, N. C. ; Slocum victori- 
ous, — March 19. 



516 CHRONOLOGY. 

Armies of Sherman, Terry, and Scliofield united 
at Goldsboro, N. C.,— Marcli 23. 

Battle of Fort Stedman, at Petersburg, Va. ; 
indecisive, — March 25. 

Battle of Dinwiddie Courthouse, Va. ; Slieri- 
dan victorious, — Marcli 31. 

Battle of Five Forks, Va. ; Sheridan victori- 
ous, — April 1. 

Battle of Petersburg, Va. ; Grant carried outer 
lines, — April 1, 2. 

Battle of Selma, Ala. ; Wilson captured the 
city, — April 2. 

Petersburg and Richmond occui)ied by Grant, — 
April 3. 

Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court- 
house, Va., — April 9. 

Mobile, Ala., occupied by Canby, — April 12. 

President Lincoln assassinated at Washington, 
D. C— April 14. 

Andrew Johnson inaugurated president, —April 
15. 

Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution de- 
clared in force, — Dec. 18. 
1866. Fenian Raids into Canada. 

Tennessee reconstructed by Act of July 24. 

Civil War proclaimed to be at an end, — Aug. 
20. 
1S67. Nebraska admitted into the Union,— March 1. 

Reconstruction Act passed over i^resident's veto, 
March 2. 

Tenure of Office Act passed over president's 
veto, — March 2. 

DovsfNFALL of MAXIMILIAN in Mexico (shot at 
Queretaro), — June 19. 

Alaska purchased of Russia, — June 20. 

Dominion of Canada established, — July 1. 



CHRONOLOGY. 517 

1808. Secretary Stanton declared removed from office 
by President Jolinson, — Feb. 31. 

Johnson's Impeachment trial begun, — March 
30. 

Johnson acquitted by a vote of 35 to 19, not two- 
thirds,— May 26. 

Arkansas reconstructed, — June 2fS. 

Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and North 
Carolina reconstructed, — June 25. 

Wyoming Territory formed, — July 25. 

Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution de- 
clared in force, — July 28. 

General amnesty proclaimed by President John- 
son, — Dec. 25. 

1869. Ulysses S. Grant inaugurated president, — 

March 4. 
Pacific Railroad (Union and Central) completed, 

—May 10. (Length, 1,910 miles; cost, $252,- 

000,000.) 
Woman Suffrage in Wyoming, — Dec. 6. 

1870. Virginia reconstructed,— Jan. 27. 
Mississippi reconstructed, —Feb. 3. 
Fenian raids in Canada resumed. 
Texas reconstructed, — March 30. 

Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution de- 
clared in force, — March 30. 

War between France and Germany begao, July 
10, ended May 10, 1871. (Sales of arms diffi- 
culties in the United States resulted from this 
war. ) 

1871. National Park established in Yellowstone Valley, 

—Feb. 28. 
Legal-tender laws declared constitutional by 

Supreme Court, — May 1. 
Fire at Chicago, 111. ; estimated loss, |300,000, - 

000,— Oct. 10-12. 



518 CHRONOLOGY. 

Treaty of Washington, providing for arbitration 
on the Alabama claims, etc., agreed upon by 
Joint High Commission, — Dec. 15. 

Civil Service Reform Commission, established by 
the act of March 3, promulgated report Dec. 
19. 

1872. National Bureau of Education established, — 

Feb. 8. 
Geneva Award ; $15, 500, 000 awarded to the United 

States by the arbitrators on the Alabama claims, 

etc., — Sept. 14. 
San Juan boundary dispute decided in favor of 

the United States ; San Juan Island to the 

United States,— Oct. 21. 
Fire at Boston, Mass. ; estimated loss, |100,000, - 

000,— Nov. 9-10. 
Modoc vstar in California began, — Nov. 39. 

1873. Credit Mobilier Committee appointed, Dec. 3, 

1872, to investigate frauds in the construction 
of the Pacific Railroad reported, — Feb. 24. 

"Salary Grab " act passed,— March 3. 

Grant began second presidential term, — March 4. 

1875. Act providing for specie payments on Jan. 1, 1879, 

approved, — Jan. 14. 

Death of Vice-President Wilson, at Washing- 
ton, D. C— Nov. 32. 

Thomas W. Ferry, president pro tempore of the 
senate. 

1876. Centennial Exhibition opened at Philadelphia, 

May 10, closed Nov. 10. 
Colorado admitted into the Union, — Aug. 1. 
Presidential election, — Nov. 7. (Contest be- 

tvpeen the Republican and Democratic parties 

as to its validity. ) 

1877. Electoral Commission provided for by act of 

Jan. 29. 



1 



CHRONOLOGY. 519 

Hayes and Wheeler declared elected by con- 
gress, — March 2. 

Rutherford B. Hayes inaugurated president, — 
March 5. 

President Hayes' civil-service order issued, — 
June 23. 

Railroad riots at Pittsburg, Albany, Chicago, 
St. Louis, etc.,— July 22-24. 

1878. Yellow fever in Louisiana, Mississippi, Ten- 

nessee, Kentucky, etc. 
Silver dollar made legal tender over president's 

veto,— Feb. 28. 
Gold sells at par in Wall street, — Dec. 17. 

1879. Resumption of specie payments ; Act of Jan. 14, 

1875,— Jan. 1. 
Jeannette sails from San Francisco for North Pole, 
—July 9. 

1880. Increasing immigration, —456, 000 immigrants ar- 

rived during year ending Dec. 31. 
Population of United States over 50,000,000,— 
Tenth census. 

1881. James A. Garfield inaugurated president, — 

March 4. 
President Garfield shot at Washington, D. C, 

—July 2. 
Death of President Garfield at Long Branch, 

N.J.,— Sept. 19. 
Chester A. Arthur inaugurated president at New 

York City,— Sept. 19. 
560,000 immigrants arrived in the United States 

during the nine months ending Sept. 30. 
Centennial Celebration at Yorktown, — Oct. 

10. 
Survivors of Jeannette heard from, — Dec. 20. 

1882. Terrible accident at Spuyten Duyvil, N. Y., 

—Jan. 13. 



530 CHRONOLOGY. 

GuiTEAU, the assassin, found guilty, Jan. 25. 

Hanged June 30. 
Transit of Venus, — Dec. 6. 

1883. New York and Brooklyn Bridge opened May 24. 
Great Strike of Telegraphers' Brotherhood in the 

United States,— July 19 to Aug. 18. 
Northern Pacific Railroad open for traffic. 

—Sept. 8. 
Two-cent letter postage went into effect 

throughout the United States, — Oct. 1. 
Lord Lansdowne inaugurated Governor- General 

of Canada vice the Marquis of Lome, — Oct. 23. 

1 884. Bodies of Jeannette explorers arrived in New York, 

—Feb. 22. 

Washington Monument completed, — Dec. 6. 

Opening of "World's Fair and Cotton Centen- 
nial Exposition " in New Orleans, — Dec. 16. 

1885. Dedication of Washington Monument, — Feb. 21. 
Grover Cleveland inaugurated president, — 

March 4. 
Rebellion in Saskatchewan, British America, 

began, March 23 ; Riel captured. May 15, and 

executed at Regina, — Nov. 16. 
Revised Old Testament published,— May 15. 
Bartholdi Statue of Liberty arrived in New 

York, — June 19. 
. Niagara Park thrown open to the public, — July 15. 
General U. S. Grant died at Mount McGregor, 

N. Y., July 23, and buried at Riverside Park, 

N. Y.,— Aug. 3. 
Flood Rock, East River, blown up, — Oct. 10. 
Gen. George B. McClellan died, — Oct. 29. 
Vice-President Thomas A. Hendricks died, — 

Nov. 25. 
William H. Vanderbilt, the noted millionaire, 

died, — Dec. 8. 



CHRONOLOGY. 521 

United States Senate passed the Presidential 
Succession bill,— Dec. 17. 

1886. Gen. Win field S. Hancock died, — Feb. 9. 
Horatio Seymour died, — Feb. 13. 

John B. Gough, noted temperance lecturer, died, 
—Feb. 18. 

Great labor agitations throughout tlie United 
States, — May 1. 

Railroad strike in the Southwest ended, — May 
4. 

Anarchists explode a dynamite bomb, killing and 
wounding many policemen and rioters, at 
Haymarket Square, Chicago, — May 4. 

Odell, III., wrecked by the wind,— May 13. 

Grover Cleveland, president of United States, 
married to Miss Frances Folsom, — June 3. 

Judge David Davis died at Bloomington, 111., 
— June 36. 

Samuel J. Tilden died, — Aug. 4. 

The great anarchist trial commenced at Chi- 
cago, 111., at 10 a. m., June 21, and ended at 
10 A. M., Aug. 20. (The jury brought in a ver- 
dict of murder in tlie first degree in the case 
of seven of defendants, and of fifteen years in 
prison for the eighth. ) 

Dedication of the famous Bartlioldi Statue of 
"Liberty Enlightening the World, "—Oct. 28. 

Death of ex-President Chester A.Arthur, — Nov. 18. 

Death of General John A. Logan, — Dec. 26. 

1887. The Inter- state Commerce bill passed the senate, 

— Jan. 14. 
The president signed the Inter-state Commerce 

Bill,— Feb. 4. 
Rev. Henry Ward Beecher died, —March 8. 
William A. Wheeler, ex-vice-president of 

United States, died, — June 4. 



532 CHRONOLOGY. 

Terrible railroad accident near Chatsworth, 
111.,— nearly 100 killed,— Aug. 10. 

Governor Oglesby commuted the sentence of 
Samuel Fielden and Michael Schwab, the 
Chicago Anarchists, to imprisonment for life, 
—Nov. 10. 

Louis Lingg committed suicide, — Nov. 10 ; August 
Spies, A . R. Parsons, Adolpli Fischer and Geo. 
Engel, executed, — Nov. 11. 

1888. Terrible blizzard in New York and vicinity, — 

Marcli 18-15. 

Ex-Senator Roscoe Conkling died, — April 18. 

Democratic National Convention at St. Louis, 
nominated Grover Cleveland, of New York, 
for president, and Allan G. Thurman, of Ohio, 
for vice-president, — June 6. 

Republican National Convention at Chicago 
nominated Benjamin Harri.son, of Indiana, for 
president, and Levi P. Morton, vice-president, 
— June 25. 

Philip H. Sheridan, general of United States 
army, died, — Aug. 5. 

The president signed the Chinese Exclusion Bill, 
—Oct. 1. 

The presidential and congressional elections 
were held. Benjamin Harrison was elected 
president of United States, and Levi P. Mor- 
ton vice-president, — Nov. 6. 

1889. The president signed a bill, making the following 

new States : North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Montana and Washington, — Feb. 22. 

President Benjamin Harrison and Vice-Presi- 
dent Levi P. Morton inaugurated, — March 
4. 

The proclamation opening the Territory of Okla- 
homa was issued by the president, March 27, 



CHRONOLOGY. 523 

the proclamation to take effect April 22 at 
high noon. 

Centennial celebration throughout the United 
States, — April 30. 

Terrible flood at Johnstown, Pa., caused by the 
bursting of a reservoir ; the entire valley of 
the Conemaugh flooded ; loss of life esti- 
mated about 5,000; loss of property almost 
incalculable, — May 31-June 1. 

The business portion of Seattle, Washington, — 
destroyed by fire, — June 6. 

Disastrous fire at Spokane Falls, Washington, 
Aug. 4. 

The Cronin trial began August 30, ended Decem- 
ber 16 ; John F. Beggs was acquitted ; John 
Kunze found guilty of manslaughter, and sen- 
tenced to three years, and Daniel Coughlin, 
Patrick O' Sullivan and Martin Burk received 
life sentences. 
1890. Terrible storm passed over the Mississippi valley, 
—March 27. 

Samuel J. Randall died, — April 13. 

Great floods in Mississippi vallej' during April. 

The World's Fair Bill passed the senate, — April 
21. 

President Harrison signed the World's Fair Bill, 
— April 25. 

Monument to Robert E. Lee was unveiled at Rich- 
mond, Va., — May 29. 
Idaho became a State, — July 3. 

Wyomino became a State, — July 10. 

Death of Gen. Clinton B. Fisk, — July 9. 

Death of Major- General John C. Fremont. —July 
13. 

The McKinley Tariff Bill signed by President 
Harrison, — Oct. 1. 



534 CHRONOLOGY. 

New Tariff Bill went into effect, — Oct. 6. 

Outbreak of the Indians, — December. 

Death of Sitting Bulf, — Dec. 15. 

The president issued a proclamation announcing 

the fact that the World's Fair would be held 

in Chicago in 1893„— Dec. 24. 
Death of Gen. F. E. Spinner, ex-treasurer of 

United States,— Dec. 31. 

1891. Death of William Windom, secretary of the treas- 

ury, — Jan. 29. 

Death of Admiral David D. Porter,— Feb. 13. 

Death of Gen. W. T. Sherman,— Feb. 14. 

A MOB in New Orleans attacked the jail and killed 
eleven Italians who were indicted for the 
murder of David Hennessey; intense excite- 
ment all over the country, — March 14. 

Death of P. T. Barnum, the great showman, — 
April 7. 

Ground broken for the first exhibition building 
at World' s Fair grounds, — the Woman 's Build- 
ing, — July 9. 

1892. United States Regulars and Texas Rangers 

opposed the movements of Garza, the Mexi- 
can revolutionist on the Texas border, — Jan. 
2. 

Cyclones devastated several towns in Georgia and 
Florida, — Jan. 6. 

Terrific explosion at the Osage Coal-Mining 
Company's mine at Krebs, I. T., resulting in 
great loss of life and property, — Jan. 7. 

The eminent American sculptor, Randolph Rogers, 
died at Rome, Italy, — Jan. 15. 

Free silver-coinage debate in congress, — March 
22-24. 

Grover Cleveland elected a second time presi- 
dent of the United States, — November. 



CHRONOLOGY. 535 

1893. Ex-President Rutherford B. Hayes died, — Jan. 
16. 

Gen. Benjamin F. Butler died, — Jan. 11. 

Hon. James G. Blaine died, — Jan. 27. 

General Beauregard died, — February. 

Grover Cleveland inaugurated President of the 
United States, —March 4. 

Financial depression began ; Secretary Carlisle 
'conferred with bank presidents, — April 27. 

The Duke of Veragua (a descendant of Colum- 
bus) arrived in Chicago, — April 29. 

World's Columbian Exposition formally opened, 
—May 1. 

PAific OF 1893 began with several failures in New 
York, — May 4. 

James K. Blount appointed by President Cleve- 
land envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary to Hawaii, — May 10. 

Governor McKinley renominated for governor 
of Ohio, — June 8. 

Governor Altqeld, of Illinois, pardoned the Chi- 
cago anarchists Fielden, Schwab, and Neebe, 
—June 26. 

President convened congress in extra session to 
consider the repeal of the Sherman Silver Law, 
—Aug. 7. 

Parliament of Religions in session in Chicago, 
— September. 

Carter Harrison, Mayor of Chicago, assassinated 
by an ex-policeman, — Oct. 28. 

World's Fair closed, Oct. 30. 

Sherman Silver Law repealed, Nov. 1. 

Fall Elections— Great Republican victories in 
New York and Ohio ; Governor McKinley re- 
elected by nearly ninety thousand majority, — 
Nov. 7. 



526 CHRONOLOGY. 

President Cleveland, through the Secretary of 
State, announced his intention to restore the 
monarchy in Hawaii —Nov. 10. 

Steps taken to erect a monument on the birth- 
place of Washington at Wakefield, Virginia, — 
Nov. Ifi. 

Great strike on Lehigh Valley Railroad began, — 
Nov. 16. 

Statue of Nathan Hale unveiled at City Hall 
Park, New York City,— Nov. 25. 

New Tariff Bill to change McKinley Law sent to 
Ways and Means Committee, — Nov. 27. 



THE 



COLUMBIAN HISTORICAL NOVELS. 



A Complete History of Our Country, from the Time of Colurabl:^ 
down to tiie present Day, in the form of Twelve Complete 
Stories. By John R. Musick. Uniform Size and 
Style; 8vo, Half Morocco, and Cloth Bind- 
ings, One Hundred Half-Tone Plates, 
Maps of the Period, and numer- 
ous Pen and Ink Drawings 
by F. A. Carter. 



Vol. 


I. 


Vol. 


II. 


Vol. 


III. 


Vol. 


IV. 


Vol. 


V. 


Vol. 


VI. 


Vol. 


VII. 


Vol. 


VIII. 


Vol. 


IX. 


Vol. 


X. 


Vol. 


XI. 


Vol. 


XII. 



TITLES : 

Columbia : A Story of the Discovery of America. 
Estevan : A Story of the Spanish Conquests. 
St. Augustine: A Story of the Huguenots. 
Pocahontas : A Story of Virginia. 
The Pilgrims: A Story of Massachusetts. 
A Century Too Soon: A Story of Bacon's Rebellion. 
The Witch of Salem ; or, Credulity Run Mad. 
Braddock : A Story of the French and Indian Wars. 
Independence: A Story of the American Revolution. 
Sustained Honor: A Story of the War of 1812. 
Humbled Pride : A Story of the Mexican War. 
Union : A Story of the Great Rebellion and of Events 
down to the Present Day. 



The Historical Divisions are : ist. Age of Discovery ; 2d. 
Conquest ; 3d. Bi<;otry ; 4th. Colonization ; 5th. Reason ; 6th. 
Tyranny ; 7th. Superstition ; 8th. Contention of Powers for 
Supremacy ; 9th. Independence ; loth. Liberty Established ; 
iith. Supremacy Abroad; 12th. Union. 



FUNK & WAGNALLS COHPANY, Publishers, 

30 Lafayette Place, New York. 

LONDON: TORONTO, CAN.: 

44 Fleet Street. 11 Richmond St., W. 



RARE BOOK 
COLLECTION 




THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT 

CHAPEL HILL 



Wilmer 
826 







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THIS BOOK IS DUE 



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